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Jewish Encyclopedia 



Prepared by More than Four Hundred Scholars and Specialists 


Cyrus Adler, Ph.D. {Departments of Post- Joseph Jacobs, B.A. {Departments of the Jews 

Biblical A ntiqiiittes ; the Jews of A merica) . of England and A nthropology; Revising Editor). 

Gotthard Deutsch, Ph.D. {Department of Kaufmann Kohler, PhD. {Departments of 

History from 14^2 to igoj) . Theology and Philosophy) . 

^ „ , Herman RosENTK\i. {Department of t^e Jews of 

Louis Ginzberg, Ph.D. {Department of Rab- Russia and Poland). 

bmical Literature). Solomon Schechter, M.A., Litt.D. {Depart- 

Richard Gottheil, Ph.D. {Departments of ment of the Talmud). 

History from Ezra to I4g2 ; History of Post- Isidore Singer, Ph.D. {Department of Modern 

Talmudic Literature). Biography from 17^50 to igoj). 

Emil G. Hirsch, Ph.D., LL.D. {Department of Crawford H. Toy, D.D., LL.D. {Departments 

the Bible) . of Hebrew Philology and Hellenistic Literature). 


Chairman of the Board Secretary o/the Board 

William Popper, M.A., Ph.D. 

Associate Revising Editor ; Chief of the Bureau of Translation 


Projector and Managing Editor 











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Jewish Encyclopedia 



Prepared by More than Four Hundred Scholars ai\d Specialists 


Cyrus Adler, Ph.D. {Departments of Post- Joseph Jacobs, B.A. {Departments of the Jews 

Biblical A ntiquities ; the Jews of A merica) . of Englatidand A nthropology; Revising Editor). 

Gotthard Deutsch, Ph.D. {Department of Kaufmann Kohler, Ph.D. {Departments of 

History fro7n 14^2 to igoj). Theology and Philosophy). 

T,„T,c (-T^T,„„„^ r>„ 1-. / 7-> ^ ^ ^ J- r, L Herma:^ Rosenthal {Department of the Jews of 

I.OVIS GINZBEKGPH.D. {Department of Pa6- Russza and Poland) ^ ^ 

binical Literature). ' 

Solomon Schechter, M.A., Litt.D. {Depart- 

RlCHARD Gottheil, Ph.D. {Departments of ment of the Talmud). 

History from Ezra to 1492 ; History of Post- Isidore Singer, Ph.D. {Department of Modern 

Talmudic Literature). Biography from 1730 to igoj). 

Emil G. Hirsch, Ph.D., LL.D. {Department of Crawford H. Toy, D.D., LL.D. {Departments 

the Bible) . of Hebrew Philology and Hellenistic Literature). 


Chairman of the Board 


Secretary o/the Board 

William Popper, M.A., Ph.D. 

Associate Revising Editor ; Chief of the Bureau of Translation 


Projector and Managing Editor 







Copyright, 1902, by 


A U rights of tratislation reserved 

Registered at Stationers' Hall, London, England 
[Printed in the United States of A merica ] 





KDt'partmcnX& of Fost-BUdicol AntiqxMies ; the Jews of 
President of the American Jewish Historical Society; Libra- 
rian, Smithsonian Institution, Wasliington, D. C. 


iDeimrtment of History from lk02 to 1903.) 

Professor of Jewish History, Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, 

Ohio ; Editor of " Deborah." 


(Department of Rahhinical Literature.) 

Professor of Ta' jiud, Jewish Theological Seminary of America, 

New York ; Author of " Die Haggada bei den 




rtments of History from Ezra to lli92; History of 

Post-Talmudic Literature.) 

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New York; 

Chief of the Oriental Department, New York Public Library ; 

President of the Federation of American Zionists. 


(Depai-tmcnt of the Bible.) 

Rabbi of Chicago Sinai Congregation, Chicago, 111.; Professor of 

Rabbinical Literature and Philosophy, University of 

Chicago ; Editor of " The Reform Advocate." 


{Departments of the Jews of England and Anthropology ; 

Revising Editor.) 

Formerly President of the Jewish Historical Society of England ; 

Author of " Jews of Angevin England," etc. 


(Departments of Theology; Philosophy.) 

Rabbi of Temple Beth-El, New York ; ex-President of the Board 

of Jewish Ministers, New York. 


(Department of the Jews of Russia and Poland.) 
Chief of the Slavonic Department, New York Library. 


(Departme)it of the Talmud.) 

President of the Faculty of the Jewish Theological Seminary of 

America, New York ; Author of " Studies in Judaism." 


Managing Editor. 
(Department of Modern, Biography from 1750 to 1903.) 


(Departments of Hebrew Philology and Hellenistic 


Professor of Hebrew 'n Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.; 

Author of " The Religion of Israel," etc. 

I. K. FUNK, D.D., LL.D. 

(Oiairman of the Board.) 

Editor-in-Chief of the Standard Dictionary of the English 

Language, etc. 


(Secretary of the Board.) 
Associate Editor of the Standard Dictionary. "The Colum- 
bian Cyclopedia," etc. 


(As.^ociate Revising Editor; Chief of the Bureau of 


Author of " Censorship of Hebrew Books." 



Rabbi of the Congregation Zichron Ephrairn ; Instructor in the 
Bible and in Hebrew Grammar, Jewish Theological Semi- 
nary of America, New York. 


Rabbi Emeritus of Zion Congregation, Chicago; Author of 
" A Practical Grammar of the Hebrew Language." 


Rabbi F.mcntus of Tcinplc Einanu-El, New York. 


Head of the Department (if Scmitir and Eg\-ptian Literatures, 
Catholic University of America, Washington, D. C. 


Rabbi Emeritus of the Congregation Rodef Shalom, 

phia. Pa.; Author of "Dictionary of the Talmud." 


Professor of Semitic Languages and Librarian in the University 
of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa.; Author of "Re- 
ligion of the nabylonians and Assyrians," etc. 


Professor of Oriental Languages, University College, Toronto, 
Canada ; Author of " History, Prophecy, and 

the Monuments." 
Rabbi of theShearith Israel Congregation ( and Portu- 
guese), New York ; President of the Board of Jewish 
Ministers, New York. 





Late President of the Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio ; 

Author of " Introduction to the Talmud." 


Professor of Biblical Literature and the History of Religions 

in Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.; Author of 

" A Commentary on the Book of Judges," etc. 


Rabbi of the Congregation Bene Israel : Professor of Homiletics, 

Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio ; President of 

Hebrew Sabbath School Union of America. 


Professor of Semitic Languages and Literatures, University of 

Chicago, 111.; Author of " The Monuments and 

the Old Testament," etc. 


President of Central Conference of American Rabbis : Rabbi of 
Temple Emanu-El, New York. 


Rabbi of the Congregation Emanu-El, San Francisco, Cal.; Pro- 
fessor of Semitic Languages and Literatures, Uni- 
versity of California, Berkeley, Cal. 


Editor of " The Literary Digest," New York ; Author of " Stories 
In Rhyme," etc. 



Ooeditor of " The Jewish Quarterly Review "; Author of "Jew- 
ish Life in the Middle Ages," etc.; Reader In Talmudlc, 
Cambridge University, England. 

W. BACHER, Ph.D., 

Professor in the Jewish Theological Seminary, Budapest, 

M. BRANN, Ph.D., 

Professor in the Jewish Theological Seminary, Breslau, Ger- 
many ; Editor of " Monatsschrift fiir Geschichte und 
Wissenschaft des Judenthums." 

H. BRODY, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, Nachod, Bohemia, Austria; Coeditor of "Zeitschrift fiir 
Hebraische Bibliographie." 


Principal of the Jewish Theological Seminary, Constantinople, 


Professor of Literal Arabic at the Special School of Oriental 
Languages, Paris ; Member of the Institut de France. 


\uthor of " Istoriya Yevreyev," Odessa, Russia. 


Principal of Jews' College, London, England; Author of "The 
Jewish Religion," etc. 


Professor of Semitic Philology, University of Budapest, 


Chief Rabbi of Vienna, Austria. 


St. Petersburg, Russia. 


Chief of the Hebrew Department of the Imperial Public Library, 
St. Petersburg, Russia. 


Chief Rabbi of France; Honorary President of the Alliance 

Israelite Universelle ; Officer of the Legion 

of Honor, Paris, France. 


Rabbi, Budapest, Hungary ; Corresponding Member of the 
Royal Academy of History, Madrid, Spain. 


Professor Emeritus of Psychology, University of Berlin ; Meran, 


Member of the French Institute ; Professor at the Free School 

of Political Science, Paris, France ; Author of 

" Israel chez les Nations." 


Professor in the Jewish Theological Seminary ; Editor of 
" Revue des Etudes Juives," Paris, France. 


Chief Rabbi of Padua; Professor of Hebrew at the University, 
Padua, Italy. 


Chief Rabbi of Szegedin, Hungary ; Author of " Die Aramaischen 


Principal of the Jewish Theological Seminary ; Chief Rabbi of 
Florence, Italy. 

H. OORT, D.D., 

Professor of Hebrew Language and Archeology at the State 
University, Leyden, Holland. 


Formerly Librarian of the Reale Biblioteca Palatina, Parma, 


Formerly Professor of History at the Universities of Bonn and 

Brussels ; President of the Deutsch-Israelitischer 

Gemeindebund, Berlin, Germany. 


Rabbi in Warsaw, Russia. 


Secretary-General of the Jewish Colonization Association, Paris, 


Professor of Philosophy, University of Bern, Switzerland ; Editor 
of " Archiv fiir Geschichte der Philosophic," etc. 


Professor of Old Testament Exegesis and Semitic Languages, 
University of Berlin, Germany. 


Master of St. John's College, Cambridge, England ; Editor of 
" Sayings of the Jewish Fathers," etc. 


A.— Rules for the Transliteration of Hebrew and Aramaic. 

1. All important names which occur in the Bible are cited as found in the authorized King James 
version; e.g., Moses, not Mosheh; Isaac, not Yizhak ; Saul, not Sha'ul or Shaiil; Solomon, not 
Shelomoh, etc. 

2. Names that have gained currency in EngUsh books on Jewish subjects, or that have become 
famiUar to EngUsh readers, are always retained and cross-references given, though the topic 
be treated under the form transliterated according to the system tabulated below. 

3. Hebrew subject-headings are transcribed according to the scheme of transliteration ; cross-refer- 
ences are made as in the case of personal names. 

4. The following system of transliteration has been used for Hebrew and Aramaic : 

X Not noted at the beginning or the end of a word ; otherivise ' or by dieresis; e.g., Ze'eb or Meir 

3 b T « 

f> I 

a tvith dagesh, p 

^ sh 

i g n « 


B without dagesh, f 

W s 

Id D « 

i n 

V ? 

n t 

n h > y 

D s 

P k 

\ w 3 fc 

y ' 

1 r 

Note : The presence of 


lene is not noted 

except in the case of pe. 

Dagesh forte is indi- 

cated by doubling the letter. 

5. The vowels have been transcribed as follows : 

— a T^ —a — e So 

^ e — e -s-o '— t 

-^ i . e -=i a ^ u 

Kamez hatuf is represented by o. 
The so-called "Continental" pronunciation of the English vowels is implied. 

6. The Hebrew article is transcribed as ha, followed by a hyphen, without doubling the following 
letter. [Not hak-Kohen or hak-Cohen, nor Rosh ha-shshanah.] 

B.— Rules for the Transliteration of Arabic. 

1. All Arabic names and words except such as have become familiar to English readers in anothei 
form, as Mohammed, Koran, mosque, are transliterated according to the following system : 

1 - 

t kh 

, -J sh 







s> f^ 





) « 


J r 

t « 




) ^ 






r ^ 

2. Only the three 

vowels - 

-a, i, u — 


represented : 

- a or a 


i or I 

- uoru 

No account has been taken of the imdlah, 

i has not been written e, nor u written 


* In all other matters of orthography the spellinK preferred by the Standard Dictionary has usually beeu followed. Typo- 
graphical exigencies have rendered occasional deviations from these systems ne<^essary. 


3. The Arabic article is invariably written al; no account being taken of the assimilation cf the I to 
the following letter; e.g., Abii al-Salt, not Ahu-l-Salt; Nafls al-Daulah, not Nafls ad-Dauldh. 
The article is joined by a hyphen to the following word. 

4. At the end of words the feminine termination is written ah ; but, when followed by a genitive, 

at ; e.g., Risalah dhat al-Kursiyy, but HVat al-Aflak. 

6. No account is taken of the overhanging vowels which distinguish the cases ; e.g., 'Amr, not 'Amru 
or 'Amrun; Ya'aJcub, not Ya'ajcubun; or in a title, Kitab al-Amanat wal-1-tillfadat. 

C— Rules for the Transliteration of Russian. 

All Russian names and words, except such as have become familiar to English readers in another 
form, as Czar, Alexander, deciatine, Moscow, are transliterated according to the following system : 

A a a Hh n mm shch 

























e and ye 




































Mm m in in sA 

Rules for the Citation of Proper Names, Personal and Otherwise. 

1, Whenever possible, an author is cited under his most specific name; e.g., Moses Nigrin under 
Nigrin; Moses Zacuto under Zacuto ; Moses Rieti under Rieti; all the Kimhis (or Kamhis) 
under Kimhi; Israel ben Joseph Drohobiczer under Drohobiczer. Cross-references are freely 
made from any other form to the most specific one ; e.g., to Moses Vidal from Moses Narboni ; to 
Solomon Nathan Vidal from Menahem Meiri ; to Samuel Kansi from Samuel Astruc Dascola ; 
to Jedaiah Penini, from both Bedersi and En Bonet ; to John of Avignon from Moses de 

3. When a person is not referred to as above, he is cited under his own personal name followed 
by his oflBcial or other title ; or, where he has borne no such title, by "of" followed by the place 
of his birth or residence ; e.g., Johanan ha-Sandlar ; Samuel ha-Nagid ; Judah ha-Hasid ; Oer shorn 
of Metz, Isaac of Corbeil. 

3. Names containing the word d\ de, da, di, or van, von, y, are arranged under the letter of 

the name following this word; e.g., de Pomis under Pomis, de Barrios under Barrios, Jacob 
d'lUescas under Illescas. 

4. In arranging the alphabetical order of personal names ben, da, de, di, ha-, ibn*, of have not been 
taken into account. These names thus follow the order of the next succeeding capital letter : 

Abraham of Augsburg Abraham de Balmes Abraham ben Benjamin Aaron 

Abraham of Avila Abraham ben Baruch Abraham ben Benjamin Ze'eb 

Abraham ben Azriel Abraham of Beja Abraham Benveniste 

• When Ibn has come to be a specific part of a name, ae Ibn Ezra, such name is treated in its alphabetical place under "L" 


[Self-evident abbreviations, particularly those used in the bibliographies, are not included here.] 


Ab. R. N 

'Ab. Zarah 

ad loc 


Allp. Zeit. des Jud., 
Am. Jew. Hist. Soc. 
Am. Jour. Semit. I 

Lang i 

Anglo-Jew. Assoc. 



Apost. Const 


Arch. Isr 

A. T 

A. V 


Abot, Pirke 

Abot de-liabbi Natan 

'Abodah Zarah 

at the place 

in the year of the Hegira 

AUgemelne Zeitung des Judenthums 

American Jewish Historical Society 

American Journal of Semitic Languages 

Anglo-Jewish Association 



Apostolical Constitutions 

'4rakin (Talmud) 

Archives Israelites 

Das Alte Testament 

Authorized Version 

ben m- bar or born 

Babli (Babylonian Talmud) 


'^^moir ^^' ^^^' \ Bacher, Agada der Babylonischen Amoraer 
Bacher, Ag. Pai. 


Bacher, Ag. Tan. 



Benzinger, Arch. 

Magazln . 


B. K 

B. M 

Bibl. Rab.. 

BoletinAcad.Hist. \ 

Bruirs Jahrb j 

Bulletin All. Isr 



Cat. Anglo-Jew. (. 

Hist. Exh ) 

Cazes, Notes Bib- 1 

liographiques . . f 

Cheyne and Black, 
Encyc. Bibl.... 

I Chron 

II Chron 

Chwolson Jubilee j 

Volume j 

C.I. A 

C. L G 


C. I. L 

C.I. S 





Bacher, Agada der Palastinensischen Amo- 

Bacher, Agada der Tannaiten 


Baba Batra (Talmud) 

before the Christian era 

Bekorot (Talmud) 

Benzinger, Hebraische Archaologle 

Berakot (Talmud) 

Berliner's Magazin fur die Wissenschaft des 

Bikkurlm (Talmud) 

Baba Kamma (Talmud) 

Baba Mezi'a (Talmud) 

Bibliotheca Rabbinica 

Boletin de la Real Academia de la Hlstorla 

Briill's Jahrbiicher fur Jiidische Geschichte 
und Litteratur 

Bulletin of the Alliance Israelite Universelle 


Canticles (Song of Solomon) 

Catalogue of Anglo-Jewish Historical Ex- 

Cazes, Notes Bibliographiquessurla Littera- 
ture Juive-Tunisienne 

common era 

chapter or chapters 

Cheyne and Black, Encyclopaedia Bibllca 

I Chronicles 

II Chronicles 

Recueil des Travaux R^dlg^a en M^moire 
du Jubiie Scientiflquede M. Daniel Chwol- 
son, 1846-18iJ6 
Corpus Inscriptionum Atticarum 
Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum 
Corpus Inscriptionum Hebraicarum 
Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum 
Corpus Inscriptionum Semitlcarum 



De Gubernatis, ( 

Dlz. Blog f 

De Gubernatis, I 
EcrivainsduJour ) 

Derenbourg, Hist. \ 


Ecclus. (Sirach). 



Encyc. Brit 






De Gubernatis, Dizionario Biograflco degll 

Scrittori Contemporanei 
De Gubernatis, Dictionnaire International 

des Ecilvains du Jour 
Demai (Talmud) 
Derenbourg, Essai sur I'Histolre et la G^o- 

graphie de la Palestine, etc. 

'Eduyot (Talmud) 
Encyclopaedia Britannica 

Eph Ephesians 

Eplphanius, Haeres.Epiphanius, Adversus Haereses 

'Er 'Erubin (Talmud) 

Ersch and ( Ersch and Gniber, Allg. Encyklopadle der 

Gruher, Encyc. f Wissenschaften und Kiinste 

Esd Esdras 

Esth Esther 

et seq and following 

Eusebius, Hist. Eccl.Eusebius, Historia Ecclesiastica 
Ex Exodus 

Frankel, Mebo Frankel, Mebo Yerushalmi 

Furst, Bibl. Jud. . . . Furst, Bibliotheca Judaica 

^^aram^*''^* '^^^ i FilrsU Geschichte des Karaerthums 

Gal Galatians 

^Bevis Marks.'. . [ faster, Bevis Marks Memorial Volume 

( Geiger, Urschrift und Uebersetzungen der 
Geiger, Urschrift. < Bibel in Ihrer Abhangigkeit von der In- 

( neren Entwicklung des Judenthums 

Geiger's Wiss. / Geiger's Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift fiir 

Zeit. Jiid. Theol. f JQdische Theologie 

Gem Gemara 

Gen Genesis 

Gesch Geschichte 

Gesenius, Gr Gesenius, Grammar 

Gesenius, Th Gesenius, Thesaurus 

Gibbon, Decline I Gibbon, History of the Decline and Fall of 

and Fall | the Roman Empire 

rir,ch,i,.,r'o Tjihio * Glnsburg's Masoretico-Critical Edition of 
Gmsburg s Bible., -j ^^^ Hebrew Bible 

Git Gittin (Talmud) 

Graetz, Hist Graetz, History of the Jews 

Gratz, Gesch Gratz, Geschichte der Juden 

Hab Habakkuk 

Hag Haggai 

Hag Hagigah (Talmud) 

Hal Hallah (Talmud) 

Hamburger, / Hamburger, Realencyclopadie fUr Bibel 

R. B. T f und Talmud 

^ BiWe.^.' .^.'?!'. ...\ Hiistings, Dictionary of the Bible 

Heb Epistle to the Hebrews 

Hebr Masoretic Text 

Herzog - Plitt or i Real-Encyklopadie fiir Protestantische The- 

Herzog-Hauck, V ologie und Kirche (2d and 3d editions re- 

Real-Encyc ) spectively) 

TTira^h Rintr T a-^ 3 Hirsch, Biographischcs Lexikon der Hervor- 
mrt,tD, i5iog.L,ex. jragejujen Aerzte Aller Zeiten und Volker 

Horn Homiletics or Homily 

Hor Ilorayot (Talmud) 

Hul HuUin (Talmud) 

lb same place 

idem same author 

Isa Isaiah 

Isr. Letterbode Israeli tische Letterbode 

J Jahvist 

Jaarboeken Jaarboeken voor de Israeliten in Nederland 

Tnr.r.h« «A,irr.oc! I Jacobs, Inquiry luto the Sources of Spaulsh- 
jacoos, bources. . ^ Jewish History 

"^BibK Anglo- Jud! [Jacobs and Wolf, Bibliotheca Anglo-Judalca 
Jahrb. Gesch. der / Jahrbuch fur die Geschichte der Juden und 

Jud f des Judenthums 

TQQtrnn- Hint ) Jastrow, Dictionary of the Targumim, Tal- 

Jastrow, Diet -j „iudim, and Midrashim 

Jellinek, B. H Jelllnek, Bet ha-Midrash 

Jer Jeremiah 

Jew. Chron Jewish Chronicle, London 

Jew. Encyc The Jewish Encyclopedia 

Jew. Hist. Soc. Eng. Jewish Historical Society of England 

fa k"!".''': .''*!':: [ -Jewish Quarterly Review 

Jew. World Jewish World, London 

Josephus, Ant Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 

Josephus, B. J Josephus, De Bello Jiidaico 

Josephus.Contra A p. Josephus, Contra Apioiiein 

Josh Joshua 

Jost's Annalen lost's Israelitische Annalen 

Jour. Bib. Lit Journal of Biblical Literature 

"'"'Tryph^'.^^'.^.'!"! 1'''"^''°' Dialogus cum Tryphone Judaeo 
Kaufmann Ge- i Gedenkbuch zur Erinneruug an David Kauf- 

denkbuch ( mann 

Kayserling, Bibl. (. Kayserling.Biblioteca Espaiiola-Portugueza- 

Esp.-Port.-Jud.. f Judaica 

Ker Keritot (Talmud) 

Ket Ketubot (Talmud) 

If .7 r ) Kurzer Hand-Commentar zum Alten Testa- 

^ ^ ^ ) ment, ed. Marti 

Kid Kiddushln (Talmud) 

Kil Kilayim (Talmud) 

Kin Kinnim (Talmud) 

^"v^Jluml."!?".".'. } Semitic Studies in Memory of A. Kohut 


Krauss, Lehn- ( Krauss, Griechische und Lateinische Lehn- 

worter f worter, etc. 

Lam Lamentations 

T T^^„^ * Larousse, Grand Dictionnaire Universe! du 

Larousse, Diet. . . . -^ ^ixe Steele . 

l.c in the place cited 

Lev Leviticus 

^ W6rtei-b ■ \ ^^^^^ Chaldaisches WOrterbuch, etc. 

Levy, Neuhebr. / Levy, Neuhebraisches und Chaldaisches 

Worterb C Worterbuch, etc. 

lit literally 

LOW, Lebensalter-j '^^'^^^^^^ Lebensalter in der Judischen Li- 

LXX Septuagint 

m married 

Ma'as Ma'aserot (Talmud) 

Ma'as. Sh Ma'aser Sneni (Talmud) 

Mace Maccabees 

Mak Makkot (Talmud) 

Maksh Makshirin (Tahnud) 

Mai Malachi 

Mas Masorah 

Massek Masseket 

Matt Matthew 

■M nr f^^v oT,H \ McClintock and Strong, Cyclopaedia of Bib- 

MccimtocK ana i jj j Theological, and Ecclesiastical Liter- 
Strong, eye....] ature 

Meg Megillah (Talmud) 

Me'i Me'ilah (Talmud) 

Mek Mekilta 

Men Menahot (Talmud) 

Mid Middot (Talmud) 

Midr Midrash 

Midr. Teh Midrash Tehillim (Psalms) 

Mik Mikwaot (Talmud) 

M.'K Mo'ed Katan (Talmud) 

Tur^J^t..^^y.^rt J Monatssclirift fiir Geschichte und Wissen- 

Monatsschrift j gchaft des Judenthums - 

Mortara, Indice Mortara, Indice Allabetico 

MS Manuscript 

Miiller, Frag. Hist. /.Miiller, Fragmenta Historicorum Graeco- 
Graec i rum 

Murray's Eng. Diet. A. H. Murray, A New English Dictionary 

Naz Nazir (Talmud) 

n.d no date 

Ned Nedarim (Talmud) 

Neg Nega'im 

Neh Nehemiah 

Neubauer, Cat. ( Neubauer, Catalogue of the Hebrew MSS. 
Bodl.Hebr.MSS. ( in the Bodleian Library 

Neubauer, G. T Neubauer, G^ographie dii Talmud 

N. T New Testament 

Num Numbers 

Obad Obadiah 

Oest.Wochenschrift.Oesterreichische Wochenschrift 

Oh Ohalot (Talmud) 

Onk Onkelos 

Orient, Lit Literaturblatt des Orients 

O. T Old Testament 

P Priestly code 

p-KTPi wncr Tov J Pagel,BiographischesLexikon HervoFragen- 

rdgei, uiog. i,ex. -j ^^^ Aerzte des Neunzehnten Jahrhunderts 

Pal. Explor. Fund. .Palestine Exploration Fund 

Pauly-Wissowa, I Pauly-Wissowa, Real-EncyclopadiederClas- 
Real-Encyc i sischen A Itertumswissehschaf t 

Pes Pesahim (Talmud) 

Pesh Peshito, Peshitta 

Pesik Pesikta de-Rab Kahana 

Pesik. R Pesikta Rabbati 

Phil'. Phllippians 

Plrke R. El Pirke Rabbi Eliezer 

ProV Proverbs 

Ps — , Psalm or Psalms 

R Rab or Rabbi or Rabbah 

^ Llt-lilatt."^'. . . . [ Rahmer's Judisches Litteratur-Blatt 

Regesty Regesty i Nadpisi 

Rev. Bib Revue Hiblique 

K E. j'-."".'!"^': : : \ R^vue des Etudes Juives 
Rev. S6m. '.'..'.'.'. '. . .Revue Semltique 

R- H Rosh ha-Shanah (Talmud) • 

Rios (Amador de ( Estudios Hist6ricos, Politicos y Literarios, 

los), Estudios.. ( etc. 
Rios (Amador de I Historia . . . de los Judios de Espana y 

los). Hist f Portugal 

Ritter FrdkiinriP -* fitter. Die Erdkunde im Verhaltnis zur 
Kiuer, Lrakunde. , ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ Geschichte des Menschen 
Roest, Cat. (. Roest, Catalog der Hebraica und Judaica 

Rosenthal. Bibl. \ aus der L. Rosenthal'schen Bibliothek 

Rom Romans 

R- V Revised Version 

Salfeld, Martyro- 1. Salfeld, Das Martyrologium des Nurnberger 
logium I Memorbuches 

I Sam I Samuel 

II Sam ;...II Samuel 

Sanh Sanhedrin (Talmud) 

S. B. E Sacred Books of the East 

<j T. n T i (Sacred Books of the Old Testament) Poly- 

*•"•'-'• ^ I chrome Bible, ed. Paul Haupt 

^^Encyc!!^?^!.... [ SchafE-Herzog, A Religious Encyclopasdia 
Schratier, i Schrader, Cuneiform Inscriptions and the 

C. I. O. T f Old Testament, Eng. trans. 

Schrader, K A T * Schrader, Keilinschriften und das Alte Tes- 

Schrader, K. B Schrader, Keilinschriftliche Bibliothek 

o^>,.-.jfi<»- V r V 'i Schrader, Keilinschriften und Geschichts- 
Schrader, K. G. F. -j jopschung 

Schiirer, Gesch Schiirer, Geschichte des Jiidischen Volkes 

Sem Semahot (Talmud) 

Shab Shabb'at (Talmud ) 

Sheb Shebi'it (Talmud) 

Shebu Shebu'ot (Talmud) 

Shek Shekalim (Talmud) 

Sibyllines Sibylline Books 

Smith, Rel. of Sem. .Smith, Lectures on Religion of the Semites 
citaHo'o 7mfcr.hrift ' Stade's Zcitschrift fur die Alttestament- 
Stade s Zeitschntt ^ jj^^^ vvissenschaft 
Steinschneider, ) Steinschneider, Catalogue of the Hebrew 
Cat. Bodl ) Books in the Bodleian Library 

'^*Hebr!'BTbl!.'!'. \ Steinschneider, Hebraische Bibliographie 
^^Hebrl^Uebers. [ Stein.schneider, Hebraische Uebersetzungen 

Suk Sukkah (Talmud) 

s.v under the word 

Ta'an Ta'anit (Talmud) 

Tan Tanhuma 

Targ Targumim 

Targ. Onk Targum Onkelos 

Targ. Yer Targum Yerushalmi or Targum Jonathan 

Tem Temurah (Talmud) 

Ter Teruraot (Talmud) 

Thess Thessalonians 

Tim Timothy 

Toh Tohorot 

Tos tosaf ot 

Tosef Tosefta 

transl translation 

Tr. Soc. Bibl. / Transactions of the Society of Biblical Ar- 

Arch f chaeologv 

T. Y Tebul Yotn (Talmud) 

'Uk 'Ukzin (Talmud) 

Univ. Isr Uriivers Israelite 

I Virchow's Archiv fiir Pathologische Anato- 
Virchow's Archive mie und Physiologle, und fiir Klinische 
I Medizin 

Vulg Vulgate 

Weiss, Dor .• . . . Weiss, Dor Dor we-Dorshaw 

Wellhausen, (Wellhausen, Israelitische und Jiidische 

LJ. G f Geschichte 

Winer, B. R Winer, Biblisches Realworterbuch 

Wisdom Wisdom of Solomon 

Wolf, Bibl. Hebr...Wolf, Bibliotheca Hebraea 

xiT V c- Tif 3 Wiener Zeitschrift fiir die Kunde des 

^■^■^■^ ( Morgenlandes 

Yad Yadayim (Talmud) 

"Yad" Yad ha-Hazakah 

Yalk Yalkut ' 

Yeb Yebaniot (Talmud ) 

Yer Yerushalmi (Jerusalem Talmud) 

Yh WH Yah weh, Jehovah 

Zab Zabim (Talmud) 

y y. vr r j Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandi- 

^- "• ''^■^ I schen (iesellschaft 

Zeb Zebahim (Talmud) 

Zech Zechariah 

Zedner,Cat. Hebr. (. Zedner, Catalogue of the Hebrew Books in 

Books Brit.Mus. i the British Museum 

Zeit. fiir Assyr Zeitschrift fiir Assyriologie 

^*Pal£t" Ver" i" Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palastina-Vereina 
Zeit. fiir Hebr. Bibl.Zeitschrift fur Hebraische Bibliographie 
Zeitlin, Bibl. Post- / Zeitlin, Bibliotheca Hebraica Post-Mendels- 

Mendels ( sohniana 

Zeph Zephaniah 

Zunz, G. S Zunz, Gesammelte Schriften 

Zunz, G. V Zunz, GottesdienstUche Vortrage 

Zunz, Literatur- ( Zunz, Literaturgeschichte der Synagogalen 

gesch i Poesie 

y.iT,.^ T?it,.., i Zunz, Die Ritus des Synagogalen Gottes- 

zunz, Kitus J dienstes 

Zunz, S. P Zunz, Synagogale Poesie des Mittelalters 

Zunz, Z. G Zunz, Zur Geschichte und Literatur 

Note to the Reader. 

Subjects on which further iuformation is afforded elsewhere in this work are indicated by the 
use of capitals and small capitals in the text ; as, Abba Arika ; Pumbedita ; Vocalization. 


.Cyrus Adler, Ph.D., 

President of the American Jewish Historical 
Society ; President of the Board of Directors of 
the Jewish Theological Seminary of America; 
Librarian of the Smithsonian Institution, 
Washington, D. C. 

.Amelie Andre Gedalge, 

Paris, France. 

A. A. G. 

A. Bla Armin Blau, 

Berlin, Germany. 
A. F A. Freimann, Ph.D., 

Editor of the "Zeitschrlft fiir Hebraische 

Bibliographie " : Librarian of the Hebrew 

Department, Stadtbibliothek, Frankfort-on- 

the-Main, Germany. 
A. Fe . . - = . .Alfred Feilchenfeld, Ph.D., 

Principal of the Uealschule, Fiirth, Bavaria, 

A. Fr Aaron Friedenwald, M.D. (Deceased), 

Late of Baltimore, Md. 
A. G Adolf Guttmacher, Ph.D., 

Rabbi of the Baltimore Hebrew Congregation, 

Baltimore, Md. 
A. K A. Kaminka, Ph.D., 

Rabbi ; Secretary of the " Wiener Israelitische 

Allianz," Vienna, Austria. 
A. M. F Albert M. Friedentoerg, B.S., 

Correspondent of "The Jewish Comment," 

Baltimore, Md.; New York City. 
A. P A. Porter, 

Formerly As.sociate Editor of "The Forum " ; 

Revising Editor "Standard Cyclopedia," New 

York City. 
A. Pe A. Peig-insky, Ph.D., 

New York City. 

A. R A. Rhine, 

Rabbi in Hot Springs, Ark. 

B. B Benuel H. Brumberg, 

Contributor to " National Cyclopedia of Amer- 
ican Biography," New York City. 

B. Ei Benzion Eisenstadt, 

New York City. 

B. Fi Bertha Fishberg, 

New York City. 

B. J B. Jacob, Ph.D., 

Rabbi in GiHtingen, Germany. 

B. P Bernhard Pick, Ph.D., D.D., 

Formerly pastor of St. John's Lutheran 
Church, Albany, N. Y.; now New York City. 

C. A. T C. A. Trier, 

Copenhagen, Denmark. 
C. de B C. de Bethencourt, 

Lisbon, Portugal. 
C. I. de S. . . .Clarence I. de Sola, 

Montreal, Canaila. 
C. J. M Charles J. Mendelsohn, 

Philadelphia, Pa. 
C. L Caspar Levias, M .A. , 

Instructor of Kxegesisand Talmudic Aramaic, 

Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio. 
D Gotthard Deutsch, Ph.D., 

Professor of Jewish History, Hebrew Union 

College. Cincinnati, Ohio. 

D. Le David Levy, 

Rabbi in New Haven, Conn. 

D. P David Philipson, D.D., 

Rabbi of the Congregation B'ne Israel ; Pro- 
fessor of Homiletics, Hebrew Union College, 
Cincinnati, Ohio. 

D. S D. Simonsen, 

Professor' ; Former Chief Rabbi of Denmark ; 
Copenhagen, Denmark. 

D. W. A David Werner Amram, L,L.B., 

Attorney at Law, Philadelphia, Pa. 

E. A Edouard Andre, 

Paris, France. 
E. C Executive Com. of the Editorial Board. 

E.G. H EmilG. Hirsch, Ph.D., LL.D., D.D., 

Rabbi of Sinai Congregation; Professor of 
Rabbinical Literature and Philosophy in the 
University of Chicago, Chicago, 111. 

E. K Eduard Konig, Ph.D., D.D., 

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, Uni- 
versity of Bonn, Germany. 

E. Me Eduard Meyer, Ph.D., 

Professor of Ancient History, University of 
Berlin, Germany. 

E.Ms Edgar Mels, 

New York City. 

E. N Eduard Neumann, Ph.D., 

Chief Rabbi of Nagy-Kanisza, Hungary. 

E. Sd E. Schwarzfeld, LL.D., 

Secretary of Jewish Colonization Association, 
Paris, France. 

E. W. B Edward William Bennett, 

New York City. 

F. Bu Franz Buhl, Ph.D., 

Professor of Semitic Philology, University of 
Copenhagen, Denmark. 

F. H. V Frank H. Vizetelly, F.S.A., 

Associate Editor of the Standard Diction- 
ary and the "Colutnbiaa Cyclopedia," New 
York City. 
. .Friedman Janovsky, 
St. Petersburg, Russia. 


F. K. S. 

F. R 

F. T. H.. 

G. A. 

.Frank Knight Sanders, Ph.D., D.D., 

Professor of Biblical History and Archeology; 
Dean of the Divinity School, Yale University, 
New Haven, Conn. 

.F. Rosenthal, Ph.D., 

Rabbi iir Breslau, tierniany. 

.Frederick T. Haneman, M.D., 
Brooklyrr, N. Y. 

.Richard Gottheil, Ph.D., 

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia 
University; Chief of the Oriental Department, 
New York Public Library; President of the 
Federation of American Zionists, New York 

.George A. Barton, Ph.D., 

Associate Professor in IJiblicJil Literature and 
Semitic Languages. Bryri Mawr College, Pa. 
.George Alexander Kohut, 

Assistant Librarian Jewish Theological Semi- 
nary of America, New York City. 


G-. B. li Gerson B. Levi, 

New York City. 

Cr. J Giuseppe Jare, 

Cliief Rabbi of Ferrara, Italy. 

G. L Goodman Lipkind, B.A., 

Rabbi iu London, England. 

G. S Gabriel Schwarz, Ph.D., 

Rabbi in Carlstadt, Austria. 

H. B H. Brody, Ph.D., 

Coeditor of the "Zeitsclirift fiir Hebraische 
Bibliogippliie " ; Rabbi in Nachod, Bohemia, 

H. Bl HeinrichBloch, Ph.D., 

Professor of History, Jewish Theological 
Seminary, Budapest, Hungary. 

H. C Henry Cohen, 

Rabbi of tlie Congregation B'nai Israel, Gal- 
veston, Texas. 

H. Or Henri Cordier, 

Professor of the Ecole des Langues Vivantes 
Orientales, Paris, France. 

H. D Hartwig: Derenbourgr, 

Member of the Institute of France ; Professor 
of Literal Arabic at the Special School of 
Oriental Languages, Paris, France. 

H. E H.Eliasof, 

Chicago, III. 

H. r Herbert Friedenwald, Ph.D., - 

Formerly Superintendent of the Department 
of Manuscripts, liibrary of Congress, Wash- 
ington, D. C. ; Recording Secretary of the 
American Jewish Historical Society, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

H. G. E H. G. Enelow, D.D., 

Rabbi of the Congregation Adas Israel, Louis- 
ville, Ky. 

H. Gun Hermann Gunkel, Ph.D., D.D., 

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, Uni- 
versity of Berlin, Germany. 

H. Gut H. Guttenstein, 

New York City. 
H. H Henry Hyvernat, D.D., 

Professor of Oriental Languages and Arche- 
ology, Catholic University of America, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

H. Hir Hartwigr Hirschfeld, Ph.D., 

Professor, Jews' College, London, England. 

H. P. M H. Pereira Mendes, M.D., 

President of Union of Orthodox Congrega- 
tions of United States and Canada and of the 
New York Board of Ministers; Rabbi of the 
Spanish and Portuguese Congregation, New 
York City. 

H. R Herman Rosenthal, 

Chief of the Slavonic Department of the New 
York Public Library, New York City. 

H. S Henrietta Szold, 

Secretary of the Publication Committee of the 
Jewish Publication Society of America, Balti- 
more, Md. 

H. V Hermann Vogelstein, Ph.D;, 

Rabbi in Konigsberg, Germany. 

I- Be Immanuel Benzing-er , Ph. D. , 

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, Uni- 
versity of Berlin, Germany. 

I. Ber Israel Berlin, 

New York City. 

I. Br 1. Broyde, 

Diploma of the Ecole des H antes Etudes ; 
formerly Librarian of the Alliance Isra(?Iite 
Universelle, Paris, France; now Nsw York 

I. Co I. Cohen, 

Czarnikow, Posen, Germany. 

I. Dr. 
I. B... 

I. G. D. 

I. H 

I. L. 1 
I. Lev. I 

..Ignaz Drabkin, Ph.D. 

Rabbi in St. Petersburg, 
..Ismar Elbogren, Ph.D., 

Docent at Lehranstalt fiir die Wissenschaft des 
Judenthuins, Berlin. [Co-author of article 
"Coen, Graziadio V. A." signed J. E.]. 
.1. Georg-e Dobsevag-e, 
New York City. 

.Isidore Harris, A. 11., 

Rabbi of West London Synagogue, London, 

..Isaac Husik, 

Instructor, Gratz College, Philadelphia, Pa. 

.Israel Levi, 

Editor of " Revue des Etudes Julves " ; Pro- 
fessor Jewish Theological Seminary, Paris, 

I. M. C I. M. Casanowicz, Ph.D., 

Aid, Historic Archeology, United States Na- 
tional Museum, Washington, D. C. 

I. M. P Ira Maurice Price, B.D., Ph.D., 

Professor of Semitic Languages and Litera- 
tures, University of Chicago, 111. 

I. War Isidor Warsa-w, 

Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

J Joseph Jacobs, B.A., 

Formerly President of the Jewish Historical 
Society of England; Corresponding Member 
of the Royal Academy of History, Madrid; 
New York City. 

J. D. B J. D. Bravermann, Ph.D., 

New York City. 

J. D. E J. D. Eisenstein, 

New York City. 

J. D. P John Dyneley Prince, Ph.D., 

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia 
University, New York City. 

J. E Joseph Ezekiel, J. P., 

Bombay, India. [1. Elbogen is the co-author 
of the article " Coei. Graziadio Vita Anania," 
signed J. E.]. 

J. F. McC.J. Frederic McCurdy, Ph.D., LL.D., 

Professor of Oriental Languages, University 
College, Toronto, Canada. 

J. Fu .J. Fuchs, 

New York City. 

J. G. L J. G-. Lipman, 

Assistant Agriculturist, New Jersey State Ex- 
periment Station, New Brunswick, N. J. 

J. de H J. de Haas, 

New York City. 

J. H. G Julius H. Greenstone, 

Rabbi in Philadelphia, Pa. 
J. H. Go J. Harry Gordon, 

Wilmington, Del. 

J. H. M. C . . J. H. M. Chumaceiro, 

Rabbi in Cura(;ao, Dutch West Indies. 
J. Hy Jacob Hyams, 

Bombay, India. 
J. Jr Morris Jastrow, Jr., Ph.D., 

Professor of Semitic Languages, University of 
Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 

J. O Jules Oppert, Ph.D., 

Member of the French Institute ; Professor of 
Oriental Languages at the College de France, 
Paris, France. 

J. R Joseph Reinach, 

Formerly Deputy and Editor-in-Chief of " La 
Republique," Paris, France. 

J. S Joseph Silverman, D.D., 

President of the Central Conference of Ameri- 
can Rabbis; Rabbi of Temple Emanu-El, 
New York City. 


/. So Joseph Sohn, 

Contributor to " The New International En- 
cyclopedia "; formerly of " The Forum," New 
York City. 

J. Sr Marcus Jastrow, Ph.D., 

Rabbi Emeritus of the Congregation Rodef 
Shalom, Philadelphia, Pa. 

J. T J. Theodor, Ph.D., 

Rabbi in Bojanowo, Posen, Germany. 

J. W Julien Weill, 

Rabbi in Versailles, France. 

K Kaufmann Kohler, Ph.D. , 

Rabbi of Temple Beth-El, New York ; Presi- 
dent-elect of the Hebrew Union College, Cin- 
cinnati, O. 

K. H. C KarlHeinrich Cornill, Ph.D., 

Professor of Hebrew and Old Testament Exe- 
gesis, University of Breslau, Germany. 

li. B Iiudwig: Blau, Ph.D., 

Editor of " Magyar Zsid6-Sz6mle"; Professor 
of the Jewish Theological Seminary, Budapest, 

L. Q Louis Ginzberg-, Ph.D., 

Professor of Talmud, Jewish Theological 
Seminary of America, New York City. 

L. Grii Lazarus Griinhut, 

Director of the Orphan Asylum, Jerusalem. 

L. Ka Leo Eamerase, 

Rabbi, Charlottenburg bei Berlin, Germany. 

L. L L. Lb-wrenstein, Ph.D., 

Rabbi in Mosbach, Germany. 

L. M. F Leo M. Franklin, B.L., 

Rabbi of Temple Beth-El, Detroit, Mich. 

L. N. D Lewis N. Dembitz, 

Attorney at Law, Louisville, Ky. 

L. N. L LeoN. Levi, 

Attorney at Law ; President of the Executive 
Council of the Order of B'nai B'rith. 

L. V Ludwigr Venetianer, Ph.D., 

Rabbi in Ujpest, Hungary. 

L. Y Mrs. L. Ysaye, 

Vienna, Austria. 

M. A Michael Adler, B.A., 

Rabbi of the Central Synagogue; Fellow of 
Jews' College, London, England. 

M. A. Gr.... Michael A. Green, 

Formerly Honorary Secretary of the Jewish 
Board of Guardians, London, England. 

M. B Moses Beer, 

Berlin, Germany. 

M. Bl Maurice Bloch, 

Principal of the Ecole Blschoflshelm ; for- 
merly President of the Soci6t6 des Etudes 
Juives," Paris, France. 

M. Buj M. Bujes, 

Ral)l)i in Constanta, Rumania. 

M. C M. Caimi, 

Coif 11, Greece. 

M. Co Max Cohen, 

Attorney at Law, New York City. 

M. F Michael Friedlander, Ph.D. , 

Principal of Jews' College, London, England. 

M. Fi Maurice Fishberg, M.D., 

Medical Examiner to the United Hebrew 
Charities, New York City. 

M. Fr M. Franco, 

Principal of the Alliance Israelite Unlverselle 
S(h<Mii, Shumla, Bulgaria. 

M. Fre Max Freudenthal, Ph.D., 

Ral)l)i in Danzig, West Prussia, Germany. 
M. Gr M. Grunwald, Ph.D., 

Rabbi in Hamburg, Germany. 

M. J. K ..Max J. Kohler, M.A., LL.D., 

A itorney at Law ; Corresponding Secretary of 

the American Jewish Histoiical Society, New 

York City. 
M. K Mayer Kayserling, Ph.D.^ 

Rabbi, Budapest, Hungary. 
M. Ko M. Kopfstein, Ph.D., 

Rabbi in Beuthen, Silesia, Germany. 
M. Lan Max Landsberg, Ph.D., 

Rabbi of the Congregation B'rith Kodesh, 

Rochester, N. Y. 
M. P. J Moses P. Jacobson, B. A., 

Rabbi of the Congregation Hebrew Zion, 

Chicago, HI. 
M. B ..Max Rosenthal, M.D., 

Visiting Physician, German- Dispensary, New 

York City. 
M. Ra Max Raisin, 

Rabbi at Portsmouth, Ohio. 
M. R. D Mary Robinson Darmesteter Duclaux, 

Paris, France. 
II. Sc Max Schlossinger, Ph.D., 

Heidelberg, Germany. 
M. Schl Max Schlesinger, Ph. D. , 

Rabbi of the Congregation Beth Emeth, 

Albany, N. Y. 

M. Sel M. Seligrsohn, 

Diploma of Ecole des Hautes Etudes, Paris, 

France ; now New York City. 
M. W Max Weisz, Ph.D., 

Bud<ipest, Hiiiifjrary. 
M. W. L Martha Washington Levy, B.A., 

New York City. 

M. W. M. . . .Mary W. Montg'omery, Ph.D., 

New York City. 

M. Z M. Zametkin, 

New York City. 

N. D N. Dunbar, 

Newark, N. J. 
N. R. L Nahida Ruth Lazarus, 

Meran, Austria. 
N. T. L N. T. London, 

New York City. 

P. J. H P. J. Hartog', 

Lecturer in Chemistry, Owens College, Man 
Chester, England. 
P. B Paul Rieger, Ph.D., 

Rabbi in Hamburg, Germany. 

P. Wi Peter Wiernik, 

New York City. 
R. W. R Robert W. Rogers, D.D., Ph.D., 

Professor of Hebrew and Old Testament Exe- 
gesis, Drew Theol. Seminary, Madison, N. J. 

S Isidore Singer, Ph.D., 

Manaoinc; Editor, New York City. 

S. A Sadie American, 

Conesponding Secretary Council of Jewish 

Women, New York City. 
S. J S. Janovsky, 

Attorney at Law, St. Petersburg, Russia. 
S. K S. Kahn, 

Rabbi in Nimes, France. 
S. Kr S. Krauss, Ph.D., 

Professor, Normal College, Budapest, Hungary. 
S. M S. Mendelsohn, Ph.D., 

Rabbi in WilniingKm, N. 0. 

S. Man S. Mannheimer, B.L., 

Instructor Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, 

S. M. D S. M. Dubnow, 

Odessa. Russia. 
S. P Samuel Poznanski, Ph.D. , 

Rabbi in AVarsaw, Russia. 




...S. Posner, 

Warsaw, Russia. 



. ."Victor R. Smauuel, 

New York City. 



...S. R. Driver, D.D., 

Regius Professor of Hebrew, Oxford Uni- 
versity, Oxford, England. 



..W. Bacher, Ph.D., 

Professor, Jewish Theological Seminary, Buda 
pest, Hungary. 



...Solomon Schechter, M.A., Litt.D., 

President of the Faculty of the Jewish Theo- 





Professor of Hebrew at Norfolk, England. 

logical Seminary of America, New York City. 




..W. Muss-Arnolt, Ph.D., 



. . Sigismund Salfeld, Ph.D., 

Rabbi in Mayence, Germany. 

Assistant Professor of Biblical Philology, Unl- 
versity of Chicago, 111. 






. . W. Max Muller, Ph.D., 

Rabbi in Chemnitz, Saxony, Germany. 

Professor of Bible Exegesis, Reformed Epis- 



. . .Samuel Wolfenstein, 

copal Theological Seminary, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Superintendent of the Jewish Orphan Asylum, 



. .William Nowack, Ph.D., D.D., 

Cleveland, Ohio. 

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, Uni- 


. .Cra-wrford Howell Toy, D.D., LIi.D., 



versity of Strasburg, Germany. 

Professor of Hebrew in "Harvard University, 

..William Popper, Ph.D., 

Cambndge, Mass. 

New York City. 



. . .Theodore Reinach, 

Docteur es Lettres : formerly President of the 
Soci6t6 des Etudes Juives, Paris, France. 



. .William Rosenau, Ph.D., 

Rabbi of Eutaw Place Temple, Baltimore, Md 



...TJmberto Cassuto, 

Florence, Italy. 




. .William S. Friedman, Ph.D., 

Rabbi of the Temple Emanuel, Denver, Col. 


N. B.— In the following list subjects likely to be sought for under various headings are repeated 

under each heading. 


A.bdala, Samuel, Arms of 125 

Abolais Family, Arms of 126 

Alexandre, Albert (Aaron), French Chess Master 17 

Algiers, Jews of 297, and Fig. 21 of plate between 298-299 

AlmeiJiar : see Cracow ; Damascus. 

Almodovar, Gate of, or Bab al-Yahud, Formerly the Entrance to the Juderia at Cordova 265 

Alvarez Family, Arms of 126 

America : see Curasao ; United States. 

Archeology: see Cherubim; Coffin; Cookery; Couch; Cyrus; Dagon; Darius; Demonology; 

Sasanam; Tombs. 
Architecture: see Chicago; Cleveland; Constantinople; D.amascus; Daniel; Domus Conver- 

sorum; Synagogues. 
Ark of the Law: see China; Cracow; Curasao; Curtain; Damascus. 
"Arms of the Tribe of Judah," on Silver Salver Said to Have Been Presented by Manasseh ben Israel 

to Oliver Cromwell 366 

Art: see Archeology; Architecture; Coats op Arms; Costume; Implements, Sacerdotal, 

Assyria: see Cherubim; Dagon; Demonology. 
Autographs : see Ciiwolson, Daniel ; Council of Four Lands ; Cremieux, Isaac Adolphe ; David, 

Ferdinand; Disraeli, Benjamin; D'Israeli, Isaac; Manasseh ben Israel. 
Azevedo Family, Arms of 126 

Bab al-Yahud : see Almodovar, Gate op. 

Badges, Various Forms of. Worn by Jews 295, and Figs. 6, 7, 13, 14 of plate between 298-299 

Bahya ben Asher: see Kad ha-Kemah. 

BasSevi von Trcuenfeld, Arms of 126 

Bebri Family, Arms of 126 

Bed : see Coucii. 

Bells of the Law : see Crowns of the Law. 

Berlin Congress of 1878 ; Benjamin Disraeli in Conference with Prince Gortschakoff. Painted by Anton 

von Werner plate faciny 620 

Bible: see Decalogue. 

Black Jew of Cochin 137 

B'ne Yeshurun Temple, Cincinnati, Ohio 90 

Books, Confiscated Hebrew, Thrown into the Flames by Polish Bishop 222 

Border on Title-Page of Bahya ben Asher 's " Kad ha-Kemah." Printed at Constantinople, 1520 243 

Bordereau, The, upon Which Captain Alfred Dreyfus Was Convicted 660-661 

Caricature of an English Jew of the Stock E.vchange, Early Eighteenth Century 296 

Caucasus, Jews of the, in Native Costume 301 

Cephalic Index of 1,071 Jews and 345 Jewesses 334 

Ceremonial: see Childbirth; Confession: Dkath-Bed Scenes; Divorce; Tabernacles, Feast of. 
Chazars, Map Showing the Distribution of Religions in Europe in the Tenth Century, c.e.. Indica- 
ting Extent of the Kingdom of the 2 



Cherubim, Assyrian, Egyptian, Plienician, and South Arabian Forms of 15 

Chess, Eminent Jewish Masters of 17 

Alexandre, Albert, 
gunsberg, isidor. 
horwitz, b. 
Janowski, D. 

kolisch, ignaz von. 
Lasker, Emanuel, 
lowenthal, j. j. 

Steinitz, William. 
Tarrasch, Siegbert. 
zukertort, j. h. 

Chicago, Jewish Training School 24 

Michael Reese Hospital 23 

Standard Club 25 

Childbirth, Feast at 29 

Reciting the " Ha-Mal 'ak ha-Go'el " Prayer at 29 

China : Bird's-Eye View of the Temple Buildings at K'ai-Fung-Foo 34 

Interior of the Synagogue at K'ai-Fung-Foo 35 

Jews of K'ai-Fung-Foo 36 

" Tiao Kin Kiaou," in Chinese Characters (Term Applied to the Jews by the Chinese) 33 

Chumaceiro, Aron Meudes, Hakam of Curasao 77 

Chwolson, Daniel Abramovich, Russian Orientalist 87 

Cincinnati, O. , B'ne Yeshurun Temple 90 

Hebrew Union College 89 

Circumcision, Articles Used in, the Platter Bearing as Inscription Gen. xxi. 4 100 

Cup of. In possession of Leopold de Rothschild, London 385 

Implements and Accessories of (Eighteenth Century) 99 

Modern Implements of 99 

Cleveland, O., Temple of Tifereth Israel Congregation 120 

The Jewish Orphan Asylum 119 



-' • "•""'•'i"' 




Pas, De. 





Gomez de Sossa. 


Bassevi von Treitenfeld. 









Costa, Da. 




Lopez-Suasso-Da Fonseca. 




Teixeira (Amsterdam). 

Elkan von Elkansberg. 


Teixeira (Holland). 






Worms, De. 

see also Arms op the Tribe of Judah. 

Cochin, Black Jew of 137 

Group of Jews of 136 

Jews of, Early Nineteenth Century Fig. 20 of plate between 298-299 

Jews of, Modern 135 

Sasanam of the Jews of. Granting Privileges to Joseph Rabban, About 750 c.e 134 

Synagogue at 138 

Coffin, Stone, Found in an Ancient Tomb at Lydda by M. Clermont-Ganneau 143 

Ornamented, Found in an Ancient Tomb near Jerusalem 143 

see also S.'^rcophagus. 

Cohen, Naphtali, Russo-German Rabbi 153 

Cohn Family (Saxe-Coburg-Gotha), Arms of 127 

Albert, French Philanthropist and Scholar 156 

Ferdinand Julius, German Botanist and Zoologist 158 

Tobias, Polisli Physician 161 

"The House of the Body," an Allegorical Design Comparing the Organs of the Body to the 

Divisions of a House, from " Ma'aseh Tobiyyah" of 162 

Cologne, Hebrew Deed of Conveyance by Jews of 168 

Synagogue at 169 



Colophon of Abraham Conat on the Last Page of Levi ben Gershon's Commentary on the Bible, Mantua, 

Before 1480 173 

on the Last Page of " Tefillot Vulgar," Mantua, 1561, Showing also the Printer's Mark 172 

on the Last Page of " Tur Orah Hayyim," Printed by Abraham Conat, Mantua, 1476 205 

Colorado: see Denver. 

Columbia University Library : see Kad ha-Kemah ; Levi ben Gershon ; Midrash Tehillim ; Tefil- 
lot Vulgar. 
Conat, Abraham, Colophon of, on the Last Page of Levi ben Gershon's Commentary on the Bible, 

Mantua, Before 1480 173 

Colophon on the Last Page of "Tur Orah Hayyim," Printed at Mantua, 1476, by 205 

Confession of Sins on the Day Before the Feast of Pentecost 218 

see also Death-Bed Scenes. 

Confiscation : Polish Bishop Throwing Confiscated Hebrew Books into the Flames. From Jacob Em- 
den's " Sefer Shimmush," 1762 222 

Constance, Procession of Jews Meeting Pope Martin V. at the Council of 235 

see also Costume Figs. 8 and 9 of plate between 298-299 

Constantinople, The Jewish Hospital at 240 

Typography : Page from the Midrash Tehillim, 1512 241 

Ticle-Page from Bahya ben Asher's "Kad ha-Kemah," 1520 243 

Consumption : Map of New York City South of Fourteenth Street, Showing Average Death-Rates Due 

to Consumption During 1897-99 247 

Cookery, Egyptian : Showing Processes of Preparing Food. After Lepsius 254 

Cordova, Bab al-Yahud or Gate of Almodovar, Formerly the Entrance to the Juderia at 265 

Calle de Maimonides, Formerly the Principal Street in the Juderia at 266 

Decorations on the Walls of the Ancient Synagogue at 267 

Cossacks: Map of Ukraine, Poland, and Western Russia, Showing Chief Towns Where Outbreaks 

Against the Jews Occurred During the Invasion by the Cossacks, 1648-56 287 

Costa, Da, Family, Arms of Frontispiece 

Costume, Algeria 297, and Fig. 21 of plate between 298-299 

Caucasus 301 

China 36 

Cochin 135, 136, and Fig. 20 of plate between 298-299 

England 296 

France 298, and Figs. 1, 6 of plate between 29&-299 

Galicia 301, 326-328 

Germany 294, 295, 296, and Figs. 2, 3, 7, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18 of plate between 298-299 

Holland Figs. 10, 16 of plate between 298-299 

Italy Figs. 4, 5, 11 of plate between 298-299 

Palestine 299, 300, and Fig. 26 of plate between 298-299 

Russia and Poland 301, 302, and Figs. 27, 28, 29, 30 of plate between 298-299 

Salonica Fig. 24 of plate between 298-299 

Switzerland 235, 295, and Figs. 8, 9, 12 of plate between 298-299 

Tunis 297, and Figs. 22, 23 of plate between 298-299 

Turkey 298, 300, and Figs. 19, 25 of plate between 298-299 

see also Childbirth; Death-Bed Scenes; Disputation; Divorce. 

[The following Is a list of sources from which the figures shown oa the plate " Costumes of Jews " 
have been derived: Figs. 1, 3, 11, 13, 21— Hottenroth, "Les Costumes des Peuples Anciens et Modernes"; 
flgs. 2 and 7— Kretschmer, "Trachten derVolker"; ng. 4— a painting by Sano de Pietro at Sienna; 
flg. 5— a fresco In the Hermitage at Padua; flg. 6— a manuscript In the Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris; 
flgs. 8 and 9— a manuscript chronicle of Ulrich von Reichthal, in the Town Hall at Basel ; flg. 10— an 
Illuminated missal of the Van Eyck School, in the Bibliotheque de I'Arsenal. Paris ; flgs. 13, 14, 15— Hot- 
tenroth, "Deutsche Volkstrachten " ; flg. 16— Picart ; flgs. 17 and 18— Kirchner, "Jiidisches Ceremoniel." 
172«>; flg. 19— "Costumes of Turkey," London, 1802; flgs. 30, 25, 27— Racinet; flgs. 22, 23, 24. 36, 39- 
photographs ; flgs. 28 and 30—" Les Peuples de la Russie."] 

Couch, Egyptian, Showing Head-Rest and Steps 304 

Council of Constance (1417), Procession of Jews Meeting Pope Martin V. at the . 235 

of Four Lands, Leaf from the Pinkes (Minute-Book) of the, with Autograph Signatures of Dele- 
gates plate between 308-309 

Cowen, Frederic Hymen, English Conductor and Composer 324 



Cracow, Interior of the Old Synagogue at •■ '621 

Page with the Kol Nidre Prayer, from a Judoeo-German Mahzor Printed at, 1571 330 

The Market at, in 1869 326 

Types of Jews of 328 

Craniometry : Cephalic Index of 1,071 Jews and 345 Jewesses , 334 

Creation, Stages of. From the Sarajevo Haggadah of the fourteenth century 337 

Creizenach, Michael, German Educator and Theologian 341 

Cremieux, Isaac Adolphe, French Statesman 346 

Part of the Autograph Letter of, Congratulating America on the Emancipation of the Slaves 348 

Cromwell, Oliver, Petition of the Jews of England to, Dated March 24, 1655 367 

. ■ Silver Salver Bearing the "Arms of the Tribe of Judah," Said to Have Been Presented to, 

by Manasseh ben Israel 366 

Crowns of the Law, Various Forms of 371 

Crusade, First, Map of Rhine Region, Showing Sites of Anti-Jewish Outbreaks in 1096, During the. . . 378 

Cups of Sanctification 385 

1, 7, 9— Kiddush Cups; 2. Habdalah Cup; 3 and 8. Passover Cups; 4 and 5. Elijah Cups; 
6. Circumcision Cup. 

Curasao, Interior of the Synagogue at 388 

Temple Emanu-El 389 

Curtain for the Ark of the Law, from a Synagogue at Smyrna 391 

Probably from Asia Minor 392 

Seventeenth Century', from Italy. .-. 393 

Cyrus, Portrait Sculpture of 403 

Dagon, As.syrian Representations of 412 

Damascus, Courtj'ard of a Jewish Residence at 419 

Interior of a Synagogue at 418 

Plan of the Modern City of, Showing the Jewish Quarter 417 

Daniel, Traditional Tomb of 429 

Darius, Cylinder Seal, with Name of, in Persian, Scythian, and Assyrian 442 

Seated on His Throne 441 

Darmesteter, Arsene, French Philologist 443 

James, French Orientalist 444 

David, Ferdinand, Violinist 462 

David Praying. From a Passover Haggadah, Vienna, 1823 455 

Traditional Tomb of, at Jerusalem 452 

Dawison, Bogumil, German Actor 474 

Dead Sea, View of the 478 

Death-Bed Scenes 485 

1. Visiting the Sick. 2. Making the Confession. 3. Lighting the Candles. 4. Mourning. 

Decalogue, Earliest Manuscript of, Probably of the Second Century 493 

Decorations on the Walls of the Ancient Synagogue at Cordova 267 

Deed of Conveyance by Cologne Jews ; Thirteenth Century 168 

Delmedigo, Joseph Solomon, Philosopher and Physician 508 

Tombstone of, at Prague 509 

Demonology : The Nether World in the Clutches of a Demon 515 

Denver, Col. : Temple Emanuel 178 

Derenbourg, Hartwig, French Orientalist 531 

Joseph, French Orientalist 531 

Dessau, Graveyard of the Community of, Showing Tombstone of Mendelssohn's Father 535 

Dibon, Plan of Ancient 575 

Disputation Between Jewish and Christian Theologians. After Peter Schwarz, 1477 616 

Religious, Between Jews and Christians 617 

Disraeli, Benjamin, English Statesman. After Millais 619 

at tile Berlin Congress of 1878. From the painting by Anton von Werner plate facing 620 

Family, Arms of 127 

D'Israeli, Isaac, English Author ^ 621 

Divorce, Hebrew Bill of, or Get, of the Eleventh Century. From the Cairo Genizah 624 

Hebrew Bill of, or Get. After Bodenschatz, 1748 625 


Divorce Scene in Germany. After Kircbner, 1726 626 

Scenes at. After Bodenschatz, 1748 627 

1. Writing tlie Get. 2. Reading It Aloud. 3. Throwing the Get to the Husband. 4. Husband 
Throwing the Get to Wife. 
Documents : see Manuscripts. 

Domus Conversorum, London. After Mattliew Paris 636 

Rolls Chapel, Chancery Lane, London, Formerly Part of the 636 

Receipt for 45s. 7^d., Paid to Jacob Wolfgang by the, 1608 637 

Dress : see Costume. 

Dreyfus Case : Captain Alfred Dreyfus. From a statuette by Caccia 668 

The Bordereau upon Which Dreyfus Was Convicted ; 660, 661 

Eagle-Headed Cherub, from an Assyrian Monument in the British Museum. . , 15 

Egypt: see Cherubim; Cooicery; Couch. 

Eichthal Family, Arms of 127 

Elijah Cups for Passover 385 

Elkan von Elkansberg Family, Arms of , 127 

England : see Costume ; Cromwell ; Domus Conversorum. 

Euriquez Family, Arms of 127 

Europe: see Chazars; Cologne; CoNSTAUTiNOPiiE ; Cordova; Cossacks; Costume; Cracow; 
Crusade ; Domus Conversorum. 

Faudel-Phillips Family, Arms of 128 

Feast at Childbirth. After Kirchner, 1726 29 

First Editions: Page of "Tur Orah Hayyim," Mantua, 1476 205 

Page of Levi ben Gershon's Commentary on the Bible, Mantua, Before 1480 173 

Page from Midrash Tehillim, Constantinople, 1512 241 

P'onseca Family, Arms of Frontispiece 

France : see Costume ; Crusade ; Dreyfus Case. 

Franco Family, Anns of 128 

Frankfort-on-the-Maiu, Costume of Jews of (17th-18th Century) Fig. 15 of plate between 298-299 

Fiirth, Costume of Jews of. Eighteenth Century Figs. 17, 18 of plate between 298-299 

Galicia: seeCosTU.ME; Cracow. 

Gate of Almodovar or Bab al-Yahud, Formerly the Entrance to the Juderia at Cordova 265 

Genizah, Cairo, Hebrew Bill of Divorce of the Eleventh Century, from the 624 

Germany : see Cologne ; Costume ; Dessau. 
Get: see Divorce. 

Gideon Family, Arms of 128 

Girdles : see Costume. 

Goldsmid Family, Arms of 128 

Gomez de Sossa Family, Arms of 128 

Graveyard of the Dessau Community, Showing Tombstone of Mendelssohn's Father. . > 535 

Gunsberg, Isidor, English Chess Master 17 

Habdalah Cup 385 

Haber Faniih', Arms of 128 

Halevi Family, Arms of. In the British Museum 125 

Hasid and Wife of the Early Nineteenth.Century 302 

Hats: see Costume. 

Hebrew: see Circumcision; Coats op Arms; Cordova; Cups op Sanctification; Curtain; Deed; 
Divorce; Tombstone; Typography. 

Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, 89 

Hirsch von Gcreuth, Arms of Frontispiece 

Holland, Costume of Jews of Figs. 10 and 16 of plate between 298-299 

Horwitz, B., English Chess Master 17 

Hospitals, Jewish: see Chicago; Constantinople. 

Implements, Sacerdotal: see Circumcision ; Crowns op the Law; Cups of Sanctification; Cur- 
tain; K'ai-Fung-Foo. 


Imprint: see Printer's Mark. 

India : see Cochin. 

Inscriptions : see Coats of Arms ; Cordova ; Sasanam ; Seal ; Tombstone. 

Italy : see Costume ; Mantua. 

Janowski, D. , French Chess Master 17 

Jerusalem : see Coffin ; Costume ; David. 

Jessel Family, Arms of 129 

Joseph Eabban, Sasanam of the Jews of Cochin Granting Privileges to, About 750 c.e 134 

" Judenschreinbuch," Hebrew Deed of Conveyance by Cologne Jews, from the 168 

"Kad ha-Kemah," Title-Page from Bahya ben Asher's, Printed at Constantinople, 1520 243 

K'ai-Fung-Foo, China, Bird's-Ey-e View of the Temple Buildings at 34 

Interior of the Synagogue at 35 

Jews of 36 

Karaite Jews of Russia, Fig. 30 of plate between 298-299 

Kiddush Cups 385 

Knives Used in Circumcision 99, 100 

Kolisch, Ignaz von, German Chess Master IV 

Kol Nidre Prayer, Page from a Judaeo-German Mahzor Containing the. Printed at Cracow, 1571 330 

Lasker, Emanuel, Chess Master 17 

Levi ben Gershon, Last Page of His Commentary on the Bible, Mantua, Before 1480 173 

Lion, Winged Human-Headed. From an Assyrian monument in the British Museum 15 

Lithuania, Costume of a Jew of, Modern Fig. 29 of plate between 298-299 

Liturgy: see Mahzor; Tefillot Vulgar. 
London : see Domus Conversorum. 

Lopez-Suasso Da Fonseca Family, Arms of Frontispiece 

Lowenthal, J. J., English Chess Master 17 

Mahzor : Page with the Kol Nidre Prayer, from a Judaeo-German Mahzor. Printed at Cracow, 1571. 330 

Maimonides, Calle de, Cordova 266 

Manasseh ben Israel, Petition of the Jews of England to Oliver Cromwell, Dated March 24, 1655, List 

of Petitioners Headed by 367 

Silver Salver Said to Have Been Presented to Oliver Cromwell by 366 

Mantua, Typography : Levi ben Gerson's Commentary on the Bible, Before 1480 173 

"Tefillot Vulgar," 1561 172 

Manuscripts: see Bordereau; Council op Four Lands; Cremieux, Isaac Adolphe ; Cromwell; 

DECAiiOGUE ; Deed ; Divorce , Domus Conversorum. 
Maps: seeCHAZARS; Cossacks; Crusade; Damascus; Dibon; New York. 

Market at Cracow in 1869 326 

Martin V., Procession of Jews Meeting; at the Council of Constance, 1417 235 

Mendes Family, Arms of 130 

Midrash Tehillim, Page from the First Edition of. Printed at Coustanliuople, 1512 241 

Mocatta Family, Arms of 130 

Montagu Family, Arms of 130 

Montefiore Family, Arms of Frontispiece 

Morenu Family, Arms of 130 

Nether World, The, in the Clutches of a Demon 515 

New York, Map of the City of, South of Fourteenth Street, Showing Average Death-Rates Due to 

Consumption During 1897-99 247 

Public Library: see Cohn, Tobias; Confiscation; Delmedigo, Joseph Solomon; Dis- 
putation ; Divorce, Hebrew Bill of, Eleventh Century. 
Nuremberg, Costume of Jews of (Seventeenth-Eighteenth Century) Fig. 14 of plate between 298-299 

Palestine : see Coffin ; Costume ; David ; Dead Sea. 

Pas, De, Family, Arms of 130 

Passover Cups „ 385 

Pentecost, Feast of, Jews Confessing Their Sins on the Day Before the, 218 


Phenicia : see CnERTmiM. 

Pimentel Family, Arras of 

Pinkes (Minute-Book), Leaf from the, of 


Pirbright Family, Arms of 

Platter Used in Circumcision, Bearing as 
Poland, Bishop of, Throwing Confiscated 

Costume of Jews of 

Portraits: see 

Alexandre, Albert. 

Chumaceiro, Aron Mendes. 

CHWOLSON, Daniel. 

Cohen, Naphtali. 

COHN, Albert. 

CoHN, Ferdinand Julius. 

CoHN, Tobias. 

CowEN, Frederic Hymen. 

Creizenach, Michael. 

CrSmieux, Isaac Adolphe. 

, Frontispiece 

the Council of Four Lands, with Autograph Signatures of 

platebetween 308-309 


Inscription Gen. xxi. 4 100 

Hebrew Books into the Flames 232 

301, 302, and Fig. 37 ofplaU between 398-299 


Darmesteter, James. 
David, Ferdinand. 
Dawison, Bogumil. 


Derenbourg, Hartwig. 
Derenbourg, Joseph. 
Disraeli, Benjamin. 
D' ISRAELI, Isaac. 

Gunsberg, Isidor. 
horwitz, b. 


kolisch, ignaz ton. 
Lasker, Emanuel, 
lowenthal, j. j. 
Steinitz, William. 
Tarrasch, Siegbert. 
zukertort, j. h. 

Prague, Tombstone of Joseph Solomon Delmedigo at 509 

Printer's Mark and Colophon on the Last Page of " Tefillot Vulgar, " Mantua, 1561 173 

on Title-Page, from Bahya ben Asher's "Kad ha-Kemah," Printed at Constantinople, 1520. . 243 

Procession of Jews Meeting Pope Martin V. at the Council of Constance, 1417 235 

Psalms : see Midrash Tehtllim. 

Rhine Region, Map of. Showing Sites of Anti-Jewish Outbreaks During the First Crusade, 1096 378 

Rothschild Family, Arms of Frontispiece 

Russia: see Chazars; Costume. 

Salomons Family, Arms of 131 

Salonica, Jew of Fig. 24 of plate between 298-299 

Salvador Family, Arms of Frontispiece 

Salver, Silver, Said to Have Been Presented by Manasseh ben Israel to Oliver Cromwell 366 

Sarcophagus of an Ancient Egyptian King Bearing Figures of Cherubs 15 

see also Coffin. 

Sasanam of the Jews of Cochin, Granting Privileges to Joseph Rabban, About 750 c.B 134 

Sassoon Family, Arms of Frontispiece 

Seal of the Halevi Family 125 

Seminary : see Hebrew Union College. 
Shoes : see Costume. 

Smyrna, Curtain for the Ark of the Law, from a Synagogue at 391 

South Arabian Form of Cherub 15 

Standard Club, Chicago, 111 25 

Steinitz, William, Chess Master 17 

Suasso Family, Arms of Frontispiece 

Switzerland, Costume of Jews of 235, 295, and Figs. 8, 9, 12 of plate between 298-299 

Synagogues: see China; Cincinnati; Cleveland; Cochin; Cologne; Cordova; Cracow ; Cura- 
gAO; Damascus; Denver. 

Tabernacles, Feast of, Jews of Constantinople, Eighteenth Century, Celebrating 800 

Tarrasch, Siegbert, German Chess Master 17 

" Tefillot Vulgar, " Colophon and Printer's Mark on the Last Page of, Mantua, 1561 172 

Teixeira Family (Amsterdam), Arms of 132 

(Holland), Arms of Frontispiece 

Temple Buildings at K'ai-Fung-Foo, China, Bird's-Eye View of the 34 

" Tiao Kin Kiaou," in CJliinese Characters (Term applied to Jews by the Chinese) 33 

Title-Page: see Kad iia-Kemah. 
Tombs, Traditional: see Daniel; David. 

Tombstone of Joseph Solomon Delmedigo at Prague 509 

see also Dessau. 



Tunis, Jews of 297, and Figs. 22, 23 of plate between 298-299 

Turkey : see Constantinople ; Costume. 

" Tur Orah Hayyim," Last Page of the First Edition of, Printed by Abraham Conat, 1476 205 

Types, Jewish : see China ; Cochin ; Costume ; Cracow. 

Typography : see Colophon ; Conat, Abraham ; Constantinople ; Cracow. 

TJnited States: see Chicago; Cincinnati; Cleveland; Consumption; Denter. 

Wandsworth Family, Arms of 133 

Warsaw Jew and Jewess of the Early Nineteenth Century 302 

World, The Nether, in the Clutches of a Demon 515 

Worms, Costume of Jews of, Sixteenth Century Fig. 13 of plate between 298-299 

De, Family, Arms of 132 

Writing, Cursive: see Council op Four Lands. 

Zukertort, J. H., Chess Master ......,.,„ „ ..........,.,,. .o« . 17 


Jewish Encyclopedia 

[Note: For topics beginning Avitli Ch, not found 
in alphabetical order, see under H,] 

CHAZAB.S : A people of Turkish origin whose 
life and history are interwoven with the very be- 
ginnings of the history of the Jews of Russia. The 
kingdom of the Chazars was firmly established in 
most of South Russia long before the foundation 
of the Russian monarchy by the Varangians (855). 
Jews have lived on the shores of the Black and 
Caspian seas since the first centuries of the com- 
mon era. Historical evidence points to the region 
of the Ural as the home of the Chazars. Among 
the classical writers of the JMiddle Ages they were 
known as the "Chozars," "Khazirs," "Akatzirs," 
and "Akatirs," and in the Russian chronicles as 
"Khwalisses" and "Ugry Bj^olyye." 

The Armenian writers of the fifth and following 
centuries furnish ample information concerning this 
people. Moses of Chorene refers to the invasion by 
the "Khazirs" of Armenia and Iberia at the begin- 
ning of the third century: "The chaghan was the 
king of the North, the ruler of the Khazirs, and the 
queen was the chatoun " (•' History of Armenia," ii. 
357). The Chazars first came to Armenia with the 
Basileans in 198. Though at first repulsed, they 
subsequently became important factors in Armenian 
history for a period of 800 years. Driven onward 
by the nomadic tribes of the steppes and by their 
own desire for plunder and revenge, they made fre- 
quent invasions into Armenia. The latter country 
was made the battle-ground in the long struggle be- 
tween the Romans and the Persians. Tliis struggle, 
which finally resulted in the loss by Armenia of her 
independence, paved tlie way for the political im- 
portance of the Chazars. The conquest of eastern 
Armenia by tlie Persians in the fourth century ren- 
dered the latter dangerous to the Chazars, who, for 
their own protection, formed an alliance with the 
Byzantines. Tiiis alliance was renewed from time 
to time until the final conquest of the Chazars by 
the Russians. Their first aid was rendered to the 
Byzantine emperor Julian, in 363. About 434 they 
were for a time tributary to Attila — Sidonius Apol- 
linaris relates that the Chazars followed the banners 
of Attila— and in 452 fought on the Catalanian fields 
in company with the Black Huns and Alans. The 
Persian king Kobad (488-531) undertook the con- 
struction of a line of forts through the pass between 
TV— 1 

Derbent and the Caucasus, in order to. guard 
against the invasion of the Chazars, Turks, and 

other warlike tribes.. His son Chos- 

Early roes Auoshirvau (531-579) built the 

History, wall of Derbent, repeatedly mentioned 

by the Oriental geographers and his- 
torians as Bab al-Abwab (Justi, " Gesch. des Alten 
Persiens," p. 208). 

In the second half of the sixth century the Chazars 
moved westward. They established themselves in 
the territory bounded by the Sea of Azov, the Don 
and the lower Volga, the Caspian Sea, and the 
northern Caucasus. Tlie Caucasian Goths (Tetrax- 
ites) were subjugated by the Chazars, probably about 
the seventh century (Lowe, "Die Reste der Ger- 
manen am Schwarzen Jleere," p. 72, Halle, 1896). 
Early in that century the kingdom of the Chazars 
had become powerful enough to enable the chaghan 
to send to the Byzantine emperor Heraclius an army 
of 40,000 men, by whose aid he conquered tiie Per- 
sians (626-627). Tlie Chazars had already occupied 
the northeastern part of tlie Black Sea region. Ac- 
cording to the liistorian Moses Kalonlvataci, the Clia- 
zars, under their leader Jebu Chaghan (called "Zie- 
bel Chaghan" by tlie Greek writers), penetrated 
into Persian territory as early as the second cam- 
paign of Heraclius, on whicli occasion they devas- 
tated Albania (" Die Persischen Feldzilge des Kaisers 
Herakleios," in " Byzantinische Zeitschrift," iii. 364). 
Nicephorus testifies that Heraclius repeatedly showed 
marks of esteem to his ally, the chaghan of the 
Chazars, to whom he even promised his daughter 
in marriage. In the great battle between the Cha- 
zars and the Arabs near Kizliar 4,000 Mohammedan 
soldiers and their leader were slain. 

In the year 669 the Ugrians or Zabirs freed them- 
selves from the rule of the Obrians, settled between 
the Don and the Caucasus, and came under the do- 
minion of the Chazars. For this reason the Ugri- 
ans, who had hitherto been called the" White " or" In- 
dependent " Ugrians, are described in the chronicles 
ascribed to Nestor as the "Black," or "Dependent," 
Ugrians. They were no longer governed by their 
own princes, but were ruled by the kings of tlie 
Cliazars. In 735, when the Arab leader Mcrvan 
moved from Georgia against the Chazars, he at- 
tacked the Ugrians also. In 679 the Chazars sub- 
jugated the Bulgars and extended their sway far- 
ther west between the Don and the Dnieper, as far 



as the head-waters of the Donetz in the province of 
Lebedia (K. Grot, "Moravia i Madyary," St. Peters- 
burg, 1881 ; J. Danilevski and K. Grot, " O Puti 
Madyar s Urala v Lebediyu," in " Izvyestiya Impera- 
torskavo Russkavo Geograficheskavo Obshchestva," 
xix.). It was .prol>Eibly about, thatltihie that the 
chJighaJi of tHo'Cjia?.J^-s and his gran- 
Embrace dees, together with a, large, number 
Judaism, /of; luSjbfatlifeu,' pfopie/embraced the 
• 'XVfsli ''relilfion; • ^ic^dbrdi'rig to A. 
Harkavy ("Meassef Niddahim," i.), the conversion 
took place in 620; according to others, in 740. 
King Joseph, in his letter to Hasdai ibn Shaprut 
(about 960j, gives the following account of the 
conversion : 

" Some centuries ago King Bulan reigned over the Chazars. 
To him God appeared in a dream and promised him might and 
glory. Encouraged by this dream, Bulan went by the road of 
Darian to the country of Ardebil, where he gained great victo- 
ries [over the Arabs]. The Byzantine emperor and the calif of 
the Ishmaelites sent 
to him envoys with 
presents, and sages 
to convert him to 
their respective re- 
ligions. Bulan in- 
vited also wise men 
of Israel, and pro- 
ceeded to examine 
them all. As each 
of the champions be- 
lieved his religion to 
be the best, Bulan 
separately ques- 
tioned the Moham- 
medans and the 
Christians as to 
which of the other 
two religions they 
considered the bet- 
ter. When both gave 
preference to that of 
the Jews, that king 
perceived that it 
must be the true re- 
ligion. He therefore 
adopted it " (see 
Harkavy, "Soobsh- 
chenija o Chaza- 
rakh," In "Yevrei- 
skaya Biblioteka," 
vii. 153). 

This account 
of the conver- 
sion was con- 
sidered to be of a legendary nature. Harkavy, how- 
ever (in " Bilbasov " and " Yevreiskaya Biblioteka "), 
proved from Arabic and Slavonian sources that the 
religious disputation at the Chazarian court is a his- 
torical fact. Even the name of Sangari has been 
found in a liturgy of Constantine the Philosopher 
(Cyrill). It was one of the successors of Bulan, 
named Obadiah, who regenerated the kingdom and 
strengthened the Jewish religion. He invited Jew- 
ish scholars to settle in his dominions, and founded 
synagogues and schools. The people were in- 
structed in the Bible, Mishnah, and Talmud, and 
in the "divine service of the hazzanim." In their 

writings the Chazars used the Hebrew 
Succession letters (Harkavy, "Skazaniya," etc., 
of Kings, p. 241). Obadiah was succeeded by 

his son Hezekiah; the latter by his 
son Manasseh; Manasseh byHauukkah, a brother of 
Obadiah; Hanukkaii by his son Isaac; Isaac by 

Map Showing the Distribution of Religions in Europe in the Tenth Century, C.E, 
Indicating Extent of the Kingdom of the Chazars. 

(After Schrader, ** Atlas de G^o^aphie Historique. ") 

his son Moses (or Manasseh II.) ; the latter by his son 
Nisi ; and Nisi by his sou Aaron II. King Joseph 
himself was a son of Aaron, and ascended the throne 
in accordance with the law of the Chazars relating 
to succession. On the whole, King Joseph's ac- 
count agrees generally with the evidence given by 
the Arabic writers of the tenth century, but in de- 
tail it contains a few discrepancies. According -to 
Ibn Fadlan, Ibn Dastah, and others, only the king 
and the grandees were followers of Judaism. The 
rest of the Chazars were Christians, Mohannnedans, 
and heathens ; and the Jews were in a great minority 
(Frithn, "De Chazaris," pp. 13-18, 584-590). Ac- 
cording to Mas'udi ("Les Prairies d'Or," ii. 8), the 
king and the Chazars proper were Jews; but the 
army consisted of Mohammedans, while the other 
inhabitants, especially the Slavonians and Rus- 
sians, were heathens. From the work " Kitab al- 
Buldan," written about the ninth century (p. 121; 
cited by Chwol- 
son in "Izvyes- 
tiya o Chaza- 
rakh," etc., p. 
57), it appears as 
if all the Chazars 
were Jews and 
that they had 
been converted 
to Judaism only 
a short time be- 
fore that book 
was written. 
But this work 
was probably in- 
spired by Jai- 
hani; and it may 
be assumed that 
in the ninth cen- 
tury many Cha- 
zar heathens be- 
came Jews, 
owing to the re- 
ligious zeal of 
King Obadiah. 
" Such a conver- 
sion in great 
masses, " says 
Chwolson (tb. p. 58), "may have been the reason for 
the embassy of Christians from the land of the 
Chazars to the Byzantine emperor Michael. The 
report of the embassy reads as follows: ' Quomodo 
nimc Judaei, nunc Saraceni ad suam fidem eos moli- 
rentur convertere' " (Schlozer, "Nestor," iii. 154). 

The history of the kingdom of the Chazars un- 
doubtedly presents one of the most remarkable fea- 
tures of the Middle Ages. Surrounded by wild, 
nomadic peoples, and themselves lead- 
ing partly a nomadic life, the Chazars 
enjoyed all the privileges of civilized 
nations, a well-constituted and tolerant 
and. government, a flourishing trade, and 

Commercial a well-disciplined standing army. In 
Relations, a time when fanaticism, ignorance, 
and anarchy reigned in western Eu- 
rope, the kingdom of the Chazars could boast of 
its just and broad-minded administration ; and all 




who were persecuted on the score of tlieir religion 
found refuge there. There was a supreme court of 
justice, composed of seven judges, of whom two 
were Jews, two Moliammedans, and two Christians, 
in charge of the interests of tlieir respective faiths, 
while one heathen was appointed for the Slavonians, 
Kussians, and other pagans (Mas'iidi, I.e. ii. 8-11). 

The Jewish population in the entire domain of the 
Chazars, in the period between the seventh and 
tenth centuries, must have been considerable. 
There is no doubt that the ('aucasian and otiier Ori- 
ental Jews had lived and carried on business with 
the Chazars long before the arrival of the Jewish 
fugitives from Greece, who escaped (723) from the 
mania for conversion which possessed the Byzan- 
tine emperor Leo the Isaurian. From the corre- 
spondence between King Joseph and Hasdai it is 
apparent that two Spanish Jews, Judah ben Meir ben 
Nathan and Joseph Gagris, had succeeded in settling 
in the land of the Chazars, and that it was a German 
Jew, Isaac ben Eliezer "from the land of Nyemetz " 
(Germany), who carried Hasdai 's letter to the king. 
Saadia, wlio had a fair knowledge of the kingdom 
of the Chazars, mentions a certain Isaac ben Abra- 
ham who had removed from Sura to Chazaria (Har- 
kavy, in Kohut Memorial Volume, p. 244). Among 
tlie various routes enumerated by the Arabic geog- 
rapher Ibn Khurdadhbah (860-880) as being used by 
the Rahdanite Jewish merchants, there is one leading 
from Spain or France, via AUemania, through the 
land of the Slavonians, close by Atel, the capital of 
the Chazars, whence they crossed the Sea of the Cha- 
zars (Caspian Sea) and continued their voyage, via 
Balkh, Transoxania, and the land of the Tagasga, 
to India and China. These merchants, who spoke 
Arabic, Persian, Greek, Spanish, French, and Sla- 
vonic, " traveled continuously from west to east from 
east to west by sea and by land." They carried eu- 
nuchs, serving-maids, boys, silks, furs, swords, im- 
ported musk, aloes, camphor, cinnamon, and other 
products of the Far East (Ilarkavy, "Skazaniya 
Musulmanskikh Pisatelei o Slavyanakh 1 Russkikh," 
pp. 48, 53; "Journal Asiatiquo," 1865). 

Hasdai ibn Shaprut, who was foreign minister to 
'Abd al-Rahman, Sultan of Cordova, in his letter to 
King Joseph of the Chazars (about 960), relates that 
the first information about that kingdom was com- 
municated to him by envoys from Khorassan, and 
that their statements were corroborated by the am- 
bassadors from Byzantium. The latter told him 
that the powerful Chazars were maintaining amica- 
ble relations witli the Byzantine empire, with whicli 
they carried on by sea a trade in fish, skins, and other 
wares, the voyage from Constantinople occupying 
fifteen days. Hasdai determined to avail himself of 
the services of the Byzantine embassy to transmit 
his letter to the king of the Chazars, and with that 
view he despatched Isaac ben Nathan with valuable 
gifts to the empei'or, requesting him to aid Isaac in 
his journey to Chazaria. But the Greeks interposed 
delays, and finally sent Isaac back to Cordova. Has- 
dai then decided to send his message by way of Jeru- 
salem, Nisibis, Armenia, and P>ardaa, but the envoys 
of the king of the Gebalim (Boleslav I. of Bohemia), 
who had then just arrived in Cordova, and among 
whom were two Jews, Saul and Joseph, suggested 

a different plan. They offered to send the letter to 
Jews living in " Hungariu " (Hungary), who, in their 
turn, would transmit it to "Russ" (Russia), and 
thence through "Bulgar" (probably the coimtry of 
the Bulgarians on the Kuban) to its destination 
(Atel, the capital of Chazaria). As the envoys 
guaranteed the safe delivery of the message, Hasdai 
accepted the proposal. He further expi'essed his 
thankfulness that God in His mercy had not de- 
prived the Jews of a deliverer, but had preserved 
the remnant of the Jewish race. 

Taking a keen interest in everything relating to 
the kingdom of the Chazars, Hasdai begs the king 
to communicate to him a detailed account of the 
geography of his country, of its internal constitu- 
tion, of the customs and occupations of its inhabit- 
ants, and especially of the history of his ancestry 
and of the state. In this letter Hasdai speaks of the 
tradition according to which the Chazars once dwelt 
near the Seir (Serir) Mountains; he refers to the 
narrative of Eldad ha-Dani, who thought he had 
discovered the Lost Ten Tribes ; and inquires whether 
the Chazars know anything concerning " the end of 
the miracles " (the coming of the Messiah). As to 
Eldad ha-Dani 'sunau then ticated account of the Lost 
Ten Tribes on the River Sambation, it may be inter- 
esting to note that, according to Idrisi, the city of 
Sarmel (Sarkel-on-the-Don) was situated on the River 
Al-Sabt (Sambat), which is the River Don. The name 
for Kiev, as given by Constantine Porphyrogenitus, 
is also Sambatas {lafipa-ac). These appellations of 
the River Don and of the city of Kiev point evidently 
to Jewish-Chazar influences (Westberg, "Ibrahim 
ibn Ya'kub's Reisebericht liber die Slavenlande aus 
dem Jahre 965," p. 134, St. Petersburg, 1898). 

A complete account of the correspondence be- 
tween Hasdai and King Joseph has 
The been written by A. Harkavy (" Yevre- 

Chazarian iskaya BiblioLeka," viii. 135), one of 

Letters, the leading authorities on the history 
of the Chazars, from which tl.'e fol- 
lowing is, in substance, an extract: 

The Chazarian corresponrtenoo wiis first published in the 
work " Kol-Mcbasser " of Isaac 'Akrish (Constantinople, 1577), 
into whose hands these dooumente came while on a voyage 
from Egypt to Constantinople. He published them with the 
view of proving that even after the destruftion of Jerusalem 
the Jews still had their own country, in accordance with the 
well-known passage in Genesis(xlix. 10), " the scepter shall not 
depart from Judah." 

Among European scholars Johann Buxtorf, the son, was the 
first to becoine interested in the Chazarian letters, which he 
printed togetlier with the te.xt of 'Akrish in his Latin transla- 
tion of "Cuzari " (Biisi'l, UiiiO). 

Buxtorf believed that the letters themselves and the entire 
history of the Chazarian kingdom were but table, for the reason 
that no seafarers, merchants, or other travelers \\m\ tirought 
any iiiformatioti concerning such a fiourisbing kingdom as that 
of the Chazars was reputed to be. The learned Orientalist 
D'Herbelot (" Hibliotheque Orientale," ii. 4."», Paris, 1097), mis- 
led by a wrong conception of the " Cuzari " and its relation to the 
conversion of the Chazars to Judaism, leaves the authenticity of 
th(> correspondence ati oiien fpu'stion. 

One of the greatest scholars of the 17th century, Samuel 
Bochart, in his derivation of then;uiieof the ("bazars, introduces 
the account of Joseph ben (Jorion ( Vosiiipon), and in his notes 
to the " Yuhasin " of Zaculo gives iiiforiuation alioiit the CliazBr 
rian kingdom and the Sea of the Chazars obtained from the 
•'Geographia Nubiensis" of the Arabian writer Idrisi (12th cen- 
tury ; see " (ieographia Sacra," lti46, p. 23<)). Bochart's views, 
however, are not important because he had no knowledge of the 
"Cuzari" or of the Chazarian letters. All the skeptics of that 


time and those mentioned below had no knowledge of the facts 
concerning the Chazars and Chazarian Judaism as contained in 
Slavonic Russian sources, or of the " Acta sanctorum," which dis- 
cusses those sources. It is therefore not surprising that the 
first author of a comprehensive history of the Jews, Basnage, 
who in his " Histoire des Juifs," v. 4-16, Rotterdam, 1707, prints 
the Chazarian letters, has the boldness to declare as idle fancy, 
not only the kingdom of the Chazars, but even the existence of 
the Chazarian people, which was invented, he considers, by 
Jewish boastfulness. 

A bout the same time Dom Augustine Calmet issued his Bib- 
lical researches, part of which treats of " the country whither the 
Ten Tribes were led away and where the said tribes now live." 
€almet considers Media near the Caspian Sea to be " the coun- 
try," and that it is also identical with "the country of the Cha- 
zars," which was glorified so much in the rabbinical writings. 
According to them the czar of the Chazars adopted the Jewish 
religion in the eighth century. Calmet, however, considers the 
whole story a fiction (Calmet, " Biblische Untersuchungen, 
Uebersetzt von Moshelm," iv. 406-407, Bremen, 1743). 

B.4RATIER, "the remarkable child," also considered the story 
of the Chazars to be only a pleasing novel ; but it may serve as 
an excuse for his opinion that when he wrote his work he was 
only eleven years of age (Baratier, " Voyage de R. Benjamin Fils 
de Jona de Tudela," ii. 285, Amsterdam, 1734). The Danish 
historiographer Frederick Suhin, who in 1779 wrote a remark- 
able work, for that time, on the Chazars, and who could not 
free himself from the view of the Hebraists of the time with re- 
gard to the letter of King Joseph, was the first to give a decided 
opinion in favor of the genuineness of the letter of Hasdai 
(Suhm, " Samlede Skrifter ") . The ignorance of these writers is 
accounted fcir by the fact that only at the end of the eighttHmtli 
century were translations of the old Arabic writers, Mas'uill. 
Istakhri, Ibu Haukal, etc., on the Chazars, issued. The first to 
make use of the testimony of the Arabic writers to corroborate 
the accounts of the Jewish writers on the Chazars, was the 
Lithuanian historian Tadeusz Czacki, who had the advantage 
of using copies of the Arabic manuscripts relating to the subject 
In the Library of Paris (" Rosprawao Zydach," pp. 68-69, Wilna, 
1807). The Russian historian Karamsin also made use of Mas'u- 
di's iiif<irni;itiun, givcti in the " Chrestomathy " of Silvestre de 
Sacy, anil of Aliulfc'iia's researches published in the fifth volume 
of r.uschhigV '■ Histurical Magazine." 

The Russiau academician Ch. Frahn and the Swedish scholar 
D'Ohsson collected and published. In the first quarter of the 
nineteenth century, all the Arabic testimony on the subject of 
the Chazars known at that time. The authenticity of the letter 
of King Joseph has, however, since been fully established by 
the very material which those scholars had at their disposal. 
Frahn acknowledges the genuineness of Hasdai's letter, but not 
that of King Joseph. In the same way D'Ohsson, although he 
found the information of the Arabic and Byzantine writers in 
conformity with the contents of the Chazar letters, could not 
help doubting its genuineness ("Peuples du Caucase," p. 205). 
This may be explained by the fact that as they did not under- 
stand Hebrew they did not care to commit themselves on a 
question which lay outside of their field of investigation. 

But the Jewish scholars had no doubts whatever as to the 
genuineness of the Chazarian documents, especially since the 
beginning of the critical school of Rapoport and Zunz. They 
were made use of by many writers in Spain in the twelfth cen- 
tury; as, for instance, by Judah ha-Levi (1140), who displayed a 
close 'acquaintance with the contents of King Joseph's epistle 
(Cassel, " Das Buch Kusari," pp. 13-14, Leipsic, 1869), and by the 
historian Abraham ibn Daud of Toledo (1160), who distinctly 
refers to the same letter (" Sefer ha-Kabbalah," p. 46b, Amster- 
dam, 1711). 

Later on, with the persecutions which ended with the expul- 
sion of the Jews from Spain, the Chazarian documents, together 
with many other treasures of medieval Jewish literature, were 
lost to the learned, and were not recovered until the end of the 
sixteenth century, when they were found in Egypt by Isaac 
'Akrish. The Jews of that time took little interest, however, in 
the history of the past, being absorbed by the cheerless events 
of tlieir own epoch. The first reference, therefore, to the Chazar 
letters is by Rabbi Bacharach of Worms, in 1679, who discovered 
proofs of the genuineness of Hasdai's letter in an acrostic in the 
poem which served as a preface, and which reads as follows : 
" I, Hasdai, son of Isaac, son of Ezra ben Shaprut" (see " Hut 
ha-Shani," p. 110b, Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1769). 

This acrostic, however, again remained unnoticed until it 
was rediscovered by Frensdorf, independently of Bacharach, in 
1836 (" Zeitschrlft fiir Jiidische Theologie," ii. 513). Four years 
later (1840) the genuineness of Hasdai's letter was absolutely 

proved by Joseph Zedner. He also acknowledged the authen- 
ticity of the chaghan's letter, but did not submit proofs (" Aus- 
wahl HistorischerStiicke aus der Jiidischen Literatur," pp. 26- 
36, Berlin, 1840). At the same time Solomon Munk gave his 
opinion in favor of the genuineness of both letters ("Orient, 
Lit." 1. 136 ; " Archives Israelites." 1848, p. 343 ; " Mflanges de 
Philosophic Juive et Arabe," p. 483, Paris, 1859). Since then 
most of the Jewish scholars have adopted his view, including 
Lebrecht, 1841 ; Michael Sachs, 1845; S. D. Luzzatto, 1846-50; 
Z. Frankel, 1852; D. Cassel and H. Jolovicz, 1853, 1859, 1872; 
Leop. Low, 18.55-74; Hartog, 1857; Jost, 1858; Steinschneider, 
1860; Griitz. 1860 and 1871; Harkavy, beginning with 1864; 
Geiger, 1865 ; Kraushar, 1866 ; D. Kauf mann, 1877 ; and many 
others. A comparison of Jewish with other sources, especially 
with Arabic, as far as they were then known, must be credited 
to E. Carmoly. He began his work with the comparison of the 
various sources in his "Revue Orientale" (1840-44). He com- 
pleted it in 1847 (" Itin^raires de la Terre Sainte," pp. 1-110, Brus- 
sels, 1847). Some useful supplements to Carmoly's works were 
presented by Paulus Cassel in 1848 and 1877 ("Magyarische 
Alterthumer," pp. 183-219, Beriin, 1848 ; " Der Chazarische Ko- 
nigsbrief aus dera 10. Jahrhundert," Berlin, 1877). 

The results of these investigations were accepted by the fol- 
lowing Christian scholars: Grigoryev, 1834; Schafarik, 1848; 
Lelevel, 1851-60; Vivien de San Martin, 1851; S. Solovyov, 1851- 
1874; Byelevski, 1864 ; Brun, 1866-77 ; Bllbasov, 1868-71 ; Kunik, 
1874 and 1878 ; and many others. Still there were some writers 
who were misled by the earlier opinions, and on the strength of 
them spoke skeptically of the documents ; as Jacob Goldenthal 
(1848) ; Dobrvakov (1865); and even the historian Ilovaiski 

Ill 900 Atel (or Itil), at that time the capital of the 
kiugdom of the Chazars, was situated about eight 
miles from the modern Astrakhan, on the right bankof 
the lower Volga, which river was also called "Atel " 
or "Itil." The meaning of "Atel" 
The in the Gothic language is "father" or 

Capital of "little father," that of "Itil" in the 
Chazaria. Turanian language is "river"; it is 
difficult to decide which of these two 
words gave the river its name. The western part 
of the city was surrounded by a wall pierced by 
four gates, of which one led to the river, and the 
others to the steppes. Here was situated the king's 
l^alace, which was the only brick building in the 
city. According to Mas'udi, the city was divided 
into three parts, the palace of the chaghan standing 
on an island. The king had twenty-five wives, all 
of royal blood, and sixty concubines, all famous 
beauties. Each one dwelt in a separate tent and 
was watched by a eunuch. The authoritj- of the 
chaghaa was so absolute that during his absence 
from the capital, even his viceroy, or coregent 
(called "isha," or "bek," or"pech"), was powerless. 
The viceroy had to enter the chaghan's apartments 
barefooted and with the greatest reverence. He 
held in liis right hand a chip of wood, which he lit 
when he saluted the chaghan, whereupon he took 
his seat to the right of the latter, on the throne, 
which was of gold. The walls of the palace were 
also gilded, and a golden gate ornamented the 

All the other dwellings of the then populous city 
were insignificant mud huts or felt tents. The posi- 
tion of the chaghan of the Chazars was evidently 
similar to that of the former mikados of Japan, 
while the bek, his military coregent, corresponded 

* The translation of the letters given by Harkavy is from a 
manuscript in the St. Petersburg Public Library. The genuine- 
ness of the St. Petersburg manuscript has been demonstrated by 
him (against P. Cassel, Vambery, etc.), in the " Russische R» 
vue " and in "Meassef Niddahim, " i.. No. 10, pp. 149 et seq. 


to the shoguns of the latter. Emperor HeracUus 
iu 636 conchided a treaty with the chaghan of the 
Chazars, and Constautiue Copronymus, iu liis de- 
scription of the embassy of the Chazars (834), states 
that it was sent by the " chaghan and the pech." 
Ibn Fadlan relates that the king of the Chazars was 
called the " great chaghan, " and his deputy " cha- 
ghau-bhoa" (''bey," "beg," or "bek"). The bek 
led the army, administered the affairs of the coun- 
try, and appeared among the people ; and to him 
the neighboring kings paid allegiance. It will thus 
be seen that the extent of the powers of the bek 
varied with the times. When tlie chaghan wanted 
to punish any one, he said, "Go and commit sui- 
cide" — a method resembling the Japanese custom 
of hara-kiri. 

The mother of the chaghan resided iu the western 
part of the city, whose eastern part, called "Cha- 
zaran," was inhabited by merchants of various na- 
tionalities. The city and its environs were heavily 
shaded by trees. The Turkish and the Chazar lan- 
guages predominated. The entourage of the cha- 
ghan, numbering 4,000 men, consisted of representa- 
tives of different nationalities. The White Chazars 
were renowned for their beauty ; and according to 
Demidov, the mountaineers of the Crimea con- 
trasted very favorably with the Nogay Tatars, be- 
cause they were considerably intermixed with the 
Chazars and with the equally fine race of the Ku- 
mans. Besides the White Chazars, there were also 
Black Chazars (who were almost as dark as the 
Hindus), Turkish immigrants, Slavonians, Hunno- 
Bulgars, Jews, who lived mostly in the cities, and 
various Caucasian tribes, such as the Abgliases, Ka- 
bardiues, Ossetes, Avares, Lesghiaus, etc. 

The Chazars cultivated rice, millet, fruit, grains, 
and the vine. They had important fisheries on the 
Caspian Sea, and the sturgeon constituted the main 
article of food. The Arabic writer Al-Makdisi re- 
marks : " In Chazaria there are many 
Trade and sheep, and Jews, and much honey " 
Commerce. ("Bibl. Geograph. Arabic." iii.. Ley- 
den, 1877). From the upper Volga they 
brought down from the Mordvines and Russians 
honey and valuable furs, which they exported to 
Africa, Spain, and France. They supplied the mar- 
ket of Constantinople with hides, furs, fish, Indian 
goods, and articles of luxury. Tlie chaghan and his 
suite resided in the capital only during the winter 
months. From the month of Nisau (April) they led a 
nomadic life in the steppes, returning to the city 
about the Feast of Hanukkah (December). The es- 
tates and vineyards of the chaghan were on the island 
on which his palace was situated. Another city of 
the Chazars, Semender, between Atcl and Bab al- 
Abwab, was surrounded by 40,000 vines. It was 
identical with the modern Tarku, near Petrovsk, 
which is now inhabited by Jews and Kumyks. The 
latter are supposed to be descended from the Cha- 
zars (Klaproth, " Memoire sur les Khazars, " in " Jour- 
nal Asiaticiue," 1823, iii.). 

At the Byzantine court the chaghan was held in 
high esteem. In diplomatic correspondence with 
him the seal of three solidi was used, which marked 
him as a potentate of the first rank, above even the 
t)ope and the Carlovingian monarchs. Emperor 

Justinian II., after his flight from Kherson to Doros, 

took refuge during his exile with the chaghan, and 

married the chaghau's daughter Irene, 

Relations who was famous for her beauty (703) 

with. By- (Nicephorus, "Breviarium," ed. Bonn, 

zantium. 1837, p. 46). Emperor Leo IV., "the 

Chazar" (775-780), the son of Con- 

stantine, was thus a grandson of the king of the 

Chazars. From his mother he inherited his mild, 

amiable disposition. Justinian's rival, Bardanes, 

likewise sought an asylum in Chazaria. Chazarian 

troops were among the body-guard of the Byzantine 

inaperial court ; and they fought for Leo VI. against 

Simeon of Bulgaria in 888. 

King Joseph in his letter to Hasdai gives the fol- 
lowing account of his kingdom: 

" The country up the river is within a four months' journey to 

the Orient, settled by the following nations who pay tribute to the 

Chazars : Burtas, Bulgar, Suvar, Arissu, Tzar- 

Chazarian mis, Ventit, Syever, and Slaviyun. Thence the 
Territories, boundary-line runs to Buarasin as far as the 
Jordjan. All the inhabitants of the seacoast 
that live within a month's distance pay tribute to the Chazars. 
To the south Semender, Bak-Tadlu, and the gates of the Bab 
al-Abwab are situated on the seashore. Thence the boundary- 
line extends to the mountains of Azur, Bak-Bagda, Sridi, Kiton, 
Arku, Shaula, Sagsar, Albusser, Ukusser, Kiadusser, Tzidlag, 
Zunikh, which are very high peaks, and to the Alans as far as 
the boundary of the Kassa, Kalkial. Takat, (jebul. and the Con- 
stantinian Sea. To the west, Sarkel, Samkrtz, Kertz, Sugdai, 
Aluss, Lambat, Bartnit, Alubika, Kut, Mankup, Budik, Alma, 
and Grusin— all these western localities are situated on the 
banks of the Constantinian (Black) Sea. Thence the boundary- 
line extends to the nortli, traversing the land of Basa, which is 
on the River Vaghez. Here on the plains live nomadic tribes, 
which extend to the frontier of the Gagries, as innumerable as 
the sands of the sea ; and they all pay tribute to the Chazars. 
The king of the Chazars himself has established his residence 
at the mouth of the river, in order to guard its entrance and to 
prevent the Russians from reaching the Caspian Sea, and thus 
penetrating to the land of the Ishmaelites. In the same way 
the Chazars bar enemies from the gales of Bab al-Abwab." 

Even the Russian Slavonians of Kiev had, in the 
ninth century, to pay as yearly tax to the Chazars a 
sword and the skin of a scjuirrel for each house. 

At the end of the eighth century, when the Cri- 
mean Goths rebelled against the sovereignty of the 
Chazars, the latter occupied the Gothic capital, 
Doros. The Chazars were at first reptilsed by the 
Gothic bishop .Joannes; but when he 
War witli had surrendered, the Goths submitted 

Goths. to the rule of the Chazars (Braun, 
"Die Letzten Schicksale der Krimgo- 
then," p. 14, St. Petersburg, 1890; TomascheK, 
"Die Gothen in Taurien," Vienna, 1881). 

In the second quarter of the ninth century, when 
the Chazars were often annoyed by the irruptions 
of the Petchenegs, Emperor Theophilus, fearing for 
tlie safety of the Byzantine trade with the neigh- 
boring nations, despatched his brother-in-law, Petron 
Kamateros, with materials and workmen to build 
for the Chazars the fortress Sarkel on the Don (834). 
Sarkel ("Sar-kel," the white abode; Russian, 
" Byelaya Vyezha ") served as a military post and 
as a commercial depot for the north. 

In the second half of the ninth century the apostle 
of the Slavonians, Constantine (Cyril), went to the 
Crimea to spread Christianity among the Chazars 
(Tomaschek, I. c. p. 2.5). At this time the kingdom 
of the Chazars stood at the height of its power, and 
was constantly at war with the Arabian califs and 



their leaders in Persia and the Caucasus. The Per- 
sian Jews hoped that the Cliazars might succeed in 
destroying tlie califs' country (Harkavy, in Kohut 
Memorial Volume, p. 244). The high esteem in 
which the Chazars were held among the Jews of the 
Orient may be seen in the application to them — in 
an Arabic commentary on Isaiah ascribed by some 
to Saadia, and by others to Benjamin Nahawandi — 
of Isa. xlviii. 14; "The Lord hath loved him." 
"This," says the commentary, "refers to the Cha- 
zars, who will go and destroy Babel " — i.e., Babylo- 
nia — a name used to designate the country of the 
Arabs (Harkavy, in "Ila-Maggid," 1877, p. 357). 

The chaghans of the Chazars, in their turn, took 
great interest in and protcctetl their coreligionists, 
the Jews. When one of the chaghans received in- 
formation (c. 921) that the Moliammedans had des- 
troyed a synagogue in the laud of Babung (accord- 
ing to Harkavy the market of Camo- 

Jewish. mile in Atel is meant), he gave orders 
Sym- that the minaret of the mosque in his 

pathies. capital should be broken off, and the 
muezzin executed. He dechired that 
he would have destroyed all the mosques in the coun- 
try had he not been afraid that the Mohammedans 
would in turn desti'oy all the synagogues'in their lands 
(Ibu Fadlan, in Frahn, " De Chazaris," p. 18). In the 
conquest of Hungary by the Magyars (889) the Cha- 
zars rendered considerable assistance. They had, 
however, settled in Pannonia before the arrival of tlie 
Magyars. This is evident from the names of such 
places as Kozar and Kis-Kozard in the Nograd, and 
Great-Kozar and Raczkozar in the Baranya district 
(Karl Szabo, "Magyar Akatlemiai Ertesito," i. 132, 
cited by Vambery in his " Ursprung der Magyaren," 
p. 182; compare Kohn, "AZsidok Tortenete Mag- 
yarorszagon "— The History of the Jews in Hun- 
gary — i. 12 et seq.). 

Mas'udi relates the following particulars concern- 
ing the Chazars in coiuiection with Rus.sian inva- 
sions of Tabaristan and neighboring countries: 

" After tbe year 300 of the Hegira (913-914), Ave hundred Rus- 
sian [Northmen's] ships, everyone of which had a hundred men 
on board, came to the estuary of the Don, 

"War with which opens into the Pontus, and is in com- 

Kussians. munication with the river of the Chazars, the 
Volga. The king of the Chazars Ijeeps a garri- 
son on this side of the estuary with efficient, warlike equipment 
to excUide any other power from its passage. The king of the 
Chazars himself frequently takes the field against them if this 
garrison is too weak. 

" When the Russian vessels reached the fort they sent to the 
king of the Chazars to ask his permission to pass through his 
dominions, promising him half the plunder which they might 
take from the nations who lived on the coast of this sea. He 
gave them leave. They entered the country, and continuing 
their voyage up the River Don as far as the river of the Chazars, 
they went down this river past the town of Atel and entered 
through its mouth into the sea of the Chazars. They spread 
over el-Jil, ed-Dailem, Tabaristan, Aboskum, which is the name 
for the coast of Jordjan, the Naphtha country, and toward Ader- 
biian, the town of Ardobil, which is in Aderbijan, and about 
three days' journey from the sea. The nations on the coast had 
no means of repelling the Russians, although they put them- 
selves in a state of defense ; for the inhabitants of the coast of 
this sea are well civilized. When the Russians had secured 
their booty and captives, they sailed to the mouth of the river of 
the Chazars and sent messengers with money and spoils to the 
king, in conformity with the stipulations they had made. The 
Larissians and other Moslems in the countiy of the Chazars 
heard of the attack of the Russians, and they said to their king : 
' The Russians have invaded the coimtry of our Moslem brothers ; 
they have shed their blood and made their wives and children 

captives, as they are unable to resist ; permit us to oppose them.' 
The Moslem army, which numbered about 15,000, took the field 
and fought for three days. The Russians were put to the sword, 
many being drowned, and only 5,000 escaping. These were 
slain by the Burtas and by the Moslems of Targhiz. The Rus- 
sians did not make a similar attempt after that year" (Mas'udi 
[tr. by Sprenger], in " Historical Encyc," pp. 416-420). 

Notwithstanding the assertions of Mas'udi, the 
Russians invaded the trans-Caucasian country in 
944, but were careful in this expedition to take a 
different route. 

Tills seems to have been the beginning of the 
downfall of the Chazar kingdom. The Russian 
Varangians had firmly established themselves at 
Kiev, while the powerful dominions of the Chazars 
had become dangerovis to the Byzantine empire, 
and Constantine Porphyrogenitus, in his instruc- 
tions on government written for his son, carefully 
enumerates the Alans, the Petchenegs, the Uzes, and 
the Bulgarians as the forces on which he must rely 
to check the influence of the Chazars. 

Five years after the correspondence between the 
king of the Chazars and Hasdai ibn Shaprut (965), 
the Russian prince Swyatoslaw made war upon the 
Chazars, apparently for the possession of Taurida 
and Tamun. The Russians had already freed from 
tlie rule of the Chazars a part of the 
Decline and Black Bulgars, and had established 
Fall of the a separate Russian duchy under the 

Cliazars. name of "Tmutrakan"; but in the 
Crimean peninsula the Chazars still 
had possessions, and from the Caucasian side the 
Russian Tmutrakan suffered from the irruption of 
the Kossogian and Karbardine princes, who were 
tributary to the chaghan of the Chazars. The for- 
tress of Sarkel and the city of Atel were the chief 
obstacles to Russian predatory expeditions on the 
Caspian Sea. After a hard fight the Russians con- 
quered the Chazars. Swyatoslaw destroyed Sarkel, 
subdued also the tribes of tlie Kossogians and Yass 
(Alans), and so strengthened the position of the 
Russian Tmutrakan. They destroyed the city of 
Bulgar, devastated the country of the Burtas, and 
took possession of Atel and Semender. 

Four }-ears later the Russians conquered all the 
Chazarian territory east of the Sea of Azov. Only 
the Crimean territory of the Chazars remained in 
their possession until 1016, when they were dispos- 
sessed by a joint expedition of Russians and Byzan- 
tines. The last of the chaghans, George Tzula, was 
taken prisoner ; some of the Chazars took refuge in 
an island of the Caspian, Siahcouye ; others retired 
to the Caucasus; while many were sent as prisoners 
of war to Kiev, where a Chazar community had 
long existed. Many intermingled in the Crimea 
with the local Jews; the Krimtschaki are probably 
their descendants — perhaps some of the Subbotniki 
also ("Voskhod," 1891, iv.-vi.). Some went to 
Hungary, but the great mass of the people re- 
mained in their native country. Many members of 
the Chazarian roj^al family emigrated to Spain. 
Until the thirteenth century the Crimea was known 
to European travelers as " Gazaria," the Italian form 
of "Chazaria." 

BiBLiooRAPHT : I. 'Akrish, Kol Mebasser, Constantinople, 1577 ; 
Cassel, Der Chazarische KOnigfihrief, Berlin, 1877 ; Carmoly, 
in Revue Orientale, i.. Brussels, 1841 ; Chwolson, Ihn-Dasta 
Izvyestiya o Chazarakh, Burtasakh, etc., St. Petersburg 



Frahn, De Chazaris ; Excerpta i 
, n» 

Scriptoi-ihus Ara- 
bicis, St. Petersburg, 1831 ; idem, Ihn Foszlan (Fadlan), St. 
Petersburg, 1833; Grigoryev, Rossia i Asia, St. Petersburg, 
1876; Harkavy, Soobs/fc/ieHij/tt o Chazaraki/a, ia Yevreiska- 
ya Biblioteka, vlii., St. Petersburg, 1880; idem, Chazamkia 
Pisma, in Yevreitskaya BiblioUka, vil., St. Petersburg, 1879 ; 
idem, in Geiger's JUd. Zeit. iii., Breslau, 1865; idem, in Raz- 
svyet, 1880, No. 4; idem, Nyekotonnia Daimyya, in T)-udy 
U. Archeologicheskavo Syezda v Kazani, Kazan, 1884; 
idem, in Russische Revue, 1875, 1877 ; Hirscbfeld, Das Buch 
Al-Chazari, Breslau, 1885 ; Klaproth, Memoire sur les Kha- 
zars, in Journal Asiatique, ser. 1, vol. iii.; Neumann, Die 
VOlker des Sildlichen Russkinds, Leipsic, 1847 ; C. d'Obsson, 
Les Peuples du Caucase, Paris, 1828 ; Sprenger, AI-Mas'udi's 
Meadows of Oold, i., London, 1841 ; Vainbery, Der Ursprung 
der Magyaren, Leipsic, 1882 ; Vivien de St. Martin, Sur Jes 
Khazars, in Nouvelles Annales des Voyages, 1851; Bacher, 
La Conversion des Khazars d'aprcs uii Ouvrage Midra- 
schique, in Rev. Et. Juives, xx. 144-146; and works men- 
tioned in the text. See, also, Armenia, Caucasus, and 
Crimea. jj j^ 

CHEBAR : Name of a Babylonian river or canal, 
by thesideof which Ezekiel" saw visions" (Ezek. i. 1, 
3; iii. 15, 23; x. 15 et seq.). The Hebrew "nahar" 
("inj), usually rendered "river, "was evidently used 
also for " canal " (= Babylonian " naru" ; compare Ps. 
cxxxvii. 1, "naharotli Babel"; that is, "canals of 
Babylon "). In Babylonian, " Naru Kabaru " means, 
literally, " great canal. " The river has usually been 
identified with the Chabor, a tributary discharging 
its waters into the Euphrates at Circesium ; a mis- 
take not to be justified in view of the definite state- 
ment that it was in the land of Chaldea. The stream 
intended is undoubtedly the Kabaru, a large navi- 
gable canal near Nippur, twice mentioned ia an in- 
scription recovered by the Babylonian Expedition 
of the University of Pennsylvania (see Hilprechtand 
Clay, "Babylonian Expedition of the University of 
Pennsylvania," ix. 50). 

J. JK. R. W. R. 

CHECHELNIK : Town in the government of 
Podolia, Russia, having (1898) a population of about 
7,000, including 1,967 Jews. Their principal occu- 
pation is commerce ; but 352 are engaged in various 
handicrafts, and 96 are journeymen. About 200 
Jews earn a livelihood as farm-laborers; and 41 are 
employed in the local factories. There are no char- 
itable organizations, and poverty among tlie Jewish 
inhabitants is general. A private school for boys 
with 100 pupils, and 23 hadariin with 367 pupils, 
constitute the Jewish educational institutions of 

H. u. S. J. 

CHECHEBSK: Town in the government of 
Mohik'v, Russia, with a population (in 1898) of 
2,819, including 1,692 Jews. The latter are princi- 
pally engaged in commerce, but 323 follow various 
handicrafts. Of these 158 own shops, 60 are wage- 
workers, and 105 are apprentices. Shoemaking is the 
predominant industry, 120 ])er,sons being engaged in 
it. Tliere are, besides, 31 day-laborers. The chari- 
table organizations consist of a Gemilut Husadim, a 
Lehem Ebyonim and a Bikkur Holiin. Over 40 
families apply yearly for aid for the Passover holi- 
days. The educational institutions include an ele- 
mentary government school with 80 pupils, 15 being 
Jews, and 15 hadarim, with 140 scholars. "When the 
uprising under Bogdan Chmielnicki broke out in 
1648, Cliechcrsk was taken by the Cossacks, who 
massacred all the Jews there. 
Bibliography: Regesty, 1. 403, 411, St. Petersburg, 1899. 

H. R. S. J. 

CHEDORLAOMER.— Biblical Data: Name 
of a king of Elam (Gen. xiv. 1), who made conquests 
as far west as Canaan and exercised supremacy over 
its southeastern part. After paying tribute to him 
for twelve years, the five local kings, or princes, 
rebelled in the thirteenth year, and in the fourteenth 
were assailed and reduced by Chedorlaomer, assisted 
by Amkapiiel, King of Shinar; Arioch, King of 
Ellasar, and Tidal, King of Goyim. 

Critical View: The name "Chedorlaomer" 

has long been the subject of controversy, that has 
increased, rather than diminished, since the discov- 
ery of native Elamite and Babylonian documents. 
The first clue to an identification of the name is 
found in the fact, everywhere now regarded as estab- 
lished, that the name is a correct Elamite compound. 
Its first half, "Chedor" (= "Kudur," "servant of," 
or "worshiper of"), is found frequently in Ela- 
mite proper names, such as " Kudur-nanhundi " 
("nahhunte" in Susian or Elamite) and "Kudur- 
mabuk." The latter half of the name, "la'omer," 
(= "lagamaru"), is the name of an Elamite deity, 
mentioned by Assurbanipal. 

Apart from these certain facts, all else is matter 
of controversy. Scheil believed tliat he had found 
the name on a tablet of Hammurabi in the form 
"Ku-du-la-uh-ga-inar" ("Revue Biblique," 1896, p. 
600), but the name is now proved to be " Inuhsham- 
mar." Pinches has found the name "Kudur-ku-ku- 
mal " in a tablet dating probably from the period of 
the Arsacidse. In spite of the diflSculty of the read- 
ing and the late date of the text, it is possible that 
the person intended is really the same as the Chedor- 
laomer of Genesis, though most scholars are opposed 
to this view. The tablet in question is couched in 
a florid, poetical style, and little material of historical 
value can be gleaned from it. For the present the 
records give only the rather negative result that 
from Babylonian and Elamite documents nothing 
definite has been learned of Chedorlaomer. It is, 
however, a matter of some consequence in estima- 
ting the character of the narrative in Gen. xiv. to 
have learned that the name of Chedorlaomer is not a 

Bibliography: Schrader, Keilinschriften des Alten Testa- 
ments, 2d ed., pp. 13.5 et seq.; (compare paper read by Pinches 
before the Victoria Institute) Jan. 20, 1896 ; L. W. King, Let- 
ters and Inscriptions of Hammurabi, 1898, vol. i. 

J. .iR. R. W. R. 

CHEESE : The curd of milk run into molds and 
allowed to coagulate. This article of food was 
known to the ancient Hebrews. Three expressions 
seem at least to indicate that various kinds and 
forms of cheese were in use: 1. " Gebinah " (Job x. 
10) denotes the ordinary article, prepared in Biblical 
times as it is to this day in Syria. Milk is passed 
through a cloth, and the curd, after being salted, is 
molded into disks about the size of the hand and 
dried in the sun. From such cheese a cool, acid 
drink is made by stirring it in water. 2, "Harize 
he-halab" (I Sam. xvii. 18) appears to have been 
made of sweet milk, and to have been something 
like cottage-cheese. It is not certain what "she 
fot bakar" (II Sam. xvii. 29) signifies. Perhaps 
the Masoretic reading is corrupt. If not, " cream " 



or "cheese" may be its meaning. 3. "Hem'ali," 
ordinarily "cream," signifies "cheese" in Prov. 
XXX. 33. 

In post-Biblical days the manufacture of cheese 
was in the hands of a distinct gild. Josephus 
("B. J." V. 4, § 1), at all events, mentions "the val- 
ley of the cheese-makers," and many are the refer- 
ences in the Talmudic Avritings to the preparation 
of hard cheese (Shab. 96a; Tosef., Shab. x. ; Yer. 
Shab. vii. 10a, end; Yer. Ma'as. ii. 3a; Yer. B. M. 
vii. lib). Yer. Shek. vii. 3c mentions a disk 
("iggul")of cheese. Cheese and water are men- 
tioned as constituting a very poor meal (Yer. M. K. 
iii. 83b; Yer. Ned. v. 40d, beginning). 

Cheese was one of the articles included in the list 
of eighteen prohibitions enacted at tlie famous meet- 
ing in the upper chamber of Hananiah ben Ilezekiah 
ben Garon (Shab. i. 7), which could never be re- 
voked because they who had adopted them gave 
their lives for them" (Yer. Shab. i. 7 ; 3c. The Mish- 
nah does not enumerate them specifically; in the 
Gemara there are long debates concerning them; but 
a Baiaita in the name of R. Simeon ben Yohai (ib.) 
furnishes the particulars. According to this war 
measure, Jews were forbidden to buy bread, oil, 
cheese, wine, vinegar, etc., from an idolater. In 
the Mishnah ('Ab. Zarah, ii. 5, 29a) cheese from Bet 
Oneiki ( — Bithnica; Yer. reading ^p^^l^DI; Tosef ta 
has here K^p'J'n; according to Rapoport, "Erek Mil- 
lin," Veneca in Media is referred to) is declared to 
be " issur " (interdicted), Rashi explaining that cheese 
from any other locality may be eaten. According 
to R. Mei'r this issur carries with it the prohibi- 
tion against using cheese for other purposes than 
eating, an opinion not accepted by the Rabbis. R. 
Joshua is reported as accounting for the proliibition 
by the fact that the makers of cheese, who were 
all either pagans (DnSIJ) or Bithynians (see Pliny, 
"Historia Naturalis," xi. 97; Wiesner, in "Ben 
Chananja," 1866, col. 75), placed the cheese (to 
ripen it) in the rennet-bag of an animal that had died 
of disease. Another of the reasons advanced is that 
most of the Bithynian calves whose stomachs were 
used in the manufacture of cheese, were slaugh- 
tered for idolatrous rites ('Ab. Zarah 34b). Besides 
this, the fact of the contact of the rennet with 
the cheese would class the mixture, il made, 
under the- general prohibition that forbade the 
mixing of milk with meat. 

Tlie later religious practise has been to inter- 
dict all cheese made by non-Jews suspected of 
idolatry. Cheese made by Jews from the milk 
of animals originally destined for idolatry seems 
also to have been forbidden, and so was cheese 
of heathen manufacture, even if kept in leaves or 
lierbs (see Shulhan 'Aruk, Yoreh De'ah, 115, 2; 
"Yad," Ma'akalot Asurot, iii.). 

So strictly was this prohibition observed that 
for a long time the Jews of England used to 
get their cheese from Holland so as to be certain 
that it had been prepared according to Jewish 

""^'"'"- E. G. H. 

CHELLTJS (Xf/.oi'f; Codex Sinaiticus, XftrAoi-c; 
Syriac version, p^3) : Place mentioned in Judith i. 
9 as lying before Kadesh and the River of Egypt. 

Reland ("Palastina ex Monumentis Veteribus Illus- 
trata," p. 717) is probably correct in identifying it 
witl) the city of Elusa (according to the Targum, 
nVvn), which was situated on the south of Beer- 
sheba, and was noted for its particular cult. Less 
probable is the supposition of Movers, according to 
which Chellus is the Biblical "Halhul," mentioned 
in Joshua xv. 58. The name does not occur in the 
O. T., but is found in the form "Alusa" in Jose- 
phus ("Ant." xiv. 1, §4); not identical with" Alius," 
mentioned by Eusebius and Jerome (" Onomasticon," 
pp. 85, 6; 211, 3). The modern name is"Chalasa," 
and the place contains only ruins. 

E. G. II. ' F. Bu. 

CHELM or CHOLM : Town in the government 
of Kovno, Russia. It iias a population of about 
4,200, all of whom, with the exception of about 300, 
are Jews. ]\Iost of tliem are engaged in mercantile 
pursuits, only 549 being artisans. The town has a 
considerable trade in leather, wool, flax, hemp, bris- 
tles, and lumber, shipping these products to com- 
mercial centers, such as Konigsberg, Riga, and 
Libau. About 30 Jews find employment in tiie local 
factories, corn mills, and sawmills; 80 are journey- 
men, draymen, and porters; 30 are engaged in gar- 
dening, cultivating a tract of 30 deciatines, which 
they partly own and partly hold on lease; and 8 
live by dairying. In the vicinity of the town are 
several settlements inhabited by Jewish agricul- 

The charitable institutions include societies for the 
visitation of the sick, for the relief of the poor, and 
for affording temporary slielter to the destitute. 
The only educational institutions are the hadarim. 

II. K. S. J. 

RAiM B. Joseph Ciielm. 

mon B. ]\IosES Ciielm. 

CHELOD : A name occurring in Judith i. 6b, and 
designating apparently the Chaldeans. In place of 
the rendering of the A. V. , " many nations of the 
sons of Chelod assembled themselves to battle in the 
plain of Arioch in the days of Nebuchadnezzar and 
Arphaxad, " it is perhaps better to translate — follow- 
ing the Greek version — " there came together many 
nations unto the array of the sons of Cheleul. " The 
Syriac renders "to fight against the Chaldeans." 
And while it is true that Nebuchadnezzar is called 
"king of the Assyrians" in Judith, and not "of the 
Chaldeans," it is to be remembered that the term 
" Chaldeans " is used in the late Book of Daniel as a 
race-name for the Babylonians of the time of Nebu- 
chadnezzar (see Prince, "Daniel," pp. 59-61). The 
text of Judith seems to imply that the "sons of 
Chelod " were Nebuchadnezzar's army. Although it 
is not impossible that "Chelod" or "Cheleul" comes 
from a corrupt Aramaic form denoting " Chaldeans," 
the whole matter is very uncertain. 

The idea that Calneh is meant is quite as improba- 
ble as the theory that the word is from the Hebrew 
" holed " (mole), and that " children of the mole " is 
an opprobrious term for the Syrians (Ewald, " Gesch. 
des Volkes Israel," iii. 543). 

J. JR. J. D. P. 



CHELUB : A Hebrew word meaning a cage, as 
in Jer. v. 27. It is also the name of two men : (1) 
The brother of Sliuah and father of Mehir of tlie 
tribe of Judah (I Chron. iv. 11). In the Sep- 
tuagint XaTiufi. (2) The father of David's chief 
gardener, Ezri (I Chron. xxvii. 26), 1014 B.C. In tlie 
Septuagiut Xeloi'li. 

E. G. H. J. D. B. 

CHELTJBAI : This is probably another form of 
the name Caleb. It occurs iu I Chron. ii. 9. 
E. G. H. G. B. L. 

CHEMABIM : Plural of IM ; occurs as translit- 
eration of the Hebrew in the English translation of 
Zeph. i. 4, and also as the marginal reading both in A. 
V. and R. V. to II Kings xxiii. 5 and Hosea x. 5, where 
the text renders the Hebrew by " idolatrous priests " 
and "priests." In Zeph. i. 4 the Septuagint omits 
it, and this in connection with the parallelism goes 
far to indicate that there it is an interpolation. But 
Wellhausen and others have, by emending the pas- 
sage in Hosea iv. 4, ••anOD yD]!), to read r"l033 •'Dyi 
(my people like its idolatrous priests), claimed for 
the word another passage in old Hebrew writings. 

The meaning of the word is well assured to be 
" priests. " It occurs with certainty in this acceptation 
in Semitic inscriptions (Halevy, in " Rev. Sem. " 1896, 
pp. 280, 282 ; " C. I. S." ii. 170), and possibly as " ka- 
miru " on the El-Amarna tablets (Bezold, "Oriental 
Dipolmacy," p. 92). In the Aramaic and in the Pe- 
shitta " kumra " stands for " priest " without tinge of 
evil sense. In Neo-Hebrew 1013 designates a Cath- 
olic priest and monk. In the passages quoted above, 
the term without doubt carries a by -flavor of disre- 
pute. It is the " idol-worshiping priest " that is so de- 
nominated. And in this .sense the appellation is very 
frequent in the Talmud (ml m2J?? "lOlD HK'yj.'Ar. 
BOb ; HIT niivh "ion n\n lin', Pesik. R. 65c). 

The etymology, however, is not so clear. Usually 
it is associated with the verb "kamar," to be black. 
Kimhi, among others, is of this opinion, and derives 
the meaning "priest" from the circumstance that the 
" priests wore black garments." Others connect the 
root with the idea to be sad, "kumra" being a sad 
person; i.e., an ascete, monk, priest. Delitzsch, in 
"Assyrisches Handworterbuch," holds it to have 
sprung from "kamaru," to overthrow, to prostrate, 
the " priest " being he who prostrates himself be- 
fore the idol. Perhaps the meaning of IDD in 
the Nif 'al (" to grow hot ") best explains the trans- 
ition to "priest" with a by-sense of "reprobate." 
The old Semitic idols were without exception wor- 
shiped by intemperate (sexual) excesses. The " hot " 
" exciting man " was the priest kut' e^ox'/v. 

E. G. H. 

CHEMEROVTZY : Small town in the govern- 
ment of Podolia, Russia, with (in 1898) an almost ex- 
clusively Jewish population of 1,282. About 160 
Jews follow various trades, but the bulk of the 
population is engaged in mercantile pursuits. Hair 
sacks form the principal article of commerce, being 
exported to the value of 100,000 rubles annually. 

Poverty is increasing to such a degree that the 
scanty funds of the two existing charitable organi- 
zations can barely meet the needs of the poorer part 
of the community. The educational institutions 

include a Talmud Torah, with 10 pupils, and 10 

hadarim (which are subdivided into 3 primary, 3 

middle, and 4 higher departments), with 178 pupils. 

II. K. S. J. 

CHEMNITZ : Town in Saxony, with a Jewish 
population of 1,150. Jews first settled there in the 
latter half of the nineteenth century. In 1874 they 
organized a congregation, although on feast-days 
religious services had been held since 1871. The 
hebra kaddisha and the Jewish Women's Associ- 
ation were founded in 1876. On March 29, 1878, 
the prayer-house was consecrated; and in 1879 a 
cemetery was secured. The first rabbi of the con- 
gregation Avas Abraham Chatiner (d. 1882) ; he was 
succeeded by Jacob Miihlfelder, who is still officia- 
ting (1902). The congregation was granted corpo- 
rate rights Oct. 12, 1885. In 1899 the building of a 
new synagogue, with a seating capacity of 685, was 
completed. The dedication took place March 7, 
1899. In the same year the Max and Selma Berg- 
mann's Widows and Orphans' Charitable Institu- 
tion was founded. The congregation maintains a 
school with three teachers and two hundred pupils. 

Chemnitz is the seat of the Saxonia Lodge XLIV., 
497 I. O. B. B., established May 27, 1899. 

E. c. S. So. 

CHEMOSH : The national god of the Moabites. 
He became angry with his people and permitted them 
to become the vassals of Israel; his anger passed, he 
commanded Mesha to fight against Israel, and Mo- 
abitish independence was reestablished (Moabite 
Stone, lines 5, 9, 14 et seq.). A king in the days of 
Sennacherib was called " Chemoshnadab " ("K. B." 
ii. 90 et seq. : see Jehonadab). Chemosh was a god 
developed out of the primitive Semitic mother-god- 
dess Athtar, whose name he bears (Moabite Stone, 
line 17; compare Barton, "Semitic Origins," iv.). 
Peake wrongly holds that Ashtar-Chemosh was 
a deity distinct from Chemosh, while ]\Ioore and 
Bathgen ("Beitrage zur Semitischen Religionsge- 
schiclite," p. 14) regard "Ash tar" in this name as 
equivalent to " Astarte," who they believe was wor- 
shiped in the temple of Chemosh. " Ashtar " is more 
probably masculine here, as in South Arabia, and 
another name for Chemosh, the compound "Ashtar- 
Chemosh " being formed like " Yinvii-Elohim " or 
" Ynwii-Sebaoth." There seems to be no good rea- 
son for denying that Chemosh was a "baal," and 
that the names "Baal-maon" (Moabite Stone, line 
30) and "Baal-peor" (Num. xxv. 3; Hosea ix. 10) 
apply to what was practically the same god as 
Chemosh. The way Mesha brings Baal-maon into 
his inscription identifies the latter with Chemosh; 
for when Baal-maon is pleased Chemosh speaks to 
Mesha (Moabite Stone, lines 30, 31). Whatever dif- 
ferences of conception may have attached to the 
god at different shrines, there is no adequate reason 
for doubting the substantial identity of the gods to 
whom these various names were applied. Hosea ix. 
10 is proof that at some period (according to Well- 
hausen, at the time of the prophet himself) the im- 
pure cult of the Semitic goddess was practised at 
Baal-peor (compare Wellhausen, "Kleiue Prophe- 
ten"; Nowack's Commentary; and G. A. Smith, 
"Twelve Prophets," ad he). Chemosh, therefore, 




was in general a deity of the same nature as Baal. 
On -critical occasions a human sacrifice was consid- 
ered necessary to secure his favor (compare 11 
Kings iii. 27), and when deliverance came, a sanctu- 
ary might be built to liim (Moabite Stone, line 8). 
An ancient poem, twice quoted in the Old Testament 
(Num. xxi. 27-30; Jer. xlviii. 45, 46), regards the 
Moabites as the children of Chemosh, and also calls 
them "the people of Chemosh." 

The etymology of " Chemosh " is unknown. The 
name of the father of Mesha, Chemosh-melek 
(" Chemosh is Malik," or " Chemosh is king " ; com- 
pare Moabite Stone, line 1), indicates the possibility 
that Chemosh and Malik (or Moloch) were one and 
the same deity. Judges xi. 24 has been thought by 
some to be a proof of this, since it speaks of Che- 
mosh as the god of the Ammonites, while Moloch is 
elsewhere their god (compare I Kings xi. 7, 33). 
Several critics rightly regard the statement in 
Judges as a mistake ; but such an error was not un- 
natural, since both Chemosh and Moloch were de- 
veloped, in different environments, from the same 
primitive divinity, and possessed many of the same 

Solomon is said to have built a sanctuary to Che- 
mosh on the Mount of Olives (I Kings xi. 7, 33), 
which was maintained till the reform of Josiah 
(II Kings xxiii. 13). This movement by Solomon was 
no doubt to some extent a political one, but it made 
the worship of Chemosh a part of the religious life 
of Israel for nearly 400 years. 

J. JK. G. A. B. 

CHENAANAH : Feminine form of " Canaan " ; 
the name of two men: (1) The fourth-named of the 
seven sons of Billiam, son of Jediael, of the tribe of 
Benjamin, a leading warrior in the time of David 
(I Chron. vii. 10). (2) The father of the false prophet 
Zedekiah, who encouraged Ahab against Micaiah 
(I Kings xxii. 11, 24; II Chron. xviii. 10, 23). 

Fiirst (•' Bibl. Jud. ") attributes the existence of such 
names as this and " Tarshish " and " Cush " among the 
Benjamites to their intermarriages with the earlier 
races. The hostilities which the Benjamites had to 
endure during the civil war (see Judges xxi.) might 
have compelled them to establish alliances with their 
Phenician neighbors. 

E. G. H. J. D. B. 

CHENANIAH (literally, "established by God," 
I Chron. xv. 27 ; also found in the longer form 
"Chenanyahu," I Chron. xv. 22): A Levite of the 
family of Izharites (I Chron. xxvi. 29) and chief 
of the Temple singers who conducted the musical 
service when the Ark was removed from the house 
of Obed-edom to Jerusalem (I Chron. xv. 27). 

E. G. H. J. D. B. 

CHENSTOCHOV (Polish, Czenstochowa ): 

City in the government of Petrokow, Russian Po- 
land, the Jewish inhabitants of which in 1897 num- 
bered 12,500 in a total population of 45,130. Most of 
the Jews are merchants, only 2,155 being artisans. 
Of the latter, 801 are tailors and 228 are shoe- 
makers. Seven estates in the environs of Chensto- 
chov are owned by Jews. In 1898 Jews owned 57 
factories with 397 operatives. 

Originally the Jewish factories of Clienstochov 
mostly manufactured medallions with pictures of 
the Virgin, and other articles of Christian worship, 
for the numerous pilgrims visiting the city; but 
when this industry was forbidden to the Jews, they 
turned to the manufacturing of toys, in which 
fifteen factories are now occupied, 80 per cent of 
the factory laborers being Jews. 

After the establishment of the liquor monopoly 
by the Russian government eighty families remained 
without occupation. In 1898 about 460 Jewish 
families received fuel from charitable institutions. 
Poverty is increasing among the Jewish population, 
as may be seen from the following figures of families 
applving for help at Passover: 553 in 1894; 581 in 
1895 ; 607 in 1896 ; 639 in 1897 ; 708 in 1898. Taking 
the average of five for a family, it appears that 
3,500 persons, or 29 per cent of the Jewish popula- 
tion, have applied for charity, and in relieving dis- 
tress the efforts of about ten charitable institutions 
are taxed to the utmost. 

The Jewish children receive their education in the 
general schools as well as in special Jewish schools. 
Among the latter are a Talmud Torah with an in- 
dustrial department, and 29 hadarim with 531 male 
and 90 female pupils. 

In September, 1902, Chenstochov was the scene 
of an uprising on the part of the Jews, which, how- 
ever, was soon suppressed by the authorities. 

n. R. S. J. 

CHEPHIBAH: City belonging originally to 
the Gibeouites (Josh. ix. 17), but which, in the ap- 
portionment of the land, fell to the lot of Benjamin 
(Josh, xviii. 26). Men of this city returned with 
Zerubbabel from the captivity in Babylon (Ezra 11. 
25; Neh. vii. 29: in both instances the town is men- 
tioned in connection with Kirjath-jearim [=arim] 
and Beeroth). In I Esd. v. 19 the place is called 
" Caphira." It Is, perhaps, to be identified with the 
ruins now called " Kefire." The word " Kephirim" 
of Neh. vi. 2 may refer to Chephlrah (F. Buhl, " Ge- 
ographic des Alten Palastina," p. 169). 

E. G. H. G. B. L. 

CHERAN : A name occurring in the genealogy 
of Seir the Horite (Gen. xxxvi. 26), and in the corre- 
sponding list in I Chron. i. 41. Dillmann (commen- 
tary on Gen. xxxvi. 26) suggests that it comes from 
" kar " (a lamb). The names in the lists are clan- 
names; and a number of the clans have animal des- 
ignations, such as Dishon, Ayyah, Shobal. 

E. c. ' G. B. L. 

CHEB.EI : A small town In the government of 
Mohilev, Russia, with (1898) about 3,000 inhabit- 
ants, of whom 1,300 are Jews. The principal oc- 
cupations of the latter are commerce and handi- 
crafts. The total number of artisans is 298, 189 
being shop-owners, 35 wage-workers, and 74 ap- 
prentices. The predominating trades are shoemaking 
and tailoring, in which altogether 146 persons are 
engaged. About 61 Jews earn a livelihood as jour- 
neymen. There are, besides, 4 Jewish families oc- 
cupied in agricultural pursuits, 8 families engaged 
in gardening, and 24 families who keep dairies. 
There are 20 hadarim, with 120 scholars; to the 




elementary school of the town, Jewish children are 
admitted only upon payment of a fee, while others 
are granted free tuition. 

H^{. S. J. 

lical Data : Probably the name of a part of the Phi- 
listines; usually, however, designating the whole 
nation, as in Zeph. ii. 5, where " the nation of the 
Cherethites" evidently means the Philistines in gen- 
eral. Similarly, Ezek. xxv. 16 and xxx. 5 belong 
here. A. V. translates "the children of the land 
[that is in] league." But the true reading after the 
Ethiopic and partly after the LXX. (which omits 
the word "land ")is: "the children of the Kerethi " 
(compare Cornill's "Ezekiel"). In Ezek. xxx. 5, 
where " the children of the land that is in league " 
are mentioned among the allies of Egypt, the whole 
of the Philistines must be meant. For the origi- 
nal special meaning compare the earliest passage, 

I Sam. xxx. 14, which mentions the Cherethites as 
living in a strip in the southwest of Palestine (the 
Negeb), near tlie territory of Judah and of Ziklag. 
This strip is called the "South" (Negeb) of the 
Cherethites. From verse 16, where the same dis- 
trict is designated as "the land of the Philistines," 
it may be inferred that the Cherethites belonged to 
the Philistines, or that the two terms were used 

The name is also found in the frequent phrase 
"Cherethites and Pelethites." By this phrase was 
designated the corps d'elite and body-guard (thus 
correctly, Josephus, "Ant." vii. 5, § 4) of David; 
compare II Sam. viii. 18 (= I Chron. xviii. 17), xv. 
18 (with "the Gittites"; i.e., men from Gath), xx. 7 
(among "all the mighty men"), ih. verse 23 (Ket., 
D^mDn); I Kings i. 38, 44 (escorting Solomon to 
his coronation). If the Carites and Cherethites (II 
Kings xi. 4) are identical, the same troop was still in 
existence in the time of Athaliah (see Carites). It 
is evident, especially from II Sam. xv. 18, that this 
troop consisted of mercenaries recruited from the 
warlike Philistines. They are different from the 
special guards (Hebrew, "runners"; mentioned in 
Saul's time, I Sam. xxii. 17) of the kings (I Kings 
xiv. 27 = II Chron. xii. 10); compare "Carites" in 

II Kings xi. 4, R. "V. The threat against "those 
that leap over the thresliold " at the king's court 
(Zeph. i. 9) is usually explained as referring to soldiers 
and officials of Philistine blood (compare on their 
superstitious custom I Sam. v. 5), but see the com- 
mentaries for different explanations of that passage. 
"Pelethi " = " Pelethite " is now generally considered 
as a shortened form of "Pelishti " = "Philistine," 
adapted to the Hebrew (according to Ewald). This 
seems to establish a difference between the Chere- 
thites and tlie majority of the Philistines. The Sep- 
tuagint, in the Prophets, translates " Cherethite " by 
" Cretans, " and the tradition is found that the " Pales- 
tinians" (Stephen of Byzanz; Tacitus, "Historiae," 
V. 2, erroneously of the Jews) had come from Crete. 
TJiis tradition seems to have sprung from the Septu- 
agint; however, see Caphtou on the question of the 
origin of the Philistines from the "island [of Caph- 
torV] " and the frequent identification of " Caphtor " 
•with "Crete." Less probable is the explanation of 

the two names of nations, "Cherethites "and "Pele- 
thites" as appellative nouns; for instance, by Gese- 
nius, "executioners and runners"; or by Targum 
(Pesh., some Greek MSS.), "bowmen and slingers"; 
by the Hexapla in Zephaniah, "corrupted people," 
for " Cherethites " ; by Halevy, " the exiles excluded 
from their nation," etc. 

Bibliography : W. R. Smith, Tlie Old Testament in the Jew- 
ish Church, ii. 262 ; Driver, iVofes on the Hebrew Text of the 
Boohs of Samuel, V. 172; Kittel, Hist, of the Hebr. ii. 153, 
No. 164. 

E. G. n. 

W. M. M. 

In Rabbinical Literature : The Haggadah, 

which always endeavors to idealize the ancient his- 
tory of Israel, takes the Tl^SI ^DID to be not David's 
heathen body-guard, but a designation for the Great 
Sanhedrin, to which a very early date is thus 
ascribed. Hence "kereti" (^rT^^) is interpreted as 
derived from n"l3 (" to cut oft' ") in the sense of itJ 
("to cut oft'," "to decree"), the men of the 
Sanhedrin rendering legal decisions. Similarly, 
"Tli'D, from xfjQ, meaning "the elect," or those emi- 
nent through their doctrines (Ber. 4a, above; Sanh. 
16b, above; on the correct reading compare Rab- 
binowicz, " Dikduke Soferim," to the passage and 
Midr. Teh. iii.). Pseudo-Jerome, on II Sam. xx. 23, 
follows the Jewish tradition, according to which 
"kereti and peleti " means literally "accidentes et vi- 
viticantes, " and is used to designate the " congregatio 
Dei." The Targum's rendering of the passage, 
"archers and slingers," is adopted by Kimhi also, 
who adds that there were two families so called, 
who excelled in the use of those weapons of war 
(commentary on II Sam. xv. 18). L. G. 

CHERIKOV : Town in the government of Mohi- 
lev, Russia. According to the last census (1897) it 
has 5,250 inhabitants, including 2,700 Jews. Most 
of the latter are small tradesmen; 12 are engaged in 
horticulture, and 10 in gardening. In the whole 
district of Cherikov 60 Jewish families follow agri- 
cultural pursuits. Out of 255 artisans (consisting 
of 155 shop-owners, 10 wage-workers, and 90 ap- 
prentices) 115 are tailors. There are, besides, 25 
journeymen, and 8 Jews who find employment in 
the local Dutch tile-factory. Two associations lend 
money to the poor without interest. The educational 
institutions consist of a government elementary Jew- 
ish school with 73 pupils, one Talmud Torah with 
70 pupils, and 20 hadarim. 

In 1648 Ladislaus, King of Poland, granted the 
Jews of Cherikov a charter by which they were 
allowed to deal in liquors, grain, and other articles 
of trade, to acquire immovable property, and to have 
their own synagogue and cemetery, which should 
be exempted from taxation. By this charter the 
Jews of Cherikov were placed on an equal footing 
with the other Jewish communities of the grand 
duchy of Lithuania. In the same year (1648) the 
Jews of Cherikov were massacred by the Cossacks. 
Bibliography : Regestu, 1. 399, 411, St. Petersburg, 1899. 

n. K. S. J. 

CHERITH : The name of a brook or wadi near 
the Jordan, where Elijah, in the time of drought 
and famine, was told to hide himself, and there find 




water and food (I Kings xvii. 3, 5). When the 
brook dried up he was sent to Zarephath. In the 
verses cited from Kings the expression "before 
Jordan " (literally, " b}' the face of the Jordan ") cer- 
tainly points to the eastern side ; hence Robinson's 
proposed identification with the Wadi al-Kalt, apart 
from philological difficulties, is impossible. Cheyne 
proposes Rehoboth, which he explains as worn down 
into "Cherith," and further suggests that "Egypt " 
be substituted for "Jordan." Buhl ("Geog. des 
Alten Palastiua," p. 121) argues for the identifica- 
tion of Cherith with Wadi al-Himar, on the suppo- 
sition that Tishbi is Khirbat Istib. None of the 
modern attempts at identification is satisfactory. 
E. G. n. ' G. B. L. 

CHERKASSY (Polish, Czerkasy) : District 
town in the government of Kiev, Russia, situated 
on the right bank of the Dnieper, about 126 miles 
from Kiev. 

The date of the establishment of the Jewish com- 
munity of Cherkassy is not known. Being the chief 
town of the Cossacks since the beginning of the .six- 
teenth century, including the time of Chmieluicki 
(1648-53), it may be surmised that only a few Jews, 
leaseholders, lived there. The census t)f 1765 gives 
only one Jew in Cherkassy, this one being "the 
farmer of taxes, who paid 10.000 florins for the 
general taxes and 400 florins for the saltpeter-fac- 
torj'." In 1789, of 561 houses, 14 belonged to Jews; 
and in 1797, after the annexation of Cherkassy by 
Russia (1795), the town had 783 Jewish inhabitants. 

In 1870 there were 20,492 Jews in the district and 
town ; which figures, by 1897, had increased to 29,982, 
or 9.75 per cent of the total population; and in 1898, 
out of a total population of 26,165 in the town 
alone, 5.884 were Jews. The majority of the latter 
are small traders, artisans, and day-laborers, while 
some are employed in the sugar- and tobacco-facto- 
ries, and in the flour-mills. A great part of the 
Jews belong to the Hasidim, and are followers of 
the local "zaddik," called by them the "gute Rov " 
(good rabbi) of Cherkassy. 

Bibliography: Semenov Geograflchesko-Statisticheski Slo- 
var, v., s.v. 
H. R. M. R. 

CHERNEVTZY : Town in the government of 
Podolia, Russia; it has (1898) a population of about 
15,000, including about 2,000 Jews. Of the latter, 
267 are artisans, but most of them earn a livelihood 
as small tradesmen. In the local sugar-refinery, 
which employs 400 men, only 14 Jews find work. 
There are, besides, 17 journeymen and 20 agricul- 
tural laborers. The number of Jewish poor in Cher- 
nevtzy is very considerable. In 1898 there were 
60 families who received fuel from charitable organ- 

H. R. S. J. 

CHERNIGOV: A city iu Russia; capital of the 
government of the same name. The Jewish set- 
tlement at Chernigov is one of the oldest of the 
Ukraine. In the thirteenth century a rabbi, Isaac 
(Itze) of Chernigov, is mentioned, who spoke the 
Russian language. (Harkavy, " Yevrei i Slavyanskie 
Yazyky," p. 11). In 1623 King Ladislaus banished 
the Jews from the " voyevodstvos " (military dis- 

tricts) of Chernigov and Syeversk. The cause was 
probably jealousy on the part of the Christian mer- 
chants and tradesmen ; the edict declaring that the 
Jews caused great damage to their business. How- 
ever, soon after 1623 the Jews again came to Cherni- 
gov. In 1648, at the time of Chmielnicki's revolt, 
the whole Jewish population of Chernigov was ex- 
terminated by the Cossacks. 

In the later histories of Chernigov indications are 
found of the hostility of the people toward the Jews. 
Thus, in 1665 the noblemen of Chernigov sent an 
embassy to the Council of Warsaw, mentioning in 
their instructions that justice called for the expul- 
sion of the dishonest Jews from the country, or at 
least for the imposition of a Jewish poll-tax. 

According to the census of 1897 there were in the 
town of Chernigov about 11,000 Jews in a total pop- 
ulation of 27,006. The chief occupations of the 
Jews are industrial and commercial. In the neigh- 
borhood many tobacco-plantations and fruit-gardens 
are owned by Jews. There are in Chernigov 1,321 
Jewish artisans, including 404 tailors and seam- 
stresses, but the demand for artisan labor is limited 
to the town. There are 69 Jewish day-laborers, al- 
most exclusively teamsters. But few are engaged 
in the factories. 

The small charitable institutions of Chernigov 
were combined, in 1899, in the Committee of Relief 
for the Jewish Poor; but the different trade groups 
of the Jewish population have their own charitable 
institutions also. Thus the bakers, storekeepers, 
teamsters, tailors, and " melammedim " (teachers of 
Hebrew) have separate funds from which loans with 
out interest, and. in cases of necessity, gratuitous 
help, are obtained. 

The Jewish educational establishments include a 
Talmud Torah (115 pupils); a primary school for 
boys (40 pupils); a private school for girls (57 
pupils) ; and there are 45 hadarim, where about 450 
boys and 70 girls are taught Hebrew. 

Biblio(;raphy: Rcuesty i Nadpisi,i. 403, 404,466; Budush- 
c/lHosf, f900. No. 43. 
U. R. S. J. 

CHERNIGOV : A government of Little Russia 
(Ukraine), with a Jewish population (1897) of 114,- 
630 in a total population of 2,298,834, or nearly 5 
per cent. In 1881 the Jewish inl.abitants formed 
only 2.5 per cent of the total. By districts, the 
Jews in the government of Chernigov are distributed 
as follows: Chernigov 12,006 in a total population 
of 162,036 =7.41 per cent (in 1881 only 4.2 per 
cent); Borzna 3,542 iu 146,730 =2.41 per cent (in 
1881 1.6 per cent); Glukhov 5,493 in 142,814=3.85 
per cent (in 1881 about 5.1 per cent): Gorodnya 
8,913 in 153,020 =5.82 per cent (in 1881 only 1.6 
per cent); Kozeletz 4,741 in 135,101 =3.51 percent 
(in 1881 1.5 per cent); Konotop 7,091 in 156,502 = 
4.53 per cent (in 1881 1.7 per cent); Krolevetz 3,896 
in 131,009 =2.97 per cent (in 1881 1.5 per cent); 
Mglin 10,014 in 139,357 =7.18 per cent (in 1881 
3.2 per cent); Novgorod Syeversk 6,328 in 146,394 
=4.32 per cent (in 1881 2.5 per cent); Novozybkov 
8,852 in 164.789 =5.37 per cent (in 1881 1.0 per 
cent): Nyezhin 9,987 in 168,883 =5.91 per cent (in 
1881 3.3 per cent); Oster 6,188 in 150,556 =4.11 
per cent (in 1881 2.3 per cent); Sosnitza 7,525 in 




170,268=4.41 per cent (in IbSl 2.3 per cent); Star- 
odub 9,975 in 144,704=6.89 per cent (in 1881 2.8 
per cent); Surazli 10,078 in 188,596 = 5.4 per cent 
(in 1881 2.9 per cent). 

Tlie history of the Jews in the government Avill 
be treated under Little Russia, and under tlie re- 
spective cities. M. R. 

Comparative statistics of population in the cities, 
towns, and villages in the government of Chernigov 
are given below : 






































Novgorod Sye - 

Novoe Myestc. 



Novy Ropsk 








Seredina Bude. 

























5. J. 

CHERNOBYL : Town in the government of 
Kiev, Russia; it lias (1898) a population of 10,759, 
including 7,189 Jew.s. Of the latter, 651 are arti- 
sans, of whom 419 own shops 192 ai'e wage-workers, 
and 40 are apprentices. The jn-edomiuating trade 
is tailoring, in which 165 i^ersons are engaged; 
167 Jews are journeymen, and 120 are employed 
in a paper-mill. Several hadarim, and a Talmud 
Torah with 45 pupils, are the only educational insti- 

Bobrik and Bobrj', situated at a distance of 60 
versts (40 English miles) from Chernobyl, are Jewish 
colonics, in which 47 families cultivate 618 deciatiucs 
of land. S. J. 

CHERUB (nn^; iilural, Cherubim).— Biblical 
Data : The name of a winged being mentioned fre- 
quently in the Bible. The prophet Ezekiel describes 
the cherubim as a tetrad of living creatures, each 
having four faces— of a lion, an ox, an eagle, and a 
man — the stature and hands of a man, the feet of a 
calf, and four wings. Two of the wings extended 
upward, meeting above and sustaining the throne of 
God ; while the other two stretched downward and 
covered the creatures themselves. They never 
turned, but went "straight forward" as the wheels 
of the cherubic chariot, and they Avere full of eyes 
"like burning coals of fire" (Ezek. i. 5-28, ix. 3, x., 
xi. 22). Ezek. xxviii. 13-16 is manifestly a true ac- 
count of a popular tradition, distinct from that in 
Gen. ji., iii. 

Ezek. xli. 18-25 and other passages show that 

the number and form of the cherubim vary in differ- 
ent representations. The books of Kings and Chron- 
icles contain, in the main, a description of the cheru- 
bim of Solomon's Temple. The Ark 
In the was placed between the two colossal 

Temple. figures of cherubim, carved in olive- 
wood and plated with gold, ten cubits 
high, standing iu the adytum ("T'3"l) and facing the 
door. The distance between the points of their out- 
stretched wings was ten cubits; the right wing of 
the one touching the point of the left wing of the 
other, while the outer wings extended to the walls 
(I Kings vi. 23-28 ; viii. 6, 7 ; II Chr'on. iii. 10-13, 
V. 7-8). II Chron. iii. 14 states that they were 
woven in the veil of the adytum; and in Ex. xxvi. 
1, 31 and xxxvi. 8, 35 they are also referred to as 
wrought into the curtains and veil of the Temple. 
In Ex. XXV. 18-22, xxxvii. 7-9; Num. vii. 89 men- 
tion is made by the priestly writer of two cherubim 
of solid gold, upon the golden slab of the mD3, 
facing each other. Their outstretched wings came 
together above, constituting a throne on which the 
glory of Yhwh appeared, and from whence He 

In the early days of Israel's history the cherubim 
became the divine chariot, the bearer of the throne 
of Yhwh in its progress through the worlds (I Sam. 
iv. 4; II Sam. vi. 2; I Chron. xiii. 6). The cheru- 
bim of the Ark of the Covenant seem to be meant 
here, and this is probably also the case in II Kings 
xix. 15; Isa. xxxvii. 16; Ps. Ixxx. 1, xcix. 1 (see 
Rahlfs, "'jy und ):]} in den Psalmen," 1892, pp. 36 
et seq.). At an earlier period the cherubim were the 
living chariot of the theophanic God, possibly iden- 
tical with the storm-winds (Ps. xviii. 11; II Sam. 
xxii. 11; "And he rode upon a cherub and did fly: 
and he was seen upon the wings of the wind "). 
Here is a conception similar to that of the Baby- 
lonians, where the cherubim originally symbolized 
the winds. 

E. G. H, W. M.-A.— J. F. Mc C. 

In Rabbinical and Apocryphal Litera- 
ture : The cherubim placed by God at the entrance 
of paradise (Gen. iii. 24) were angels created on the 
third day, and therefore they had no definite shape ; 
appearing efther as men or Avomeu, or as spirits or 
angelic beings (Gen. R. xxi., end). According to 
another authority, the cherubim were the first ob- 
jects created in the universe (Tanna debe Eliyahu 
R., i. beginning); while in the Slavonic Book of 
Enoch they are said to dwell in both the sixth and 
seventh heavens. The passage referring to the sixth 
heaven is as follows (xix. 6): "In the midst of 
them [the archangels] are seven phenixes, and seven 
cherubim, and seven six-winged creatures [sera- 
phim], being as one voice and singing with one 
voice. It is not possible to describe their singing; 
and they rejoice before the Lord at His footstool." 
Enoch then (xx. 1) describes how he saw in the sev- 
enth heaven " cherubim and seraphim and the watch- 
fulness of many eyes" (= ofannim). The Ethio- 
pian Book of Enoch also mentions these three classes 
of angels as those that never sleep, but always watch 
the throne of God (Ixx. 7; compare also Ixi. 10). 
In another passage of this ])ook Gabriel is designated 




as the archangel wlio is set over the serpents, the 
garden (= paradise), and the cherubim (xx. 7). 

In the passages of the Tahnud that describe the 
heavens and tlieir inhabitants, tlie seraphim, ofan- 
nim, and hayyot are mentioned, but not the cheru- 
bim (Hag. 12b); and the ancient liturgy also men- 
tions only these three classes. 

The following sentence of the Midrash is charac- 
teristic : " When a man sleeps, the body tells to the 
neshamah [" the soul "] what it has done during the 
day; the neshamah then reports it to the nefesh 
["the spirit"], the nefesh to the angel, the angel to 
the cherub, and the cherub to tlie seraph, who then 
brings it before God [Lev. R. xxii. ; Eccl. R. x. 20]. 
When Pliaraoli pursued Israel at the Red Sea, God 
took a clierub from the wlieels of His throne and 
flew to the spot— for He insjx'cts the heavenly 
worlds while sitting on a clierub. The cherub, 
however, is J^OO U TNt:' "131 ["something not ma- 
terial "], and is carried by God, not vice versa (Midr. 
Teh. xviii. 15; Cant. R. i. 9). Maimonides (" Yad," 
Yesode ha-Torah, ii. 7) enumerates ten classes of 
angels, the cherubim being the ninth; while the 
cabalistic "Masseket Azilut" designates the cheru- 
bim as the third class of angels, with a leader named 
Kerubiel (isK^ailD; Jellinek, "Auswahl J<:abbalisti- 
scher Mystik," p. 3). In the Zohar, where also ten 
classes of angels are enumerated, the cherubim are 
not mentioned as a special class (compare Zohar, 
Ex. Bo, 43a). 

As regards the representations of the cherubim in 

the Temple, Josephus holds that no one knows or 

can even guess what form they had ("Ant." viii. 3, 

§ 3); Philo thinks they represented the two supreme 

attributes of God, goodness and authority ("De 

Cherubim," x. ; " De Vita Moysis," iii. 8 ; ed. Mangej-, 

ii. 150); he says, however, that some 

The authorities took the cherubim to 

Cherubim, represent the two hemispheres ("De 

of the Cherubim," vii.). The rabbinical 

Temple, sources evince an archeological rather 
than a theological interest in the cher- 
ubim. Onkelos, the proselyte (beginning of the 
second century c.e.), says that "the cherubim had 
their heads bent backward, like a pupil who is going 
away from his master" (B. B. 99a): this is intended 
to explain the somewhat ambiguous verse referring 
to the cherubim in the Tabernacle (Ex. xxv. 20), 
meaning that the faces of the cherubim were bent 
downward toward the cover (nSIS) of the Ark, but 
still with their eyes turned toward each other. Onke- 
los' view is also given in the Targ. O. on the passage, 
while the Targ. Yer. thinks that the faces of both 
the opposite cherubim were turned downward 
toward the cover (compare Friedmann, "Onkelos 
und Akylas," pp. 98-99). 

Concerning the form of these cherubim> .n au- 
thority of the end of the third century says that 
they had the form of youths (2^3, derived from 
D =" like, " and nil =" youth"; Suk. 5b; Hag. 13b). 
The last-named passage says that the cherubim 
which Ezekiel saw in his vision (Ezek. x. 1) also 
had this form, adding that the four creatures at the 
throne of God were originally man, lion, bull, and 
eagle, but that Ezekiel implored God to take a 
cherub instead of a bull ; Ezekiel desiring that God 

should not always look upon a bull, which would 
continually remind Him of Israel's worship of that 
animal. It seems that the Talmud had noticed that 
Ezekiel's conception of the heavenly creatures dif- 
fered from the traditional one. 

It is recorded as a miracle that when Israel was 
worshiping the Lord, the cherubim lovingly turned 
their faces toward each other (B. B. I.e.), and even 
embraced like a loving couple. On these occasions 
the curtain was raised so that the Jews wlio had 
come on pilgrimage might convince themselves how 
much God loved them (Yoma 54a). At the de- 
struction of the Temple the heathen found the cher- 
ubim in this posture ; and they mocked 
Com- the Jews because of their obscene wor- 
munion of ship, thinking the cherubim to be the 
Israel objects of it (Yoma 54b). This con- 
with God. ception of the cherubim, as represent- 
ing the union of Israel with God, has 
been further developed by the Cabala, the cherubim 
being taken to represent the mysterious union of the 
earthly with the heavenly (see Bahya b. Asher to 
Ex. xxv. 20; Zohar, Terumah, ii. 176a). The sym- 
bolical interpretation of the Alexandrians, mentioned 
above, is also found in rabbinical sources. Midr. 
Tadshe (ed. Epstein, p. 15), like Philo, takes the 
cherubim to symbolize the two names of God, YriwH 
and Eiohim, by which rabbinical theology (see, for 
example, Sifre, Deut. 26) designates the two attri- 
butes Q'om (" goodness ") and |n (" justice "). An- 
other Midrash (Num. R. iv.) compares the cherubim 
with heaven and earth, as do the Alexandrians men- 
tioned by Philo (" De Cherubim," vii.). Maimonides 
says ("Moreh Nebukim," iii. 45) that the figures of 
the cherubim were placed in the sanctuary only to 
preserve among the people the belief in angels, there 
being two in order that the people might not be led 
to believe that they were the image of God. There 
were no cherubim in the Temple of Herod; but 
according to some authorities, its walls were painted 
with figures of cherubim (Yoma 54a). L. G. 

Critical View : Primitive Hebrew tradition 

must have conceived of the cherubim as guardians 
of the Garden of Eden (Gen. iii. 34; see also 
Ezek. xxviii. 14). Back of this lies the primitive 
Semitic belief in beings of superhuman power and 
devoid of human feelings, whose duty it was to 
represent the gods, and as guardians of their sanc- 
tuaries to repel intruders. Compare the account in 
the NimrodEpos, Tablet IX. ; and see Kosters, in 
"Theolog. Tijdschrift," 1874, pp. U5 et seq. 

From the brief and meager Biblical descriptions 
of the statues representing the cherubim, it is im- 
possible to judge of their real form. They were 
hardly sphinx -shaped; for all the representations of 
the winged sphinx have the wings bent backward 
rather than extended toward the sides. Whether 
the cherub was a union of man and some animal 
form, such as the hawk-headed man so frequently 
found on Egyptian monuments and also at Nineveh, 
or only a winged man, as the representation of the 
palace guardian at Khorsabad, is not certain. Such 
figures, however, are very common in Babylonian de- 
corations ; and winged men and animals are found in 
ancient sculptures throughout Syria. Cheyne con- 

Assyrian Forms (in the 1'. 

F()R>rs OK CiiKurm 




siders the cherubim of Hittite origin, the originality 
of the Hittites in the use of animal forms being well 

The Hittite griffin appears almost always not as a 

fierce beast of prey, but seated in calm dignity, like 

an irresistible guardian of holy things. 

Probable The Phenicians, and probably the 

Source. Canaanites, and through them the 
Israelites, attached greater importance 
to the cherub. The origin of the cherub myth ante- 
dates history, and points to the time when primitive 
man began to shape his ideas of supernatural powers 
by mystic forms, especially by the combination of 
parts of the two strongest animals of land and air — 
the lion and the eagle. Many are the grotesque 
figures found thus far, survivals of ancient Oriental 

Thus, in Babylonia there is the winged sphinx 
having a king's head, a lion's body, and an eagle's 
wings (see B. Teloni, "Zeitschrift fur Assyriologie," 
vi. 124-140; text published by Bezold, ih. ix. 114- 
119; and Puchstcin's comment, ib. 410-421). This 
was adopted largely in Phenicia. The wings, because 
of their artistic beauty, soon became the most promi- 
nent part, and animals of various kinds were adorned 
with wings; consequent!}', wings were bestowed 
also upon man. The next step, from cherubim to 
the angels of the Old Testament as well as of the 
New, was inevitable. 

Following Lenormant's suggestions, Friedrich 
Delitzsch connected the Hebrew 21"I3 with the As- 
syrian " kirubu " = " shedu " (the name 
Ety- of the winged bull). Against this 

molog'y. combination see Feuchtwang, in " Zeit- 
schrift fur Assyriologie," etc., i. 68 et 
seq. ; Teloni, ib. vi. 124 et seq. ; Budge, in " The 
Expositor," April and May, 1885. Later on, De- 
litzsch (" Assyrisches Handworterbuch," p. 3-'^2) con- 
nected it with the Assj'rian " karubu"(great, might}') ; 
so, also, Karppe, in "Journal Asiatique," July- 
Aug., 1897, pp. 91-93. Haupt, in Toy, "Ezekiel" 
("S. B. O. T."), Hebrew text, p. 56, line 11, says: 
"The name 21-|3 may be Babylonian; it does not 
mean 'powerful,' however, but ' propitious' (syno- 
nym ' damku ' ). " For the original conception of the 
Babylonian cherubim see Kaupt's notes on the Eng- 
lish translation of Ezekiel, pp. 181-184 (" S. B. O. T. "), 
and the abstract of Haupt's paper on " Cherubim and 
Seraphim," in the " Bulletins of the Twelfth Interna- 
tional Congress of Orientalists," No. 18, p. 9, Rome, 
1899. See also Haupt, in Paterson, ''Numbers" 
(" S. B. O. T. "), p. 46 : " The stem of nna is the As- 
syrian ' karSbu' (= be propitious, bless), which is 
nothing but a transposition of the Hebrew "[-|2." 
Dillmann, Duff, and others still favor the connection 
with yp'vili ("gryphus" = the Hindu "Garuda.") 

Bibliography: Winer, B. R.; Schenkel, BtheZ-JLc-cifeon, 1869, 
1. 509-515; Lichtenberser, EticiichipkUe des Sciences Reli- 
gieuses, s.v.; Riehm. HaiKhroriirhuchdesBiblischen Alter- 
tums, 2d ed., Baethgen, 1 893-94: Hastings, Diet. Bible; 
Cheyne and Black, Enciic. Bihl.\ Herzog-Hauck, Real-Enci/c. 
V. 364-372; W. Nowack, Lehrhuch der Hehrdlschcn Archd- 
olooie, 1894, pp. 38, 39, 60, 61 ; Benzinger, Arch. pp. 233, 257, 
267, 268, 368, 386-87, 397; B. Smend, Lehrhuch der AltteMa- 
mentlichen RdiginnsgeschicMe. 1899, pp. 21 et seq.. 467 et 
seq.; H. Schultz, Old Testament Theology; A. Dillmann, 
Handhiich der Alttestamentlichen Theologie, pp. 50, 92, 119, 
228, 246, 327-328, Leipsic, 1895. 
E. G. H. W. M.-A. 

CHESALON : A border town of Judah (Josh. 
XV. 10), also known as "Mount Jearim." It lies in 
a directly west of Jerusalem, at a distance of twelve 
miles, and is the modern Kesla (Buhl, " Geographic 
des AltenPalastina," pp. 91, 166). 

E. G. H. G. B. L. 

CHESED : A son of Nahor and Milcah (Gen. 
xxii. 22). Fi-om the name the term " Casdim " (Chal- 
deans) is clearly derived. 

E. G. 11. G. B. L. 

CHESS : A game of skill, usually played by two 
persons, with sixteen pieces each, on a board divided 
into sixty-four squares alternately light and dark. 
Authoritative opinions agree that chess, under the 
Sanskrit name of " chaturanga" (= the four " an gas " 
or members of an army), was known earliest to the 
Hindus— possibly as early as the sixth century of 
the present era. From India the game was carried 
into Persia, its name being changed into "shatranj." 
Mas'udi (947) speaks of chess as an Indian invention 
sent by an Indian king to Chosroes, King of Persia 
(531-579), the sixteen pieces of one side being of 
emerald, and those of the other being of ruby. 
From Persia the game passed into Arabia, and thence 
to central and western Europe ; but how or when 
has not been determined. 

When the Jews first became acquainted with 
chess is not known. It has been supposed that the 
game was referred to in the Talmud ; but the con- 
sensus of opinion now seems to be that certain 
games mentioned therein, which some have identified 
with chess, were not chess at all, but were played 
with dice, under the designations DQ^DD or T't'^niJ, 
which Rashi ('Er. 61a) interprets as " chess." Nathan 
ben Jehiel of Rome (1103), however, in his " 'Aruk," 
distinctly translates the word "i^ti'in:, supposed by 
some to indicate chess, by the Arabic "al-nard," 
which he renders by the Italian "dadi" (= dice). 
DS'DD is clearly derived from the Greek tpv'poc, and 
refers to some game with pebbles or dice (Yer. R. 
H. i. 57c). The matter has been fully discussed 
by Franz Delitzsch (" Ueber das Schach und die 
Damit Verwandten Spiele in den Talmuden," in 
"Orient, Lit." Jan., 1840, pp. 42-53), who con- 
cludes that, as the Talmud was completed in the 
fifth century, chess could not have been referred to 
therein, inasmuch as the Persians, from whom the 
.Jews would have learned the game, did not know it 
themselves until the close of that century (see also 
L. Low, "Lebensalter," p. 324). 

Steinschneider ("Schach bei den Juden," p. 33) 
conjectures that the first Jew to recommend chess 
was the convert Ali, son of " Rabbi " Saul of 
Taberistan, teacher of the physician Razi (ninth cen- 
turjr), who considered the game a remedy for low 
spirits and dejected mental condition. By the elev- 
enth century it was commonly played in Spain. 
After Rashi, the first European to 
Ninth to mention chess was Moses Sephardi, 
Thirteenth born in Spain in 1063 and baptized at 

Century, the age of forty-four as Petrus Al- 

FONSi, who in his "Disciplina Cleri- 

calis " includes chess in the seven accomplishments 

("probitates ") of a knight. In Italy it was known 

at the same period, having been probably derived 


Eminent Jewish Chess Masters. 
1. Alexandre. 2. Horwltz. 3. Lowenthal. 4. Kolisch. 5. Gunsberg. 6. Janowski. 7. Leaker. 8. Tarrasch. 9 and 10. Zucker- 
tort and Steinitz, plaving their match at New York, 1886. 
IV.— 2 



Works on 

from the East throngh Byzantium. In the twelfth 
century chess had spread to France, Germany, and 
England, and by 1200 had become a favorite gam- 
bling game throughout Europe ; to such an extent, 
indeed, that it was prohibited by the Council of 
Paris, 1212, and afterward by Louis IX. At the 
same epoch the " Sefer Hasidim " (Book of the Pious), 
§ 400, strong]}^ recommended the game. 

Nothwithstanding the clerical prohibition, there 
is a legend to the effect that the pope himself 
played chess with a Jew : it occurs in " Das Leben El- 
chanans oder Elchonons," pp. 27, 46, Frankfort - 
on-tlie-Main, 1753: "This pope is the best one they 
ever had, since he can not get along without Jews, 
with whom he plays chess. . . . Rabbi Simeon is a 
great master of chess; but "the pope mates him." 
The pope is even recognized by R. Simeon as his son 
through a particular move which he had taught him. 
This Simeon seems to have been Simeon ha-Gadol. 
who lived at Mayence about the beginning of the 
eleventh century. See Andreas. 

The earliest writer to treat of chess among the 
Jews is Hyde, who, in the second volume of his " De 
Ludis Orientalibus " (1694), prints three Hebrew 
works on chess, with excellent translations in Latin. 
These are: (1) a poem attributed to 
Abraham ibn Ezra, D^TIin. the Latin 
title being "Carmina Riiythmica de 
Ludo Schah-mat, R. Abraham Abben- 
" Cat. Bodl. " col. 684) ; (2) " Melizat ha- 
Sehok ha-Islikaki,"apoemby Bonsenior ibn Yahya 
(in Berechiah ha-Nakdan's "Mishle Shua'lim," Man- 
tua, 1557-58 ; " Cat. Bodl. " col. 796) ; and (3) " Ma'ad- 
anne Melek" ("Cat. Bodl." col. 604), attributed by 
Steinschneider to Judah or Leo di Modena (1571- 
1648). If the poem tirst mentioned is correctly as- 
cribed to Ibn Ezra (d. 1167), it certainly gives 
the oldest set of chess rules extant; and it lias been 
reprinted six times under that impression. TheHe- 
brcAv text is given in Steinschneider (" Schach bei 
den Juden," pp. 43-45), as well as a German render- 
ing (ib. pp. 12-15); and the following English trans- 
lation is by Nina Davis (now Mrs. Salomon), in 
"Songs of Exile" (pp. 129-131), issued by the Jew- 
ish Publication Society of America, Philadelphia, 

The Song op Chess. 

I will sing a song of battle 

Planned in days long passed and over. 

Men of skill and science set it 

On a plain of eight divisions. 

And designed in squares all chequered. 

Two camps face each one the other, 

And the kings stand by for battle, 

And 'twixt these two is the fighting. 

Bent on war the face of each is. 

Ever moving or encamping. 

Yet no swords are drawn in warfare. 

For a war of thoughts their war is. 

They are known by signs and tokens 

Sealed and written on their bodies ; 

And a man who sees them, thinketh 

Edomites and Ethiopians 

Are these two that nght together. 

And the Ethiopian forces 

Overspread the field of battle. 

And the Edomites pursue them. 

First in battle the foot-soldier 
Comes to flght upon the highway. 

Ever marching straight before him. 
But to capture moving sideways. 
Straying not from off his pathway. 
Neither do his steps go backward ; 
He may leap at the beginning 
Anywhere within three chequers. 
Should he take his steps in battle 
Far away unto the eighth row. 
Then a Queen to all appearance 
He becomes and fights as she does. 
And the Queen directs her moving 
As she will to any quarter. 
Backs the Elephant or advances, 
Stands aside as 'twere an ambush ; 
As the Queen's way, so is his way, 
But o'er him she hath advantage ; 
He stands only in the third rank. 
Swift the Horse is in the battle, 
Moving on a crooked pathway: 
Ways of his are ever crooked ; 
'Mid the Squares, three form his limit. 

Straight the AVind moves o'er the war-path 

In the field across or lengthwise ; 

Ways of crookedness he seeks not. 

But straight paths without perverseness. 

Turning every way the King goes. 

Giving aid unto his subjects ; 

In his actions he is cautious, 

Whether fighting or encamping. 

If his foe come to dismay him. 

From his place he flees in terror. 

Or the Wind can give him refuge. 

Sometimes he must flee before him ; 

Multitudes at times support him ; 

And all slaughter each the other. 

Wasting with great wrath each other. 

Mighty men of both the sovereigns 

Slaughtered fall, with yet no bloodshed. 

Ethiopia sometimes triumphs, 

Edom flees away before her ; 

Now victorious is Edom : 

Ethiopia and her sovereign 

Are defeated in the battle. 

Should a King in the destruction 

Fall within the foeman's power, 

He is never granted mercy. 

Neither refuge nor deliv'rance. 

Nor a flight to refupe-city. 

Judged by foes, and lacking rescue. 

Though not slain he is checkmated. 

Hosts about him all are slaughtered. 

Giving life for his deliverance. 

Quenched and vanished is their glory. 

For they see their lord is smitten ; 

Yet they flght again this battle. 

For in death is resurrection. 
It is characteristic of this poem that the pawn 
moves two spaces at the first move, as at present, 
but not as in the Arabic game. The queening of 
a pawn is also mentioned. The queen may move in 
all directions, but only one space, like the king at 
present. The bishop " til " or (elephant) moves diag- 
onally, but only three spaces. Castling is unknown. 
The " wind " is the rook. Steinschneider declares 
on subjective grounds, against the attribution to 
Ibn Ezra, and is supported by the like opinion of 
Dr. Egers, the editor of Ibn Ezra's poetry. 

Bonsenior (lived not later than the fifteenth cen- 
tury), in his poem, also pictures the game as a 
battle, and describes the pieces in the following 
order : 

King, l^o, moves one in any direction. 
Queen, f)j{j>, to the right of the king, moves two 
or three spaces in any direction. 

Knights, D'tJ>"lD or D'DID ( = "horsemen" or 
"horses "), move one space obliquely and one space 
straight forward. 



Bishops, D'i^^S (= elephants; editio princeps D^^'H 
:^ "camps"), move obliquely to the third space. 

Books, D"'p"l"l. move straight, forward, backward, 
or from side to side. 

Pawns, 0^1133 ("heroes"), move straight forward. 

The chief characteristic of Bonsenior's work is the 
large number of Biblical texts which he employs. 

Leo di Modena's work (" Ma'adanne Melek ") was 
written for the purpose of teaching the author's two 
sons the game, and in the hope of inducing them to 
give up card-playing. The book is particularly in- 
teresting for its reference (1) to the queening of a 
pawn, (2) to castling, and (8) to the queen's position 
at the commencement of the game. The following 
is the author's description of the pieces: 

King, r\iy (Persian "shah"), may castle. 

Queen, jNTIS (" ferzan " or " parzan "), occupies at 
the beginning of game a space of its own color. 

Both king and queen have the following three 
noblemen by their sides : 

Bishop, ^'Q ("fil "), elephant. 

Knight, {j'-iS (" parash "), horseman. 

Rook, pn or mi (Persian "rokli"). 

Pawn, ^jn, foot-soldier, moves two boxes at the 
first move, and may become a queen. 

A number of other early works on chess will 
be found in Steinschneider's " Schach bei den Juden " 
(pp. 22-33). Among these may be specially men- 
tioned a Catalan poem by Moses Azan, translated into 
Castilian in 1350; a poem of 1532, which describes 
castling as an interchange of places between king 
and rook ; and " Ha-Kerab" (The War), a poem in He- 
brew, composed by Jacob Eichenbaum in Odessa, 
and printed in London (n.d. ; dedication dated Sept. 
3, 1839). It has been translated into Russian by 
Joseph Ossip Rabbinovicz. 

Hebrew riddles on chess occur in medieval man- 
uscripts, and are given by Steinschneider. One of 
them describes the game as: 

" A country without earth : kings and princes walking with- 
out soul. 
If the King be wasted, all is without soul." 

Chess is referred to by Maimonides (1155-1204), 
who mentions a forced mate and declares profes- 
sional chess-players as unworthy of 
Lawfulness credence in the law courts (commen- 
of tary on Mishnah Sanh. ii. 3), and by 

the Game. Kalonymus ben Kalonymus (c. 1300). 
The former condemns the game only 
when played for money ; the latter, whether played 
for stakes or not. During the thirteenth and the 
four following centuries chess was quite commonly 
played; and Jewish literature contains numerous 
rabbinical opinions for and against it. Strangely 
enough, Joseph Caro does not refer to it in his great 
code, the Shulhan 'Aruk. Moses Isserles (d. 1573) 
terms it "the game with bones called chess," and 
approves of its being played not only on week- 
days, but on the Sabbath, tliough not for money. 
An old responsum (Dukes, in "Ben Chananja," 1864, 
pp. 601, 650) states that in Spain the game of chess 
(B^pSJ^'X [1 tJ'pp^J'^N]) was sanctioned by the Rabbis. 
After a visitation of the plague in 1575 the three 
rabbis of Cremona declared that with the exception 
o/ c^e.<t.« ("islikaki") all games were "primary evils 
and the cause of all troubles " (Lampronti, " Pahad 

Yizhak," iii. 54). Schudt ("Jiidische Merckwlir- 
digkeiten," pt. VI., ch. xxxv., p. 317) records that 
in Frankfort-on-the-Main, after the great fire of 
1711, the Jewish community passed a resolution 
forbidding for a period of fourteen years any Jew 
or Jewess (except sick persons and lying-in women) 
to play chess. When played on the Sabbath, it 
became customary in Germany, in honor of the day, 
to use chessmen made of silver ("Shilte ha-Gib- 
borim," on 'Er. 127b), though woodeu pieces were 
not disallowed. 

Chess was popular among Jewesses, as is seen 

from Schudt's remark {I.e. IV. ii. 381). that "it is not 

at all strange that Jews should play 

Popular chess well, since Jewish women have 

Among' for many years played and practised 
Jewesses, the game." In 1617 a Jewess of Ven- 
ice became well known for lier skill 
in chess. Indeed, Abrahams (" Jewish Life in the 
Middle Ages," p. 388) goes so far as to suggest that 
it first made its way among Jewish circles as a wom- 
an's game. 

R. Aaron Sason of Constantinople recommends 
the avoidance of chess on Sabbath (Responsa, No. 
180). Elijah de Vidas appears to have been the sole 
halakist who absolutely forbade the game (" Shebet 
Musar," 1712, ch. xlii.). Children under fourteen 
were allowed to learn the game, on the ground that 
it rendered the intellect more acute. 

Elijah Cohen of Smyrna ("Shebet Musar," I.e.) ob- 
jects to chess on the ground that it wastes time and 
takes the mind away from study. Azulai (1774) 
agrees with Ali ben Saul, mentioned above, in favor- 
ing chess only as a remedy for illness or melancholy. 
He also cites opinions for and against playing chess 
on Saturdays (Berliner, " Ausdem InnerenLeben der 
Deutschen Juden im Mittelalter," pp. 12, 53, Berlin, 
1871). Mendelssohn was a passionate lover of the 
game, and is said to have cemented his friendship 
with Lessing over the chessboard. Yet he is credited 
with the dictum: "Chess is too earnest for a game; 
too much of a game to be in earnest about it " (" Fiir 
Spiel ist es zu viel Ernst, fiir Ernst zu viel Spiel " ; 
compare Dukes, in "Ben Chananja," 1864, vii. 636; 
something similar is attributed to Montaigne). 

From the eighteenth century (to which belongs 
Albert [Aaron] Alexandre) onward, Jews came more 
and more to the front as chess-players; and it is 
not too much to say that in recent years thej' have 
proved themselves paramount as exponents of the 
game both in Europe and in America. As a race 
they seem to possess those intellectual qualities 
which are necessary to excel in chess. It nuist suf- 
fice here merely to mention a few names, such as 
S. Alapin, O. Blumenthal, W. Cohn, E. Delmar, L. 
R. Eisenberg, B. Englisch, E. Epstein, I. Gunsberg, 
D. Harrwitz, Leopold Hoffer, B. Horwitz, Herbert 
Jacobs, D. Janowski, Baron Ignaz von Kolisch, J. 
J. Lowenthal, S. Lipschiitz, S. Rosenthal, E. Schif- 
fers, Carl Schlechter, S. Tarrasch, Max Weiss, and 
S. Winawer. Besides these, three Jewish chess 
masters stand out with especial prominence as hav- 
ing held the primacy of the chess world since 1866; 
viz., J. H. Zukertort, William Steinitz, and Eman- 
uel Lasker. 

Johannes H. Zukertort (1842-88) was a pupil of 




the celebrated player A. Anderssen, whom he at 
length defeated in 1871 with a score of 5 to 2. In 
1878 he gained the first prize at the international 
tournament at Paris, and in 1883 took the same posi- 
tion at the great Loudon tournament, in which all the 
greatest chess masters of the day (except Paulsen) 
competed. Zukertort excelled as a blindfold player. 
In 1876 he played thus against 16 strong amateurs, 
the result being: won 12, lost 1, drew 3. 

William Steinitz (1836-1900) held the chess cham- 
pionship of the world for a period of tweuty-eight 
years (1866-1894), and during that time may be said to 
have formed a new school of chess. In 
In Modern place of the fierce attack, he sought to 
Times. win by a combination of minor advan- 
tages; and his method was gradually 
adopted by the leading experts. Tiie Steinitz 
gambit (see below), though now generally dis- 
carded, had for a time a considerable number of 

Emanuel Lasker (b. 1868) is the present champion 
of the world (1902), having succeeded in wresting 
that title from Steinitz in 1894. In 1896 he was first 
in the Nuremberg tourney; in 1899, first in the Lon- 
don tournament ; and again first in that at the Paris 
Exposition of 1900. 

The following list of tournaments since 1851 shows 
the positions gained by Jewish players and by their 
principal competitors. It will be seen that during 
the past fifty years the leading places have been in 
most cases secured by Jews. Non-Jewish players 
are indicated by italics: 


1851, London : Anderssen 1 ; Horwitz 7. 

1857, Manchester: Lowenthal 1 ; Anderssen 2. 

1858, BinninghaiG : Lowenthal 1 ; Falkbeer 2. 
1860, Cambridge: Koliseh 1; Stanleii2. 
1862, London : Anderssen 1 ; Steinitz 6. 

1865, Dublin : Steinitz 1 : MacDonncll 2. 

1866, British Chess Association : Steinitz 1 ; Green 2. 

1867, Paris : Koliseh 1 ; Winawer 2 : Steinitz 3. 

1867, Dundee: Neumann 1 ; Steinitz 2; Be Vere 3. 

1868, British Chess Association Handicap : Steinitz 1 ; Wisher 

2; Blachhurnc 3. 
1870, Baden-Baden : Anderssenl; Steinitz 2; Blaehhiirned. 

1872, London : Steinitz 1 ; Blackburne 2; Zukertort 3. 

1873, Vienna: Steinitz 1 ; Blackburne 2; Anderssen 3; Ro- 

senthal 4. 
1876, London: Blachhurnel; Zukertort 2. 
1878, Paris : Zukertort 1 ; Winawer 2. 

1881, Berlin: Blachhurnc 1: Zukertort 2; TcMgorin 3. 

1882, Vienna : Steinitz and Winawer 1 and 2 ; Zukertort 5. 

1883, London : Zukertort 1 ; Steinitz 2. 

1883, Nuremberg : Winawer 1 ; Blackburne 2. 

1885, Hamburg : Gunsberg 1 ; Englisch, Tarrasch, Weiss 

(tied) 2. 

1886, London : Gunsberg and Taubenhaus 3 and 4. 

1886, Nottingham : (iunsberg and Zukertort 3 and 4. 

1887, Frankfort: Bf«c/i7H(nic and Weiss2and3; Bardclcben 

4 ; Tarrasch 5. 

1888, Bradford : Gunsberg 1 ; Mackenzie 2. 

1889, New York : Tcliigorin and Weiss 1 and 2; Gunsberg 3. 

1889, Breslau ; Tarrasch 1 ; Burn 2 ; Weiss 3 ; Gunsberg 4. 

1890, Amsterdam : Burn 1 ; Lasker 2; Mason 3. 
1890, Manchester : Tarrasch 1 ; Blackburne 2. 
1892, Dresden : Tarrasch 1 ; Markovetz 2 ; Porges 3. 

1894, Leipsic : Tarrasch 1 ; Lipke and Teichman 2 and 3. 

1895, Hastings : PiUsbu7-ti 1 ; TcMgorin 2 ; Lasker 3 ; Tar- 

rasch 4 ; Steinitz 5. 

1896, Nuremberg : Lasker 1; Maroczy2; Tarrasch 3. 
1896, Budapest : TcMgorin 1 ; Charousek 2 ; Pillsbury 3. 
1898, Vienna : Tarrasch 1 : Pillslmni 2. 

1898, Cologne: Bitrvj 1 ; Charousek 2; Cohn 3. 

1899, London : Lasker 1 ; Janowski, Maroczy, and Pilhhiuij 

tied for 2, 3, and 4. 

1900, Munich f Maroczy, Pillsbury, and Schleehter tied for 1, 

2, and 3. 

1900, Paris : Lasker 1 ; Pillsbury 2. 

1901, Monte Carlo : Janowski 1 ; Schleehter 2. 
19U2, Hanover : Janowski 1 ; Pillsbury 2. 

Of 33 important matches since 1834, enumerated in 
the "Encyc. Brit." Supplement, 1902, s.v. "Chess," 
only 5 (all before 1863) have been without a Jewish 
competitor. Of 42 living contemporary first-class 
players of Europe and America mentioned in that 
article. 19 are Jews. 

What is known in chess as the "gambit" consists 
in sacrificing a piece for the sake of certain advan- 
tages of position. It is first met with 

"Gam- in Italy about the middle of the six- 
bits." teenth century. Two Jewish chess- 
players have given their names to 
gambits; viz., Steinitz and Isaac L. Rice of New 
York. The Steinitz gambit may be played as fol- 



1 P-K 4 

1 P-K 4 

2 Kt-QB 3 

2 Kt— QB 3 

3 P-B4 

3 I>xP 

4 P— Q4 

4 Q— R 5 eh 

5 K-K2 

5 P-Q3 

6 Kt— B 3 

6 B-K Kt5 

7 BxP 

7 Castles 

The Rice gambit is as follows, and is only possible 
after Black plays 7 B — Q 3. White, after giving up 
the knight, is able to withstand a violent attack. 



1 P-K 4 

1 P-K 4 

2 P-K B 4 

2 P xP 

3 Kt-KB3 

3 P-K Kt 4 

4 P— K R 4 

4 P— Kt 5 

5 Kt-K 5 

5 Kt-K B 3 

6 B— B4 

6 P— Q4 

7 PxP 

7 B-Q3 

8 Castles 

8 BxKt 

9 R ~K sq 

Though so successful in matches, Jews have not 
shown themselves particularly brilliant in the com- 
position of problems. Schleehter, Teichman, and 
Mieses, however, have displayed some talent in this 
direction, and E. N. Frankenstein was part author of 
"The Chess Problem Text-Book," London, 1887. 

In 1782 Moses Hirschel of Breslau wrote the first 
work in German on the chess writings of Greco and 
Stamma. Of other Jewish writers on chess may be 
mentioned tne following, with dates of publication: 
W. Schlesinger ("Beitrage zum Unterricht im 
Schachspiel," Presburg, 1804); E.M.Oettinger ("Bi- 
bliotheca Shahiludii," Leipsic, 1844) ; P. Bendix (1824 
-1833). (" Recueil de Parties d'Ecliec ; Tant Entieres 
que Finales, avec des Observations Instructives," St. 
Petersburg, 1824); H. Silberschmidt ("Die Neuent- 
deckten Geheimnisse im Gebiete des Schachspiels," 
Braunschweig, 1826 ; "Lehrbuch des Schachspiels," 
Wolfenbuttel); Albert (Aaron) Alexandre ("Ency- 
clopedic des Echecs," Paris, 1837, and "Collection 
des Plus Beaux Problemes d'Echecs," giving 2,120 
examples, ib. 1846) ; D. M. Frankel (1838) ; A. Schmid 
("Literatur des Schachspiels," 1847); J. Horwitz 
("Das Schachspiel, "Berlin, 1879); D. Nathan (1851- 
1852); S. Tarrasch (" Dreihundert Schachpartien," 
Leipsic. 1894); Leon Hollaenderski (a French trans- 




lution of the three Hebrew manuscripts given in 
Hyde, 1864); J. J. Lowenthal (1857-69) ("Transac- 
tions of the British Cliess Association," 
Modern 1867-69) ; D. Harrwitz (" Lehrbuch des 
Jewish Scliachspiels," Berlin, 1863; J. H. Zu- 
Chess kertort (" Leitfaden des Schachspiels," 
Authors. 1870); L. Holler ("Chess,'' London, 
1892) ; W. Steinitz (" The Modern Chess 
Instructor," New York, 1895); and E. Lasker (" Com- 
mon Sense in Chess," London, 1896). 

Several important chess journals have been edited 
by Jews, as "The Chess-Players' Magazine," by J. 
J. Lowenthal, 1865-67; the "Neue Berliner Schach- 
zeitung."by Zukertort, 1867; "The Chess "Monthly " 
(which had an existence of seventeen j'ears, 1879-96), 
by Zukertort and Hoffer, and by the latter alone af- 
ter Zukertort's death ; and "The International Chess 
Magazine," by Steinitz, 1885-1900. Books com- 
memorative of the important tournaments, giving 
the games with annotations, have also been pub- 
lished by Jewish authors. 

Bibliography: Steinschneider, Schach bei den Juden, Ber- 
lin, 1873 (also in Van tier jLinde, GeschlcMe unOLitteratur 
des Schachspieh, Berlin, 1874); idem, in Hebr. Bihl. xii. 60- 
63; Abrahams, Jewish Life in the Middle Ages, pp. 388-90; 
L. Low, Die Lebensalter, pp. 324-28 and notes ; Leon Hol- 
laenderski, Delices Rm/ales, ou le Jeu des Echecs, Paris. 1864 ; 
C. Devid^, A Memorial to William Steinitz, New York, 
1901; I. L. Bice, The Rice Gambit, ib. 1889. For a general 
bibliography of chess see that of Tassilo von Heydebraiid und 
der Lasa, Wiesbaden, 1896; idem, Zur Gesch. und Literatur 
des Schachspiels, Leipsic, 1897. 
J. A. P. 

CHEST. See Akk. 

CHESTNUT-TREE: The rendering of pmy 
given in the A. V. (Gen. x.xx. 37; Ezek. xxxi. 8); 
the R. V. , however, preferring " plane-tree. " There 
are two considerations lending weight to the re- 
jection of the translation given in the A. V. : (1) the 
plane (Plataniis orientalis) is indigenous to western 
Asia, where, under favorable conditions, it attains a 
commanding size, and is remarkable for the luxuri- 
ance of its growth ; and (2) the etymology of the 
word pQiy, which is connected with the Arabic 
'^ 'aram " (=: to strip off bark); the plane-tree being 
noted for annually casting its bark. This latter 
consideration is, apparently, the determining one. 

The chestnut, which found its way from Asia into 
Europe through Greece and Italy, takes its botanical 
name {Castanea vulgaris) from an ancient Thes- 
salian town, Castanum. Like the plane, it is distin- 
guished by the magnificence of its growth, prefer- 
ring, however, high and dry situations; while the 
plane develops more freely in low and moist ground. 

According to Tristram, the plane-tree "is common 
on the banks of the upper Jordan and of the 
Leontes, where it overhangs the water" ("Natural 
History of tlie Bible," p. 345). 

J. E. W. B. 

CHEVRA. See HEiuiA. 

Christian Biblical critic, and Oriel professor of Bib- 
lical exegesis at the University of Oxford, England; 
bom at London Sept. 18, 1841; educated at Mer- 
chant Taylors' School, London, Worcester College, 
Oxford, and under Ewald at Gottingen. Before 
graduating lie showed his interest in Hebrew stud- 
ies by taking the Pusey, Ellerton, and Kennicott 

scholarships, and his post-graduate life has been 
devoted almost exclusively to Old Testament exe- 
gesis and theology. For a long time he was almost 
the sole representative of the highei- criticism in 
England. Together with Professor Driver, he pro- 
vided the Queen's Printers' Bible, 1881, Avith a 
series of variorum readings and renderings wiiich 
wei"e of great use to Bible students. He has de- 
voted particular attention to the Book of Isaiah, 
of which he published notes on the Hebrew text in 
1869, a translation in 1870, an edition in 1880-81, 
an introduction in 1896, and a new translation, based 
on a critical text, in the Polychrome Bible in 1898. 
Besides this, he has given two versions of Psalms 
to the world, in 1884 and 1889, while in 1891 he 
treated of the " Origin of the Psalter " in his Bamp- 
ton Lectures, probably his most important contribu- 
tion to Old Testament exegesis. A volume on " Job 
and Solomon " in 1886 treated of the Wisdom litera- 
ture, while his " Founders of Old Testament Criti- 
cism " in 1893 gave the only adequate history of that 
subject in existence. 

In the winter of 1897-98 Oiieyne visited the United 
States and delivered lectures on "Jewish Religious 
Life in the Post-Exilic Period " ; these were subse- 
quently published (London and New York, 1898), 
and show a certain sympathy Avith specifically Jcav- 
ish religious thought, Avhich was also sIioavu in his 
Bampton Lectures. Cheyne has frequently con- 
tributed to the "Jewish Quarterly Review." 

Cheyne has shown great daring in textual emen- 
dation, Avhich has grown upon him of recent years. 
His most recent contributions to Biblical study con- 
sist of numerous articles contained in the "Ency- 
clopedia Biblica," Avhich Avas edited by himself and 
A. S. Black, and Avhich bears the stamp of Cheyne's 
infiueuce on every page. 

Bibliography: Plarr, J/en and Women of the Time, 1895; 
Who's niw, 1902. 

CHIARINI, LUIGI : Italian abbe ; born near 
Montepuleiano, Italy, April 26, 1789; died at War- 
saAv Feb. 28, 1832. He was appointed professor of 
history and Oriental languages at the University of 
Warsaw, Poland (1826). 

Chiarini Avas a prominent member of the so-called 
"Jewish Committee," consisting exclusively of 
Christian members, organized by imperial decree 
May 22, 1825. This committee established schools for 
Jewish boys and girls as Avell as classes of Hebrew 
for Christian young men to study JcAvish history, 
rabbinical literature, and even Juda'O-German, which 
Avould enable tliem to do organization (missionarv) 
Avork among the Jcavs of Poland. Chiarini Avas 
entrusted by this body to translate the Babylonian 
Talmud, for Avhich the Russian government granted 
him a subsidy of 12,000 thalers. He published his 
work, "Theorie du Judai'sme Appliquee a la Re- 
forme des Israelites de Tons les Pays de I'Europe, 
et Servant en Meme Temps d'Ouvrage Preparatoire 
a la Version du Talmud de Babylone," 2 vols., 
Paris, 1830, as a precursor to the prescribed version 
of the Talmud Avhich Avas to appear in six 
large folio volumes. Chiarini 's book planned the 
reform of the Polish Jews, and also the general im- 
provement of the condition of all Jews. This Avork 




is divided into three parts; iu the first Chiarini 
states the difficulties of knowing the true character 
of Judaism; in the second he elucidates the theory 
of Judaism ; and in the third the author treats of the 
reform of Judaism and discusses the means of re- 
moving its " pernicious " elements. In brief, Chiarini 
endeavors to prove that the so-called evils of Juda- 
ism originate chielly from the alleged harmful anti- 
social teachings of the Talmud. He argues that the 
state should assist the Jews in freeing themselves 
from the influence of the Talmud, and that they 
should return to the simple Mosaic faith. This goal 
can be attained in two ways: first, by the establish- 
ment of schools where Bible instruction is given 
and the Hebrew grammar studied; and, secondly, 
by a French translation of the Babylonian Talmud, 
with explanatory notes and refutations. 

Chiarini recognized that the popular knowledge 
of the Jews and Judaism was inadequate and defect- 
ive, and that their enemies furnish nothing but dis- 
torted instead of correct information. Nevertheless, 
his work is pervaded with some of the traditional 
prejudices against which he protests; but, at the 
same time, he expresses a sincere concern for the 
spiritual and material welfare of the Jews, and a 
desire to improve their condition. 

Of Chiarini's translation of the Talmud only two 
volumes appeared, under the title "Le Talmud de 
Bab3ion(', Traduit en Langue Fran^aise et Complete 
par Celui de Jerusalem et par d'Autres Monuments 
de rAnticjuite Judai'que," Leipsic, 1831. It con- 
tains a copious preface. The translation of Berakot, 
which is partly based on previous translations, has 
many faults. Chiarini's "Theorie du Judaisme " 
was widely criticized and caused considerable dis- 
cussion in the "Revue Encyclopedique " and in sep- 
arate pamphlets by Zunz, Jost, and others. Besides 
many other works on Italian poetry (Pisa, 1816 and 
1818) and on the history of astronomy in the Orient, 
Chiarini wrote a Hebrew grammar and a Hebrew 
dictionarj', both in Latin, translated into Polish 
by Piotr Chlebowski, Warsaw, 1826 and 1829; he 
wrote also "Dei Funeraridegli Ebrei Polacchi," Bo- 
logna, 1826. 

Bibliography : Zunz, G. S. i. 271-298, Berlin, 1878 ; Jost, Eine 
Freimuthlgeund Unpmtheiische Beleuchtung des Werkes : 
Theorie du Judaisme, Berlin, 1830 ; Orgelbrand, EncyMo- 
pedja Powszechna, iii., s.v., Warsaw, 1898; Nuova Encicln- 
pedia Italiana, 6th ed., vol. v., Turin, 1878 ; E. Bischofl, Kri- 
tische Geschichte der Talmud-Ucbersetzwigcn, etc., p. 68, 
FranlJfort-on-ttie-Main, 1899. 

H. R. 

CHICAGO : Capital of Cook county, Illinois ; the 
second largest city of the United States. It was 
incorporated as a city in 1837, and a year later the 
first Jewish settler, J. Gottlieb, arrived. Whence 
he came, and what his business was, are not known. 
In 1840 Gottlieb was followed by Isaac Ziegler, the 
brothers Benedict and Jacob Schubert, and Philip 
Newberg. Ziegler w^as for a number of years a 
pedler in the city and vicinity. Benedict Schubert 
was the first Jew to establish a merchant-tailoring 
business in Chicago. He prospered, and became 
one of the leading men in his trade. The first brick 
house in the city was built for him on Lake street, and 
he carried on business there for a number of years. 
Philip Newberg was the first Jewish tobacco-dealer. 

The first Jewish child born in Chicago was a son 
of Jacob Rosenberg, whose wife was Hannah Reese. 

About twenty German Jews arrived between 1840 
and 1844, and the community was slowly augmented 
by incoming settlers up to 1849, in which year a 
strong tide of Jewish immigration set in, following 
the completion of the Galena and Chicago Railway 
to Elgin. ]\Iost of the early settlers were German 
Jews, principally from Bavaria and the Rhenish 

Religious services were held for the first time in 
the Jewish settlement on the Day of Atonement, 
1845. The congregation met in a private room on 
a street now known as Fifth avenue. Only ten 
men were present; Mayer Klein and Philip New- 
berg officiated as readers. The following year serv- 
ices were again held on the Day of Atonement, the 
attendance being, however, no larger than on the 
previous occasion. 

The fiist Jewish organization, the Jewish Burial- 
Ground Society, was established in 1846. It pur- 
chased from the city for $46 one acre of ground, to 
be used as a cemetery ; and this was the first public 
act by which the Jews of Chicago demonstrated 
their existence as an integral portion of the body 
corporate. This first Jewish burial-ground was 
located east of the city limits, toward the north 
along the shore of Lake IVIichigan. 

Kehillat Anshe Ma'arab, the first Jewish con- 
gregation, was established Nov. 3, 1847, when a con- 
stitution was adopted and signed by 
First Con- fourteen members. Morris L. Leo- 
gregation, pold, a young man of twenty-six, 
born in Laubheim, Wilrttemberg, was 
elected president. The Jewish Burial-Ground Soci- 
ety turned over to the congregation all its property, 
including the cemetery, and dissolved. Kehillat 
Anshe Ma'arab held its first regular service in a pri- 
vate room on the second floor of a building on the 
southwest corner of Lake and Wells streets, and 
in 1849 leased a lot on Clark street, between Adams 
and Quincy streets (where the post-office now 
stands), on which it erected a frame synagogue. 

In 1853 this congregation established a day-school, 
where Hebrew was taught in addition to the regular 
common-school curriculum. This school was in 
operation for twenty ja-ars. In 1856 a new ceme- 
tery on Green Bay road (now North Clark street) 
and Belmont avenue was purchased. In 1857 the 
old burial-ground, having been included in the city 
extensions, had to be abandoned. In 1882 the ground 
was sold to the park commissioners, and it is now 
merged in Lincoln Park. On the date of the closing 
of the old burial-ground (June 11, 1857) the first in- 
terment in the new cemetery took place. 

In 1868 the congregation purchased the northwest 
corner of Wabash avenue and Peck court, with the 
church standing upon it. The latter was converted 
into a synagogue. In the great fire of 1871 the s)^- 
agogue escaped destruction, but all the records, 
which had been placed by Joseph Pollak, the secre- 
tary of the congregation, and at that time clerk of 
Cook county, in a vault of the court-house, were 
lost. In 1873 Dr. Merzbacher's prayer-book was 
adopted. An organ, choir, and family pews had 
been introduced several years before. In the fire of 




1S74, Keliillat Anslie Mti'arab lost the synagogue on 
Wabash avenue, and in December of that year it 
purchased the church and site on the corner of In- 
diana avenue and Twenty-sixth street. Thechiu-ch 
was converted into a synagogue, and the property 
on Wabasli avenue and Peck court was sold. In 
1888 Jacob Kosenberg, then vice president, pre- 
sented to the congregation twenty acres of land in 
tlie town of Jefferson, to be used as a burial-ground. 
This is now called "Mount Ma'arab Cemetery." 

and the influence of these two leaders was most 
beneficial to the Jewish community, especially to 
tlie younger generation. Adler was succeeded by 
Dr. M. Machol. Dr. Samuel Sale was his successor, 
and was followed successively by Dr. Isaac S. 
Moses, the Rev. M. P. Jacobson, and Dr. Tobias 
Schanfarber, the present incumbent (1902). 

B'nai Sholom, the second oldest congregation, 
was organized May 25, 1852, by fourteen members. 
Its first temple was built in 1864, on the corner of 

The bodies in the North Clark street cemetery were 
transferred to Mount Ma'arab, and the vacated prop- 
erty was sold. The latter is now completely built 
over, and all traces of the former cemetery have 

In 1889 Keliillat Anshe Ma'arab found that most 
of its members had moved farther south. The loca- 
tion of the synagogue being, therefore, no longer 
convenient for the majority, a plot on the southeast 
corner of Indiana avenue and Thirty-third street 
was purchased, and the temple now in use was 
erected. The latter has a seating capacity of 1,500 
persons. The membership is 175. In 1903 the Ein- 
horn ritual, in the English version, was adopted. 

The first rabbi was tlie Rev. Ignatz Kunreuther, 

who was called from New York in 1847. He was 

born in 1811, in Gelnhausen, near 

Early Prankfort-on-the-Main. He remained 

Rabbis. with the congregation six years, and 
then retired to private life. He died in 
Chicago June 27, 1884. Dr. S. Friedlander, who 
was called from New York in 1855, was but a short 
time in Chicago, when he died suddenly. In 1861 
the Rev. Liebmann Adler was called from Detroit. 
During his long and eventful ministration, M. M. 
Gerstley was president of Kehiliat Anshe Ma'arab ; 

Harrison street and Fourth avenue. It was at that 
time the handsomest Jewish house of worship in 
Chicago. This temple was destroyed 

Congrega- by the fire of 1871. A new one was 
tions erected on Michigan avenue near Four- 

Before tbe teenth street ; but this property was 
Great Fire, sold in 1889, and B'uai Sholom pur- 
chased the synagogue of Kehiliat 
Anshe IMa'arab, on the corner of Indiana avenue and 
Twenty-sixth street. The Rev. A. J. Messing is the 
present rabbi. 

Sinai Congregation, the third oldest, was the re- 
sult of the Reform movement started in Chicago in 
1858. In that year the ritual question agitated the 
minds of the members of Kehiliat Anshe Ma'arab. 
The younger element was dissatisfied with the con- 
servatism of the older members, and demanded 
sweeping reforms. Dr. Bernhard Felsenthal, a 
young Jewish teacher who had just arrived in Chi- 
cago, became the leader of the Progressives. He 
published a pamphlet entitled "Kol Kore ba-]Mid- 
bar" (A Voice Crying in the Wilderness), in which 
he strongly advocated Reform. This publication 
encouraged the Progressives, and they organized 
a Reform-Verein, of which Dr. Felsenthal was 
elected secretary. This Reform- Vereia was the 




fouudatiou upon -which four j-ears later the Siuai 
congregation was built by twenty-six members who 
had seceded from the parent organization. 

Sinai congregation was established April 7, 1861. 
B. Schoeneman was the first president, and Dr. B. 
Felseuthal the first rabbi. Its first house of worship 

Jewish Training-school, Ghicago, 111. 

(From a photograph.) 

was a frame building, formerly a church, on Monroe 
street, between Clark and La Salle streets. At the 
dedication of this temple, June 21, 1861, the Einhorn 
ritual was used for the first time in a Western con- 
gregation. In 1863 Dr. Felsenthal declined reelec- 
tion, and Dr. Chronic was elected rabbi, upon the rec- 
ommendation of Dr. Abraham Geiger. Dr. Chronic 
founded in Chicago "Zeichen der Zeit" (Signs of 
the Times), a German monthly in the interest of 
Jewish Reform. At the ral)binical conference held 
in Philadelphia in 1869, Dr. Chronic, the delegate of 
Sinai, moved to transfer the celebration of the Sab- 
bath to Sunday ; but no action was taken upon the 
motion. In 1867 Sinai made a contract with the 
Rosehill Cemetery Company for a burial plot. This 
was the first instance in Chicago of a Jewish con- 
gregation securing a burial-plot in a non-Jewish 

The great fire of 1871 destroyed Sinai temple. 
Dr. Chronic had gone back to Europe, and Dr. K. 
Kohler, then minister of Beth-£1 congregation in 
Detroit, Mich., was elected rabbi. Sunday services 
were held for the first time by the Sinai congrega- 
tion in Martin's Hall, corner Twenty-second street 
and Indiana avenue, on Jan. 15, 1874. The site of 
their temple, on the corner of Indiana avenue and 
Twenty-first street, had been purchased in 1872, and 
the structure was finished in 1876. In 1879 Dr. 
Kohler was called to Isew York; and in 1880 Dr. 
Emil G. Hirsch, then at Louisville, Ky., was elected 
rabbi. In 1885 Dr. Hirsch was relieved from preach- 
ing on Saturdays. In 1892 the temple was remodeled 
and enlarged. Sinai is by far the largest Jewish 

congregation in Chicago, having a membership 
of nearly 600. It maintains a Jewish mission-school 
— the Sinai West Side Sabbath-School — where over 
300 children, boys and girls, are instructed in Jewish 
history and religion. 

Zion Congregation, the fourth oldest in Chicago, 
was organized on the West Side in 1864; Henry 
Greenebaum being the first president, and Dr. B. 
Felsenthal the first rabbi. The first house of wor- 
ship was on Desplaines street, between Madison 
street and Washington boulevard. The present 
temple is located on Ogden avenue, opposite Union 
Park. In 1886 Dr. Felsenthal retired on account 
of old age, and Dr. Joseph Stolz was elected his 
successor. For many years Zion was a prominent 
factor in the spiritual and educational development 
of the Jewish community ; but during the last decade 
it has suffered considerably through the migration of 
its members to the South Side. The present rabbi 
is Dr. Jacob S. Jacobson. 

The North. Side Hebrew Congregation was 
estabiished in 1867. Its first house of worship was 
dedicated Sept. 27 in that year by the Rev. A. Ollen- 
dorf, who had been called to the rabbinate. In 1870 
the Rev. A. Norden was elected rabbi. The fire of 
1871 destroyed the synagogue, and the existence of 
the congregation was temporarily suspended. It 
was reorganized, hr)wever, in 1875, and the Rev. A. 
Norden was reelected ; but the synagogue was not 
rebuilt until 1884. In 1898 Rabbi Norden retired, 
and the Rev. Abraham Hirschberg became his 

-B'nai Abraham was organized on the West Side 
in 1870. The first rabbi was the Rev. Isaac Fall. 
In 1888 Dr. A. R. Levy, tlie present incumbent, was 

Of these six congregations, that of Sinai is the 
most radical, and B'nai Sholom and B'nai Abraham 
are the most conservative. The others belong to 
the class comprising the majority of American Jew- 
ish Reform congregations. A number of ultra- 
Orthodox congregations were also established before 
the great fire. In several instances a number of small 
"hebrahs" among the Jews of Slavonic parentage 
amalgamated and formed congregations. The most 
prominent among these congregations are Bet ha- 
Midrash Hagadol u-Benai Jacob, a charter for 
which was obtained in March, 1867, and Ohabai 
Shalom Mariampole, established in 1870. The 
latter has an extensive library of Hebrew books in its 
large synagogue. The congregation has instituted 
a loan association, and is in many other ways a bene- 
ficently active factor in the community. 

After the fire the number of congregations in- 
creased rapidly. The most prominent among the 
younger congregations are Isaiah, Emanuel, and 
Beth-El. Beth-El Congregation, on the northwest 
side of the city, was organized Oct. 7, 1871, imme- 
diately after the fire. The first serv- 
Congrega- ices were held in the home of one of 
tions After the members, but in the following 
the Great week a hall Avas rented at the corner of 
Fire. Peoria and Ohio streets, where regular 

services were held every Friday night 
and Saturdaj' morning. D. Gottlieb and Ignatz 
Kunreuther officiated. Six months later the congre 




gation bought some ground at the corner of May and 
Huron streets, to which they moved a frame church 
building which they had purchased from a Norwe- 
gian congregation. Herman Eliassof was elected in 
1878 as the regular minister and teacher of Beth-El. 
On Sunday, June 22, 1873, a cyclone destroyed the 

But the same evening a meeting of the congrega- 
tion was called, and a fund was raised sufficient to 
start the building of a new synagogue, a modest 
frame structure, still standing on the site of the old 
building. It now serves as a Lutheran church, 
having been sold by Beth-El in 1901. The ministers 
succeeding Babbi Eliassof were Bonheim Lip])man- 
sohn, Bieu, and Jacob Dansk, the last of whom offi- 
ciated from 1881 to 1891, dying in the prime of 
life. The present incumbent, Rabbi Julius Rappa- 
port, took charge of the congregation in July, 1891. 
To-day (1902) there are 100 members, partly Ger- 
mans and partly 
Bohemians. A 
new synagogue 
was erected on 
Crystal and 
Hoyne avenues, 
and was dedicat- 
ed Sept. 28,1903. 
The tendency of 
the congregation 
is toward Re- 
form, and the 
•'Minhag Amer- 
ica" ritual is 
used. Family 
pews, an organ, 
and a choir have 
been introduced, 
mostly during 
the ministry of 
the present rab- 
bi; Friday serv- 
ices are likewise 
a recent innova- 
tion, prayers 
and lectures be- c^"''"" » 

ing delivered in 

the English language. The Saturday morning serv- 
ices are held in German. There are a ladies' soci- 
ety—Sisters of Beth-El— numbering 120 members, 
and a Young People's Au.\iliary Society, connected 
with the congregation. 

Anshe Emeth Congregation, on Sedgwick 
street, was founded in 1872. Solomon Bauer offici- 
ates as rabbi. 

Cong-reg-ation Emanuel was founded in 1880, in a 
hall at the corner of Sedgwick and Blackhawk streets ; 
the church of the Swedish congregation at No. 280 
Franklin street being purchased tlireeyears afterward. 
In 1889 moderate Reform and the prayer-book " jVIin- 
hag America " wereadopted, and later thecause of ad- 
vanced Reform was further strengthened by the intro- 
duction of the German (Einhorn)prayer-book and the 
practise of worshiping with luico vered head. In 1897 
the congregation rented the Baptist church at Belden 
avenue and Halsted street, wlicre services are held, 
but in 1900 it bought a new site on Belden avenue. 

Standard Club, ChicaRo, 111. 

The congregation owns a cemetery at Waldheim. 
Connected with the congregation are the Emanuel 
Gemeinde Frauenverein, established in 1897, and the 
Emanuel Auxiliary Society, founded in 1900 by the 
younger members of the congregation. 

The names of the successive rabbis of Congrega- 
tion Emanuel are: Austrian E. Brown, Julius New- 
man, and Dr. Emanuel Schreiber, the incumbency of 
the last-named dating from 1899. 

The Reform Congregation of Isaiah Temple 
was organized Oct. 24, 1895, by members from Zion 
congregation who had moved to the South Side. At 
the first meeting Dr. Joseph Stolz was chosen rabbi 
and still (1902) holds that position. The first services 
were held Jan. 4, 1896, at the Oakland Club Hall, 
Ellis avenue and 39th street, which continued to be 
used in this capacity for three years. 

In May, 1898, some ground was purchased on the 
corner of Vincenues avenue and 45th street, and on 
Sept. 11 follow- 
ing Dr. Isaac M. 
Wise laid the 
corner-stone of 
a synagogue de- 
signed by Dank- 
mar Adler. The 
schoolhouse at- 
tached to the 
synagogue was 
dedicated on 
Jan. 14, 1899, 
and two months 
later (March 17) 
Dr. Wise dedi- 
cated the syna- 
gogue. Its mem- 
bership numbers 
228, and the Sab- 
bath-school has 
383 children en- 
rolled. The Sab- 
bat h - s c h 1 
holds Saturday 
and Sunday ses- 
'^«e'^v^-) sions, teaches 

Hebrew, and has 
a class for the deaf, at present composed of three 
pupils, xiffiliated with the congregation are the 
Isaiah Woman's Club and the Isaac M. Wise Auxil- 
iary Lodge I O.B.B. 

The principal Jewish charitable institutions of 
Chicago are the following: (1) The United Hebrew 
Charities of Chicago, organized in 1859 as the United 
Hebrew Relief Association, for the purpose of provi- 
ding an asylum for widows and orphans, and a hos- 
pital. The present name of the association was 
adopted in 1888. The first liospital was erected on 
La Salle avenue, and opened to patients Aug. 9, 1868. 
It was destroyed by the fire of 1871. In 1879 Henry 
L. Frank and his brother Joseph, as the trustees of 
a fund bequeathed by Michael Reese of San Fran- 
cisco, Cal., offered the sum of §30,000 for the building 
of a hospital, on condition that it sliotdd be known 
as (2) "The Michael Reese Hospital." Jacob Rosen- 
berg and Mrs. Henrietta Rosenfeld, also trustees of 
a fund bequeathed by the same Michael Reese, of- 




fered on the same condition §50,000 as an endowment 
for the maintenance of the new hospital. The United 
Hebrew Relief Association accepted both offers. 
The new hospital was built, and opened to patients 
in 1881. The Michael Reese Hospital is one of the 
best equipped in Chicago. 

(3) The Jewish Training-School, opened on Judd 
street near Clinton street, in 1890, in the heart 
of the district inhabited by the poorest of the Jew- 
ish population. It is a manual-train- 
Charitable ing school, not a trade-school, where 
In- pupils receive an excellent general 

stitutions. education also. Prof. G. Bamberger 
is the superintendent. (4) The Home 
for Aged Jews, established in 1891. Abraham 
Slimmer of Waverly, Iowa, donated $50,000 for 
such a home in Chicago, on condition that the 
Jews of Chicago raise an equal amount. The money 
was obtained without dilHculty. (5) The Chicago 
Home for Jewish Orphans, opened Oct. 7, 1894, 
in a rented house on Vernon avenue. Two years 
later a piece of property was donated by Henry 
Siegel and others. Mr. Slimmer again came for- 
ward with a donation of $25,000 toward the erec- 
tion of a suitable building, on condition that a 
like sum was collected in Chicago. The amount 
was raised, and the home was dedicated April 23, 
1899. (6) The Beth l\Ioshav Z'keinim (Orthodox 
Home for Aged Jews), organized Sept. 7, 1899. In 
1901 Mr. Slimmer promised the society which im- 
dertook to establish the home the sum of §20,000, 
on conditions similar to those accompanying Ms 
previous donations. The conditions were of course 
accepted ; and the building is now in course of con- 
struction on the corner of Ogdeu and Albany 
avenues. (7) The Jewish Agriculturists' Aid So- 
ciety of America, established in 1888 by three Chi- 
cago rabbis. Dr. Hirscli, Dr. Moses, and Dr. Levi. 
The society lias its headquarters in Chicago, but it 
is national in aim and scope. The object of the soci- 
etj^ is to assist able-bodied poor Jews w-ho are will- 
ing to establish themselves as farmers, in obtaining 
land on favorable terms. (8) The Home for Jew- 
ish Friendless and Working Girls, the youngest 
Jewish charitable institution in Chicago, established 
by a number of ladies' societies Oct. 15, 1901. 

Besides these there are a great number of Jewish 
societies for various benevolent, educational, and 
social purposes. The United Hebrew Charities of 
Chicago maintains a number of branch institutions, 
such as an employment bureau, a free dispensary, and 
a training-school for nurses. All charities are now 
federated in tlie Associated Jewish Charities, founded 
in 1900, through which all collections are made. 

The total number of Jewish congregations is fifty- 
five. Thirty cemeteries are owned and managed by 
Jewish congregations and societies, and five Jewish 
clubs minister to the social needs of the community. 
The Jewish population of Chicago is fully eighty 

As in other large cities of the United States, 
there exist several social clubs, which, though nom- 
inally not restricted in their membership, are prac- 
tically recruited exclusively from Jewish circles. 
The first club so organized was named "Concor- 
dia," and may be considered the parent of the 

present Standard Club, which, founded ia 1872, is 
now located in a club-house at Twenty-fourth street 
and Michigan avenue. The Lake-Side, at Forty- 
second street and Grand boulevard ; the Ideal, on 
Lasalle avenue ; the Unity, and the West-Side are 
clubs similar in character to the Standard. The 
latest of these social clubs is the Ravisloe, recently 
established (1901). It is a country club, devoted to 

From the earliest days of the municipality the 
Jews of Chicago have taken an honorable part in 
public life. On the two municipal boards, the 
board of education and the directory of the Public 
Library, Jews have distinguished themselves, the 
president's chair having been often occupied by one 
of their number, Adolf Krauswas president of the 
board of education for several terms, while Ber- 
thold Loewenthal has served as president of the 
Public Library board — an honor also conferred on 
Dr. Emil G. Hirsch, who was a director for nine 
years and president for six. Under Dr. Hirsch's 
administration the present splendid home of the 
Public Library was erected, while another Jew, 
Bernard Moos, acted as chairman of the building 
committee, rendering in this capacity the most sig- 
nal services. Among tlie other Jewish members on 
the board of the library at various times may be 
mentioned Julius Rosenthal (founder and librarian 
of the Law Institute), Adolf Moses, and Jacob 
Franks. The following Jews have served on the 
school board : Herman Felsenthal, David Kohn, B. J. 
Rosenthal, James Rosenthal, Edward Rose, Charles 
Kozminski, and Dr. Joseph Stolz. Schools have 
been named after Herman Felsenthal and Charles 
Kozminski, in recognition of their services; while 
another public school, not in a Jewish district, has 
been named after Sir Moses Montefiore. 

Among the charter members of the civic federa- 
tion was Dr. Emil G. Hirsch; while Adolf Nathan, 
a member of the Columbian Fair executive com- 
mittee, was president. Dr. Hirsch is also president 
of the Rabida Fresh Air Sanitarium. The follow- 
ing Jews have held other offices: corporation coun- 
sel, Adolf Kraus, Siegmund Zeisler; county clerk, 
Joseph Pollak, General Solomon; presidential elec- 
tor, Henry Greenebaum, Emil G. Hirsch; county 
commissioner, Isa Mouheimer, Jacob L. Cahn, Mor- 
ris Rosenfeld; city alderman, Henry Greenebaum, 
Jacob Rosenberg, Abe Ballenberg, David Horner, 
Milton J. Foreman ; South Park commissioner, Henry 
G. Foreman, Henry Greenebaum; judge of the cir- 
cuit court, Philip Stein; justice of the peace, E. 
C. Hamburgher, Adolph J. Sabath, Max L. Wolf; 
city clerk, William Loefiler; controller of the city, 
Charles M. Schwab. 

In the militia, may be mentioned Major Milton J. 
Foreman (cavalry); Lieut. Robert Hart (1st 111. 
Infantry); and Emil G. Hirsch, the chaplain of 
the Illinois Naval Militia, with rank of lieutenant- 

The Jews have been contributors to the endow- 
ment fund of the Chicago University. Their origi- 
nal contribution of §35,000 saved the first donation 
by J. D. Rockefeller of $600,000, being made at a 
time when it seemed impossible to fulfil the condi- 
tions attaching to that gift. Sinai congregation 



later donated $5,000 for a Semitic library. Eli B. 
Felseuthal is a member of the board of trustees of 
the university, while the following Jews belong to 
the faculty : Professor JNIichaelsou, head of the de- 
partment of physics; Julius Stieglitz and Felix 
Lengfeld (the latter resigned), professors of chem- 
istry; Ernst Freund, professor of jurisprudence; 
Julian W. ]\Iack, professor of law ; Emil G. Hirsch, 
professor of rabbinical literature and philosoph}^ 
S. H. Clark, professor of elocution. Dr. Joseph 
Zeisler holds the chair of dermatology in the North- 
western Medical School. 

BiBLiooRAPHY : Felsenthal, On the History of the Jews of 
Chicago, in Publications of the Am. Jew. Hist'. Soc. No. 2, 
189-t; iiiera, Tfie Beginnings of t fie Chicago Sinai Con- 
Oregation, Chicago, 1898; Felsenthal and Eliassof, History 
of KehiUat Anshe Ma^arab, Chicago, 1897; Eliassof, Tlie 
Jews of Illinois, in Reform Advocate, Chicago, May 4, 1901. 
A. H. E. 

can weekly newspaper devoted to Jewish interests; 
founded January, 1885, and first issued under the 
editorshij) of Leo Wise, who for several years con- 
ducted a department of " Notes and Comments " of 
a personal character. Occasionally the work of this 
department was done by Dr. Emil G. Hirsch, Levi 
A. Eliel, and Dr. Julius W^ise, the last of whom 
wrote under the pen-name "Nickerdown. " 

" The Chicago Israelite " makes a feature of the 
local news of the congregations, lodges, and phil- 
anthropic and other societies. 

G. F. H. V. 

CHIDON : The owner of the threshing-floor at 
which Uzza or Uzzah, attempting to steady the 
Ark of the Covenant, was killed (I Chron. xiii. 9). 
In II Sam. vi. 6 the place is called " Nachon." 

E. G. n. G. B. L. 

CHIEF : Term used by the English Bible versions 
as an approximate rendering of a number of Hebrew 
words. The leaders of the Levites are called 
"chiefs" (X^K'J, Num. iii. 24, 30), although else- 
where the same word is rendered " prince " (Num. 
vii. 18). From the fact that on the day of the dedi- 
cation of the Tabernacle every chief gave exactly 
the same donation to the service, it can be inferred 
that the chiefs were here representing the tribes, 
and were not giving of themselves only. The tribes, 
furthermore, were divided into several sections, and 
the leader of each section (as, for example, the leader 
of the Gershon branch of the tribe of Levi) was called 
"nasi" also; and the leader of the whole tribe was 
called "the chief of the chiefs" (Num. iii. 24, 32). 
The authority of the " nasi " was very great, and 
marked respect was to be shown him (Ex. xxii. 27, 
A. V. 28). 

In the days of royalty the rights and privileges, 
as well as the name, were absorbed by the king 
(I Kings xi. 34), and later by Zerubbabel (Ezra i. 8). 
A fuller phrase, "nesi ha-arez," occurs in Gen. 
xxxiv. 2. In the early stages the chiefs helped the 
central authority. They assisted in counting the 
Levites (Num. iv. 34). 

Other terms for " chief " are : (1) "Pinnat kol ha- 
'am" (corner-stone of the people; Judges xx. 2; 
I Sam. xiv. 38) ; and the reference here, too, is to 
the tribe and family representatives. (2)"Ba'al," 

applied to the priest, not in the sense of an officer, 
but as one standing out preeminent. (3) " 'Attud " 
(Isa. xiv. 9); but such a rendering only loosely cor- 
responds to the original. (4) "Rosh" is rendered 
" chief " seventy -eight times, and is used almost in- 
terchangeably with "nasi." It stands for the head 
of a family (Ex. vi. 14, 25), and for larger tribal 
sections (I Kings viii. 1; Num. xxxii. 38), and is ap- 
plied to the high priest (II Chron. xix. 11, xxiv. 6). 
In the New Testament " chief " is the rendering for 
apxuv (Luke xi. 15), and for Trpurof (Matt. xx. 27; 
Luke xix. 47). An officer termed the "Asiarch" 
(chief of Asia) is mentioned in Acts xix. 31. 

E. c. G. B. L. 

CHIERA, ESTHER. See Kiera, Esther. 

CHIGIRIN: Town iu the government of 
Kiev, Russia, with a population (in 1897) of 9,870, 
including about 3, 000 Jews. The latter are engaged 
principally in commerce and the handicrafts, the 
total number of artisans being 551. Tailoring is 
the predominating trade, 204 being engaged in it. 
There are, besides, 37 journeymen; and 16 Jews find 
employment in the local tannery and factories. 
About 200 families apply 3'early for aid at Passover. 
The educational institutions comprise a government 
school with 300 pupils, of whom 120 are Jews; 
about 30 hadarim aggregating 230 scholars ; and a 
Talmud Torali with 45 pupils. 

n. R. S. J. 

CHILD, THE : Since the days of Abraham 
(Gen. XV. 2), to possess a child was always consid- 
ered as the greatest blessing God could bestow; and 
to be without children was regarded as the greatest 
curse. The Rabbis regarded the childless man as 
dead; while thecabalist in the Middle Ages thought 
of him who died without posterity as of one who 
had failed in liis mission in this world, so that he 
would have to appear again on the planet to fulfil 
this duty. 

As human imagination alwaj^s occupies itself 
with the unknown, the embryonic or preliminary 
stage of child-life became the subject of fanciful 
legend and myth. The soul before birth is warned 
that it will be held responsible for its actions through 
life, and takes an oath to lead a holy life (Jellinek, 
"B. H." 1.). Two guardian angels teach the soul the 
Torah every morning and display the glories of the 
just in paradise. In the evening hell is shown. As 
the memory of this would interfere with free-will, 
the child forgets all it has seen and heard in this 
stage. The depression in the middle of the upper 
lip represents the stroke by which this knowledge 
and wisdom are made to disappear. For this reason, 
too, children cry when they are born. 

One of the oldest ceremonies connected with the 
birth of a child was that of tree-planting. In the 
case of a boy a cedar was planted; in that of a girl, 
a pine (Git. 57a). Among the ceremonies observed 
for the protection of the new-born son was the read- 
ing of theSiiema', and at times of Psalm xc. in the 
presence of the children of the community. This 
was usually continued every evening of the week, 
but in some places took place only on the eve 
of the Berit Milah (see Circumcision). The cus- 
tom of paying a visit to an infant boy on the first 




Sabbath of his existence (131 Q^h'C = "peace-boy") 
Avas also of Jewish origin. 

Male children received their " sacred " names on 
the occasion of the Berit Milah. The so-called " pro- 
fane " name (" kinnui ") was given on the Sabbath 
after the mother paid her first visit to the synagogue ; 
this was accompanied by a feast termed Holle 
Kreish (see Perles, in Griitz Memorial Volume, pp. 
24-26). Girls were given their names about a month 
after their birth, Avhen the father Avas called up to 
read the Law, and the Holle Kreish was also cel- 
ebrated on the return home. 

In the case of the first-born the ceremony of " re- 
deeming the child "(pn JVID, Ex. xiii. 2-15) oc- 
curred on the thirtieth day. According to the 
author of "Hukkotha-Torah" (Gudemann, "Gesch. 
des Erziehungswesens und der Cultur der Juden," 
i. 93), it was customary in the thirteenth century 
for a father to vow his first-born son to the study 
of the Torah. 

"Halakah," the custom of cutting a boy's hair 
for the first time, took place after his fourth birth- 
day, when care was taken to avoid touching the 
"corners" (Lev. xix. 27). In Palestine this occurred 
on the second day of Passover; and it was consid- 
ered a religious privilege for each of the friends and 
relatives to cut a few hairs. In Talmudic times it 
was also customary to weigh the child and to pre- 
sent the weight in coin to the poor. 

For the lullabies with which mothers soothe their 
children to sleep see Cuadle Songs. 

The various diseases to which the child was sub- 
ject, especially in Palestine (HD^ri fl'^'N"), Gen. R. 
XX. [ed. Cracow, p. 374]), Avere included under "the 
difficulties of bringing up children." If the child 
died, it was said to be because of the sins of the 
parents. God Himself supervised the education 
of the prematurely deceased children ('Ab. Zarah 
3b). If a boy remained healthy, he studied the 
Torah in order to be rendered tit for the priestly 
office, for Avhich learning was a neces- 
Th.e sary condition. The Rabbis tell of 

Duty of many infant prodigies. Leo de 
Learning. Modena is said to have read the Haf- 
tarah at the age of two and one-half 
years. But generally they preferred promise rather 
than performance at so early an age. The regular 
curriculum was for boys to learn Scripture at five, 
Mishnah at ten, and to fulfil the whole Law at thir- 
teen. In the times of the Temple youths took part 
in religious ceremonies at a very early age. In the 
Sabbatical year they were brought to the Temple 
when the king read Deuteronomy (Deut. xxxi. 10- 
12). A boy's religious life began in his fourth year, 
as soon as he was able to speak distinctly; for 
although the child was held to be free from religious 
duties, it was required of the father to accustom 
him early to fulfil them (m^J33 13Jn^). This was 
con.sidered all the more desirable because of the be- 
lief that the prayer of a child Avas more readily 
heard by God. Girls, too, Avent to the synagogue 
at a tender age. The presence of children in the 
synagogue was often troublesome. The boys fre- 
quently played din-ing worship ; hence the Sephar- 
dim confined them to one place. 

Certain rites Avere observed when the boy first 

went to school (see Education). " Children of the 
house [school] of the master " is a regular phrase in 
JeAvish literature. Words of Scripture uttered inno- 
cently by them Avere viewed as oracles by the Rabbis. 
In the .school, the boys had hours of recreation as 
Avell as of study. In play, the angel Sandalphon 
(|3i5*lJD) was their patron; but there were fcAv spe- 
cifically Jewish Games, most of them being taken 
from the peoples among whom the Jcavs lived. Par- 
ents did not pamper their children, but treated 
them severely, slight corporal punishments by the fa- 
ther being allowed, though not recommended. Tem- 
perance, abstemiousness, and poverty were incul- 
cated as virtues ; and, even though any boy might 
enter the priesthood, all had to learn a handicraft 
and SAvimming. 

The duty of providing for such education, as well 
as for circumcision, for redemption from the Kohen, 
for teaching of theLaAv, and, when the child Avas of 
tlie proper age, for marriage, Avas imposed by the 
Talmud upon the father. The synod of Asa im- 
posed upon him, furthermore, the obligation to pro- 
vide for the necessities of the child until his seventh 
year. It, however, strongly recommended the con- 
tinuation of such provision until the child should 
have attained his majority (Ket. 49b). 

Although enjoying all the protection of the law, 
the child Avas declared irresponsible by the Talmud, 
and had not to account for any mischief he might 
do. Nor was the father answerable for damages for 
injury due to such mischief; he was only morally 
responsible. This moral responsibility, however, 
ended Avhen the child had attained his religious ma- 
jority ceased to be a child, and became a " son of the 
Law " (see Bak JVIizwaii) — namely at the age of thir- 
teen. On this occasion the father pronounces the fol- 
lowing benediction " Blessed be He for having freed 
me from this punishment." Actual legal responsi- 
bility on the part of the young man, hoAvever, be- 
gan only Avith the age of twenty. 

In later times little children were taken to the 
synagogue to sip the wine of the " sanctification 
cup" ("kiddush") or to take part in the Simhat 
Torah ceremony. They participated in the Passover 
and Sabbath festivals, too, singing the " Praise " (p^n, 
Ps. cxiii.-cxviii.). When a little older, the boy had 
to attend the synagogue and school regularly. He 
recited certain prayers (K^np and lOXE^ "Ilia). In- 
deed, he enjoyed almost all the rights of majority 
long before the day of his becoming "the son of the 
Law. " 

Bibliography: S. Sohechter, Studies in Judaism, pp. 28^ 
312, Philadelphia, 1896. from which this article has been con- 
densed; L. Low, Lchensalter. 
E. c. A. 31. F. 

CHILD MARRIAGE. See Marriage. 

CHILDBIRTH : The following are some of the 
Biblical and Talmudical details touching the birth 
of children : 

The child might be brought into the Avorld with 
or without a midwife (Gen. xxxviii. 28; Ex. i. 15 et 
seq. ; compare Mishnah R. H. ii. 5; Oh. vii. 6). The 
expression in Gen. xxx. 3, "she shall bear upon my 
knees," and similar phrases are to be taken liter- 
ally (see Ploss,"Das Weib," and compare the say 




iiig iu Gen. R. Ix , " 'Twixt wife and midwife the 

child of the poor woman perishes"; see also Dukes, 

"Blumenlese," p. 128). Immediately 

In after birth the infant was bathed, 

the Bible, rubbed with salt, and wrapped in 

swaddling-clothes (Ezek. xvi. 4 etseq.). 

Josephus (" Contra Ap. " ii. 26) says: " The law does 

not permit us [the Jews] to make festivals at the birth 


n25t)3a)^ti^o \ 





iwwi^!^'!.^^> ,,,|L!ar^M 

Reciting the " Ha-Mal'ak ha-Go'el " Prayer at Childbirth. 

(Frum, " JUdisches Ceremonial," 17%.) 

of our children, and thereby to occasion drinking to 
excess. " The child was usually suckled by its mother, 
but sometimes by a wet-nurse (Gen. xxxv. 8; 
II Kings xi. 2, 3; III Mace, i 20). Thirty-three days 
after the birth of a male child, and sixty-six after 
that of a female child, the mother offered up a sac- 
rifice of purification (Lev xii. 2 et seq. ; see Cir- 
cumcision and Redemption op the First-born). 
The weaning, often long deferred, was accompanied 
by sacrifices and festivities. 

The cradle is said to have been first used in Isaac's 
time; it occurs in similes, as with Homer (Gen. R. 
liii. 10; Ixix. 3; Bacher, Ag. Pal. Amor., pp. 126, 
344). On it were hung bells, which generally were 
employed together with amulets in order to guard 
children against demons ("Monatsschrift," 1900, p. 
382; compare Blau, "Zauberwesen," pp. 90, 160; 
"Mi-'teilungen der Gesellschaft fiir Judische Volks- 
kunde," v. 75, note 5, Hamburg, 1900) 

A woman during confinement is recommended to 
particular attention; and her death is ascribed to 
negligence of the duties specially prescribed for 
Jewish women (Shab. ii. 6 ; concerning the origin of 
leprosy among children, compare Lev. R. xv. 5). 
New-born children, according to the Talmud as well 
as the Bible, were sprinkled with salt (Shab. 129b; 
compare Jerome and Galen in Wiesner, "Scholien," 
ii. 248) ; those that made no sound were rubbed with 
the afterbirth (AVunderbar, in "Orient. Lit." 1850, 
p. 104; Hamburger, "R. B. T." ii. 256). Air was 
breathed into those born apparently inanimate; and 
a beaker filled with liot coals was held near the 
mouth of one that refused the breast, to stimulate 
the action of the facial muscles (Shab. 134a). Oper- 
ations to assist birth were known (compare Rabbino- 
wicz, "La Medecine du Talmud," i. 29). It was 
considered a heathen custom to fasten a piece of iron 

on the bed for the protection of the woman (Tosef., 
Shab. vi. [vii.] 4), as well as, on the night before 
circumcision, to place on the table viands which 
should not be touched (Shulhan 'Aruk, Yoreh De'ah, 
178, 3, gloss; 179, 17; compare M. Schuhl, "Super- 
stitions et Coutumes Populaires du Judai'sme Con- 
temporain," p. 6). The use of a Torah scroll as a 
charm for easing birth (Pithe Teshubah on Yoreh 
De'ah, 179, 9) and for the protection of the child 
(Yoreh De'ah, I.e. ; Maimonides, " Yad" Hil. 'Akkum, 
xi. 12) seems to be of early date; and the origin of 
the ceremony of lighting candles on the "watch- 
night" — i.e., the night before circumcision — is to be 
ascribed to the Talmud (Yer. Ket. i. 25c; Sanh. 32b). 

In Rumania, as soon as the labor-pains of the 
woman begin, all the female inmates of the house 
loosen their hair. In Poland, for the purpose of 
easing birth, all knots in the woman's clothing are 
untied; and she wraps herself in a "mappah" or 
" wimpel ■' ; that is, the baud which is wound around 
the Torah. In the Caucasus the woman is held 
in the strictest seclusion. For seven 

Customs weeks prior to her expected accouche- 

and Su- ment no one, except the midwife and 
perstitions. the female relatives, is allowed to see 
her. On the night of birth the door 
of the lying-in room is locked ; one light burns near 
to the mezuzah, and another uext to the hearth 
(Chorny, "Sefer ha Massa'ot be-Erez Kaukaz," pp. 
196, 296). Despite the repeated prohibition of their 
rabbis, the Caucasian Jews practise the superstitious 
custom of mixing in a glass of water some earth 
from the grave of one deceased within the last forty 
days, and giving it to the parturient woman to 
drink. If it is not effective the dose is repeated 
with earth obtained at a greater depth. 

In Poland and Galiciathe custom still obtains that 
once prevailed in Germany, of making a chalk-mark 

Feast at Childbirth. 

(From Kirihner, " Jiidisches Cerernoniel," n2f>.) 

around the lying-in chamber or of describing black 
circles on the wall. It is also the practise in many 
places to liang Psalm-verses over the Avoman's bed 
(the same custom obtains among Christians in Ger- 
many; see L. L5w, " Lebensalter," pp. 75 etseq.). 
Sometimes Ps. xx. 2 is inscribed on tlie door, and the 
following invocation is recited : " May He who bark- 
ened to thy mother, harken to thee also ! " In 






Old Books. 

Hesse a circle is drawn witli challc on the floor, and 
the verse, "My help cometh from the Lord," etc. 
(Ps. cxxi. 2), is written within it. In Kurdistan and 
elsewhere in the Orient, sweet-smelling herbs are 
burned in a censer, with which first the synagogue 
and then the lyiug-in room are perfumed. In Poland 
the Book of Raziel is laid under the head of the 
woman, and white cloths are hung at the windows 
and around the bed. 

In older Jewish recipe-books ("Mitteilungen," v. 
58 et seq.) the following directions are given: 

Whisper into the ear of the woman m travail : " And Moses 
spake unto the people. Get thee out, and all the people that fol- 
low thee ; and after that I will go out. And he went out " 
(Ex. xi. 8; compare Raziel, 43a). 'Or write on a "Ranftel" 
(head) of cheese to be given her to eat, " Satur 
arepo tenet opera rutas" (made up of "Sator 
[are] poten [terl et opera [re] r[ati]o t[u]a 
s[it] " ; compare Steinschneider, "Hebr. Bibl." 
xvii.60 ; idem, "Cat. Bodl." No. 1(X)). Or whis- 
per in her right ear: " He went up on Mount Sinai and heard a 
calling and a crying. And bespoke unto the Lord : ' What mean- 
eth this calling and this crying that I liear ? ' The Lord answered 
him : ' It is the voice of a woman in labor. Now go and say unto 
her: "Get thee out! The earth demands thee!" And all 
these thy servants shall come down unto Me and bow down 
themselves unto Me, saying, " Get thee out, and all the people 
that follow, " ' " etc. Or mix the fat (or milk) of a bitch with 
water and give it to the woman to drink. Or stand at the door 
next to the mezuzah and read the " Haf- 
tarah Shofetim" (Isa. li.): then say (ien. 
xxi. 1, and pronounce the Lord's name thus, 
nriN NX (= " Get thee out!"). Or strew 
ground black pepper under the woman in 
labor; ... or place a ram's horn in her 
hand, or the skin of a snake on her heart; 
... or the eyes and bladder of a salt her- 
ring ; or let another woman put her hand 
on her and say with her Ps. xix. 6; or lay 
upon her a clay vessel on which is in- 
scribed : 3i"s iT'in p'Ti |">i"n ; or write on a 
kosher parchment the magic square (com- 
pare Abraham ibn Ezra, "Yesod Mora," 
ed. Creizenach, p. 125) , and lay iton the spot 
where the teflllin are laid; or place between her teeth a 
silver ring on which has been inscribed with a new graving- 
tool: V£3|i, i3"ip, p"Di, D"pi, vpB, P"i£3 (compare " Mitteilungen." 
ill. 67, No. 123). If the child dies in the womb, the gall of an 
ox should be mixed with water and given to the woman. 

It is further stated in the same recipe-books that 
"Sannui, Sansannui, and Samangaluf ('"IJDJDI '13D 
fl^JJDDI) are known as the great and noble angels 
whom men call upon to protect women in labor 
against Lilith, and whose names written in any local- 
ity, even if on the wall, serve to exorcise Lilith's 
brood therefrom. Tlierefore, it is eft'ective to write 
these names in the four cardinal points near the 
woman, especially at an opening, as at a door or 
window." This prescription against the beautiful 
Lilith, Adam's first wife (compare second part of 
Goethe's "Faust"), was zealously observed (see 
the satire of Isaac Erter in "Kerem Hemed," iii. 
106, and Flogel-Ebeling, "Gesch. des Grotesk- 
Komischen," p. 14). 

Older amulets for the lying-in chamber contained 
the following (see illustration to Amulet; compare 
" Mitteilungen. "ii. l^et seq. ; v. 61, 47; 
Lilith and on "Zakar," ib. v. 35): "Adam and 
Amulets. Eve," within (compare ib. i. 91; "Am 
Urquell," ii. 144, 196; iv. 95); "Lilith 
and the first Eve," without, "Sannui, Sansannui, 
Samangaluf, Shumriel, Hasdiel." The text con- 
tinues: "In the name of the Lord God of Israel, who 






Magic Square. 

reigns over tlie cherubim, whose name is mighty 
and fearful,. Elijah the prophet — may he be men- 
tioned for good ! — once went upon his way and met 
Lilith, with all her kith and kin. And he said unto 
Lilith, the fiend : ' Thou unrivaled in impurity, 
and ye, ye goodly crew, whither are ye going?' 
She answered : ' My inaster Elijah, I am going where 
I may find a woman in travail. I will cause a deep 
sleep to come upon her, and I will rob her of her 
new-born child. I will drink its blood, and suck 
its marrow, and devour its flesh.' And Elijah- 
may he be mentioned for good! — spake angrily: 
' May God, blessed be He ! banish you hence ! May 
you become stiff and stark as stone ! ' Lilith replied : 
' For God's sake, spare me, and I will get me hence. 
I swear to you by the name of the Lord God of 
Israel, I will desist frotn my intent upon the woman 
and her child ; and wiienever I hear my name called 
I will go away. Now I will tell unto you my 
names; and whenever they are spoken, neither I nor 
those that are mine will have the power to do harm 
or to go to the house of a woman in labor, or to do 
her any evil. These are my names: Lilith, Abitu 
[compare "Mitteilungen," v. 80, )1D3K nin mX 
"linUX ("linax of the Mandaeans); I. Wolilstein, 
" Damonenbeschworungen aus Nachtalmudischer 
Zeit," pp. 52, 57, Berlin, 1894; "Zeitschrift fur 
Assyriologie imd Verwandte Gebiete," ix. 136], 
Abihu, Amsarfu, Hagash, Ores, Ikpodu, lylu, 
Tatrota, Abhanuktah, Satruna [probably to be com- 
pared with ^X'J-iDC': "Mitteilungen," v. 57], Kah- 
katasa, Thilatliuy, Piratsha. . . .'" 

Amulets such as are described in "Mitteilungen," 
i. 91 et seq , and otliers having inscribed on them 
"Magen David," tlie signs of the zodiac, and Ps. 
Ixvii., are still in use and may be obtained at any 
Jewish book-shop. When travail is dilficult a 
Torah-roU is brought into the room. 

Old representations show the employment of de- 
livery-chairs (compare Mliller-Schlossar, " Haggadah 
von Sarajevo " ). In Rumania the child stays in the 
bed with its mother as long as she remains there, 
and a sefer (any holy book) is placed under its pil- 
low. Into its first bath are put pieces of bread and 
sugar. In Poland tlie rocking of an empty cradle is 
avoided. If any one comes with a basket into a 
house in which there is a new-born child, a pi.ce is 
cut from the basket and laid in the cradle, in order 
that the infant may not be robbed of sleep and rest. 
For the same reason care is taken not to remove from 
such a house utensils of any kind, especially such as 
hold burning coals. 

If the child is born with a caul, the latter is taken 
as a sign of good luck (the same is the case in Ice- 
land; compare Grimm, "Marchen," 

Customs ii. 59), and is preserved for a talisman. 
After Birth.. A boy is welcomed into the world 
with the words: n313 uh))}h N3 nat 
D^iy^ nK2 (" A boy is born to the world ; a blessing 
has come into the world "), but at a girl's birth the 
walls weep. It is a belief in Rumania that until the 
completion of the first year of its life the child 
speaks with God and the angels. The latter show 
it golden fruit in its sleep: if it can grasp the fruit, 
it laughs; if it can not, it weeps. Elsewhere a 
child's laughing in its sleep is said to betoken that 



it is playing with tlie angel of death : therefore it is 
recommended that the child be lightly tapped on 
the mouth, 

A child should not be kissed on the feet, since 
tills is the custom at the"mehillah prayer"; that is, 
on asking the dead for forgiveness. A child must not 
be held before a mirror, else a second child will be 
born within the year. If the hair be cut, the child 
will get an elf-lock. Scurf (" pareh " ; compare Lev. 
xiii. 12) gives promise of beautiful hair (compare 
"Mitteilungen," i. 81 on "halakah"). The woman 
who has been delivered must not be left alone. 
Under her pillow or under the mattress is laid a 
knife, without which she may never leave her bed. 
Or a dagger is stuck in the ground near' her head ; 
and daily for thirty days it is carried three times 
around her couch. In northern Germany this serves 
to guard against the werwolf (Wuttke, "Der 
Deutsche Volksaberglaube der Gegenwart," p. 260), 
or, according to Grimm ("Mythologie," xc), against 
the wicked fairies (for the customs among the Ro- 
mans see Pliny. "Historia Naturalis, " xxxiv. 44). 
While making the circuit with the dagger about the 
bed the following verses are sung: 

" Ich mache einen Kreis 
Den Gott wohl weiss. . . . 
Also mancher Ziegel ist auf diesem Dach, 
Also mancher Engel bel uns wach I" 

I make a circle 
(Which God well knows) : 
As many tiles as are on this roof, 
So many angels keep watch o'er us ! 

At a hard labor three or four women pray: 

" Auf meinem rechten Fuss tret' ich, 
Gott, den Herrn, bitt' ich, 
Dass er entbind." 


I press upon my right foot, 

God, the Lord, entreating, 

That He may deliver ! 

During the same thirty days in which the dagger 
is carried about the bed the school-children recite 
the evening prayers in the lying-in chamber, in 
order to keep off the " Benemmerin " (pixies) ; that is, 
elves. In Hamburg, for the protection of mother and 
child a skein of red silk is bound about the child's 
wrists (see "Am Urquell," iv. 96). Of efficacy 
against "Frau Holle" is the "Holle Kreisch " (com- 
pare Low, I.e. p. 105; Bodenschatz, " Kirchliche Ver- 
fassung,"iv. 73; "Mitteilungen," iv. 146, v. 7). Here 
may be mentioned the custom existing in Breslau of 
scattering almonds and raisins on the first Simhat 
Torah after birth. The night before circumcision 
(watch-night or wheat-night), and in Palestine 
everj^ night between birth and circumcision, for the 
protection of the child the people in the house 
"study" (compare Griinbaum, in Winter and 
WUnsche, "Die Jiidische Litteratur," iii. 587). At 
Salonica a ballad is snug on the watch-night (com- 
pare "Rev. Etudes Juivos," 1896, ii. 138 et seq.). In 
Palestine, on the night before the circumcision an 
oil-lamp with many wicks is brought into the house, 
and there is general rejoicing. In Upper Silesia the 
knife for circumcision must be in the house the 
night before the ceremony. The Friday evening 

before circumcision ("Zakar")a feast is spread, to 
which every one is welcomed. In Hamburg, peas 
with pepper, whisky, and cake are provided; among 
the Portuguese, nasturtium seeds; in Poland, " fristt- 
lech " (" faworiski " ; that is, a thin pastry mixed with 
oil), round peas, and mead ("Mitteilungen," i. 100). 

]\[ostof these customs and superstitions are not of 
Jewish origin; but, as a review of Grimm's "My- 
thologie " and Wuttke's work (see bibliography be- 
low) shows, they have been borrowed from neigh- 
boring peoples. 

For parturient women the regulations are the 
same as for the Niddah. At the birth of a male 
the bath (mikweh) may not be taken before the ex- 
piration of eight days ; at the birth of a female, not 
before fifteen days, provided clean white linen has 
been put on and the seven days of purification have 
taken place within that time. Where it is the cus- 
tom for the women to visit the mikweh at the end 
of forty days after bearing a male, and fifty after 
bearing a female, regulations are made accordingly 
(Yoreh De'ah, 19, 4). 

Bibliography : A. Lewysohn, MeUore Minhagim, Berlin, 
184(5 ; L. Low, Die Lehenaalter, Szegedln, 1875 ; Luncz, Je- 
rumlem, i. 21 et seq., Vienna, 1883 ; Mitteilungen der Gesell- 
schaft fUr Jiidische Volkskunde, Hamburg, 1898 et seq. ; S. 
Rubin, Gesch. des Aherglauhens. German translation by I. 
Stern, Leipsic ; Schudt, JiXdij^che Merkwurdigkelten, 1714, il, 
6 et seq. ; M. Schuhl. Superstitions et Onitumes Populaires 
du Judaisme Contemporain. Paris, 1882; J. J. Chorny, 
Sefer ha^Massa'ot he-Erez Kauhaz, St. Petersburg, 1887; 
Winer, B. R. s.v. Kinder'; Wuttke, Der Deutsche Vnlks- 
aberglauhe der Gegenwart, Berlin, 1869; S. Schechter, The 
Child in Jewish Literature, in Studies in Judaism, pp. 343- 
380, 434-436, London, 1896. 

A. M. Gr. 


Daniel, Book of. 

CHILDREN OF GOD. See God, Children 
OF; Son of God. 

CHILE : A republic of South America, bounded 
by Peru on the north, Bolivia and the Argentine 
Republic on the east, and the Pacific Ocean on the 
south and west. Soon after the discovery of the 
American continent many Jews, professed and 
secret, settled in the different sections of South 
America, and changed their places of residence 
according to the pressure of the Inquisition. At 
the beginning of the sixteenth century many New 
Christians ("Christianos Nuevos") who had re- 
cently arrived at Callao, Peru, drifted to Santiago, 
Chile. It was not long before the spies ("famili- 
ares")of the Holy Office ferreted them out, accumu- 
lating evidence as to their antecedents from Buenos 
Ayres, Mexico, and the cities of the Old World, 
until sufficient data had been secured to warrant 
their apprehension. Thus, an accused Jew would be 
imprisoned in Chile, tortured until he confessed, and, 
sometimes after languishing for years in the secret 
dungeons of the tribunal in Santiago, finally be sur- 
rendered to the secular arm for execution in Carta- 
gena or Lima. The martyrdom of the scholar and 
theologian Francisco Maldonado de Silva, whose 
trial was a cause celebre, is a case in point. He 
suffered imprisonment in Chile, and was burned at 
an auto da fe in Lima Jan. 23, 1639. Nor was his 
case an exception to the rule. In the following par- 
agraphs will be found the first summary in English 
of these trials for Judaizing. 




The case of Luis Noble or Luis Duarte (see Du- 
arte) is probably the first on record. A Portu- 
guese by birth, he served as a soldier in Chile, and 
was arraigned before the tribunal at Callao for steal- 
ing a crucifix. He confessed to being a Jew (Aug., 
1614). Duarte does not seem to have been severely 
dealt with, escaping with a whipping and a light 
sentence. From 1686 to 1641 the following persons 
were accused and punished for Judaizing : Antonio 
de Acunha, from Arronchez, Portugal, 

Earliest aged 24 years; Antonio Corderes; 
Victims of Diego Lopez de Fonseca, from Bada- 
In- joz, aged 40 j'ears; Manuel Baptista 

quisition. Perez, merchant, aged 46 years; Man- 
uel de la Rosa. " All these Jews Avere 
incarcerated in Chile, and their possessions were con- 
fiscated, which seems to have been the leading mo- 
tive for these prosecutions for heresy. The above- 
named, it appears from another nccord, all suffered 
martyrdom in Lima at an auto da fe held in that 
city Jan. 23, 1639. 

Don Manuel Bautista Pkiiez was rated as a mil- 
lionaire, and is described as the owner of a regal 
residence in Lima, which yet bears the name of " the 
house of Pilate." Don Diego Lopez de Fonseca, 
who was burned at the same auto da fe, was charged 
with selling goods cheaper to people who would 
enter his shop through the door, beneath the thresh- 
old of which he had buried a cross in mockery of 
Jesus, than to others (see Thevino). Juan de 
la Parra, a Chilean by birtli, was imprisoned and 
sentenced by the Holy Office " for observing the 
religion of Moses," in 1661. There were several 
others who suffered imprisonment in Chile and 
martyrdom in Peru. J. T. Medina devotes two 
long chapters to leading Jewish cases in his his- 
tory of the tribunal in Chile (see subjoined bib- 
liography), and gives the whole trial of de Silva 
at length. 

In 1680 proceedings were begun against Leon 
Gomez de Silva, or Oliva (as his name is spelled in 
another place). He was born in Portugal and re- 
sided at Santiago, and was denounced as a Juda- 
Izer. The accused was still alive in Santiago twenty 
years after proceedings were instituted against liim; 
and his property, at one time confiscated by the 
authorities, had been restored. 

The celebrated Hungarian-Jewish violinist, Mi- 
chael Hauser, who had been the guest of Don Elias, 
President of Peru, in 1852, and who was everywhere 
received with extraordinary honors, Avas compelled 
to fiy for his life in Santiago, charged with "con- 
spiring diabolically to ruin Christian folk and, by 
reason of hellish art [his violin], in league with the 
devil." Thanks to the friendly offices of a humane 
Creole who had been charmed by his music, he hid 
until the arrival of a ship bound for Australia (see 
his "Aus dem Wanderbuche eiues Oesterreichi- 
schen Virtuosen," Leipsic, 1859; also Ignaz Reich's 
"Beth-El," ii. 97). On a proposal made to Oliver 
Ciomwell in 1655 to seize Chile, see Simon de 

Of the modern history of the Jews in Chile noth- 
ing definite can be ascertained. There are a large 
number of prosperous Jewish merchants in Santiago, 
mostly Europeans ; but it is not known wliether they 

form a religious community. For other data see 
South America. 

Bibliography: J. T. Medina, Historia del Tribunal del 
Santo Oficio de la Inquisicion en Chile, i. 197, 200. 209, 213, 
21.5, 222 ; il. 50, 71-93, 96, 104, 105, 108, 112. 114-15, 130, 141-42, 
166, 251-61, Santiago, 1890 ; B. Vicuna MacKenna, Francisco 
Moi/en, or the Inquisition as It Was in South America, pp. 
10.5, 174 (Engrl transl. by J. W. Duffy, London, 1869); G. A. 
Kohut, in Publications of Am. Jew. Hist. Soc. No. 4, p. 115 ; 
idem, Simon de Caceres and His Plan for the Conquest of 
Chile in 16.55, reprinted from the American Hebrew, June 
16, 1899, pp. 12-16, where bibliography and text of the letter of 
Caceres are given ; Lucien Wolf, in Transactions of Jew. 
Hist. Soc. Eng. iii. 

A. G. A. K. 

CHILEAB : A son of David, born to him at 
Hebron. His mother was Abigail, whom David mar- 
ried after the death of her husband Nabal, the 
Carmelite (II Sam. iii. 3). The parallel account in 
I Chron. iii. 1 gives his name as " Daniel. " In II Sam. 
iii. 1 the Septuagint reads AaAowa, and in I Chron. 
iii. 1 AafxviT/Ti.) (The Alexandrine, however, reads 
here, too, AaAovla.) It is impossible to restore the 
original name, although " Daniel " is much nearer 
than "Chileab." Berakot 4a (Bab.) gives a fan- 
ciful interpretation to the name. He was called 
" Chileab " because he shamed (D v3D) Mephibosheth 
in the Law. 

e. g. n. G. B. L. 


Sec >[lI,I.F.NMUM. 

CHILION : A son of Elimelech and Naomi, the 
Bethlehemites who emigrated to Moab because of 
the severe famine in Judea (Ruth i. 2). This might 
have been the reason for the name "Chilion" (wa- 
sting), as also for his brother's name " ]Mahlon " (dis- 
ease). In Moab, Chilion married Orpah (ib.), and, 
after living in that land for ten years, died there. 

e. g. n. G. B. L. 

CHILMAD : A name occurring in the long list 
of those nations supplying merchandise for Tyre 
(Ezek. xxvii. 23). The Septuagint reads koI Xap/xdv, 
which seems to point to Carmania. The Targum 
renders it " the Medes, " which Rashi follows. David 
Kimhi quotes his father's opinion that the word 
contains the root lup. The word would then mean 
"as taught." George A. Smith identifies the name 
with "Chalwadh." Of all these identifications that 
of the Targum is the simplest and, perhaps, the 
most acceptable ; for other corruptions of the text 
have been noted in this verse, and it is proljable, 
as Chej^ne suggests, that the first .syllable in '^up!2 
came from the following 72"l, the ") of which fell 
out owing to the precediui; -|. 

e. g. h. ^ G. B. L. 

CHIMHAM : A son of Barzillai, who supported 
David while the latter was in exile at Mahanaim. 
After the death of Absalom, Barzillai was invited to 
spend the rest of his daj^s with the king ; but he 
declined, and sent his son Chimham instead. In 
Jer. xli. 17 mention is made of the camp of Chim- 
ham near Bethlehem, from which it would seem that 
David bestowed upon him some land which passed 
on to his descendants in his name. This rendering 
is indicated by the Targum, and is accepted by 
Rashi and Kinihi (II Sam. xix. 38, 39, 41 ; R. V. 37, 
38. 40). 

E. G. H. G. B. L. 






Rachel Mironowna. 

CHINA : The southeastern and main division of 
the Chinese empire. The subject of the Jews in 
China is liere treated in two sections : I. Their his- 
torj'; II. Their religious customs, etc. 

I. History : Whether China was linown to Bib- 
lical writers is a matter of dispute among schol- 
ars. The majority of Bible commentators iden- 
tify it with D^J'^D pS (''the land of the Sinim "), 
whence the deported sons of Israel shall return to 
^^^ their land (Isa. xlix. 13) ; others, how- 
^^^^ ever, deny the identification. At any 
m m rate, the Jews in Persia from early 
^ m times were connected with the silk 
^ ▼ trade, and, as a consequence, entered 
into direct relations with the "silk- 
men " (" Seres, " from " ser " = D''K"IK' 
^_^ ^^~ = " sericum " = " silk "), as the Clii- 
l^J ^^^ uese were called by the Romans. 
■"i#^r ^F (For the identification see commen- 
f ^"^ ^r taries of Gesenius, Delitzsch, Hitzig, 
Cheyue, and Orelli ; also Kautzsch, in 
j^ ^ Riehm's " Handworterbuch der Bib- 
Z^.f^ lischen Alterth timer, " s.v. "Sinim"; 
Von Strauss-Torney, in Delitzsch's 
"Isaiah," p. 712; Lassen, "ludische 
Alterthumskunde," 1867, i. 1028; fur- 
ther, Dillmann, Duhm, and Marti, 
CWnese^Namefor jjj ^■^^^^. commentaries; Konig, in 
Hauck's"Real-Encyc."s.'«. "Sinim"; 
and Von Richthofen, " China," i. 430 ; for the " Seres," 
see SiLK; Kohler, "The Jews and Commerce," in 
" The Menorah," 1887, p. 211; Heyd, "Gesch. desLe- 
vantehandels," i. 12, notes 1, 24; compare Momm- 
sen, "Romische Gesch." v. 346, 465-470; Herzfeld, 
"Handelsgesch. der Juden," pp. 110, 308). 

At what time, however, the first Jewish settle- 
ment in China took place it is difficult to say. In 
all likelihood Jewish merchants immigrated, or 
changed a temporary sojourn into a 
First Jew- permanent one, at various epochs. In 
ish Settle- an " Account Written by Two Moham- 
ment. medan Travelers Through India and 
China" in 851 (Renaudot, transl., Lou- 
don, 1733, p. 42), it Is stated that " the Jews have 
been settled in that empire [China] from time imme- 
morial." Notwithstanding this, it is as hazardous 
to connect the first Jewish settlement in China with 
the Lost Ten Tribes ("Jew. Quart. Rev." xiii. 23) 
as it is an unwarranted skepticism to doubt the cor- 
rectness of the tradition of the Chinese Jews them- 
selves, which traces the first immigration back to the 
Han dynasty between 206 B.C. and 221 c.e. (Mol- 
lendorf, in "Monatsschrift," 1895, p. 329), and more 
exactly to the time of the emperor Ming-ti. This 
opinion is based upon the oral tradition of the 
Jews, reported by Father Brotier : " These Jews say 
that they entered China under the Han dynasty 
during the reign of Han Ming-ti [58-76 c.e.]." And 
further: "Several of these Jews have assured me 
that they arrived during the reign of Ming-ti " (To- 
bar, "Inscrip. Juives de Kai-Fung-Fu," p. 90). A 
certain Sulaiman (Jewish traveler of the ninth cen- 
tury) similarly claims that they entered in 65 c.e. 
Grfttz (iv. 376) places the first immigration in the 

year 231 c.e., connecting it with the persecution 
of Jews in Persia, which caused also their first set- 
tlement in India; furthermore, the Jews of K'ai 
Fung-Foo themselves claim that they received their 
religion from India (compare Finn, " The Orphan 
Colony of Jews in China, " p. 40 ; but see passages 
cited below) ; but there is nothing to support this 
hypothetical date, or the statement of Glover in the 
" Babylonian and Oriental Record, " vi. 247, 288 ; vii. 
149, that the Jews were not in China before the 
fifth century. On the other hand there are many 
reasons for the assumption of an ear- 
Jews Her date. The Chinese everywhere 
Known as call the Jews "Tiao Kiu Kiaou " (the 
" Tiao Kiu sect which extracts the sinews, after 

Kiaou." Gen. xxxii. 33); and this name itself, 
as a characterization of the Jews, in- 
dicates great antiquity. Rabbinical Judaism would 
have suggested more distinctive peculiarities of the 
Jews to the Chinese. 

As will be shown later, there are also many in- 
trinsic evidences of early Jewish settlements in 
China to be found in peculiar rites, preserved in 
connection with their synagogue ; the records which 
will be cited below are obviously copies of older 
documents; and there is also the fact that the 
Arabic writers of the ninth and fourteenth centuries 
confirm the existence of old Jewish commercial colo- 
nies in China. Indeed, all facts tend to show a 
long and peculiar development of religious as well 
as social life of the Jews in China, the beginnings 
of which can hardl}^ have been later than the first 
Christian century. K. 

Concerning the history of the Chinese Jews in the 
Middle Ages a very few isolated facts are known. 
The two Mohammedan travelers of 851 who are 
quoted above state that at that period "many of 
them, for the sake of riches and preferment, have 
abjured their own religion." This is corroborated 
by Abu Zaid Hasan al-Sirafi (Reinaud, " Geographic 
d'Abulfeda," i. Ixxxiii., Paris, 1848), according 
to whom "120,000 Mohammedans, Jews, Christians, 
and Parsees, who had come there for commerce, 
were in the revolt of Baichu in the year 884 massa- 
cred in Canfu, the chief port for all the Arabian 
merchants." It seems very probable that in the 
tenth century a new colony of Jews came into 
China, as Professor Chavannes declares: "Between 
960 and 1126 (Sung dynasty) Jews coming from 
India brought, for the first time, as tribute to the 
court of China, stuffs from western maritime coun- 
tries (' si yang poo '). The Jews came to China by 
sea, and not by crossing central Asia ; they were 
members of the Jewish colonies settled in India. 
Lastly, their arrival does not appear to have been 
prior to the end of the tenth century c.e." 

Marco Polo refers to the powerful commercial 
and political influence of the Jews in China in 
1286 (see Murray's translation of "Polo's Travels," 
p. 99). Ibn Batuta (see "Monatsschrift," 1895, p. 
329) in the fourteenth century speaks of Al-Khansa 
—which Mollendorf identifies with Hangchau; Neu- 
bauer ("Jew. Quart. Rev." x. 125) with Canfu— as 
having many resident Mohammedans, Jews, and 

The Jews, who were never active participants 




in Chinese affairs, being taken for Moliammedans 
("Hwei Hwei"), are nevertheless mentioned in 
Chinese annals: 

" The Jews are referred to for the first time in the 
'Yuen shi ' under the year 1329, on the occasion of 
the reestablishment of the law on the collection of 
taxes from Dissent- 
ers. Mention of them 
is again made under 
the year 1354, when, 
on account of several 
Insurrections in 
China, rich Moham- 
medans and Jews 
were invited to the 
capital in order to join 
the army. In both 
cases they are named 
'Chu hu' (Djuhud)" 
("Journal North- 
China Branch of Roy- 
al Asiatic Society," 
new series, x. 38). 

Througliout the 
Middle Ages the Eu- 
ropean Jews had no 
knowledge of the ex- 
istence of Jews in 
China; even Benja- 
min of Tudela, who 
mentions China ( = 
|>V; see Asher's ed. of 
the "Itinerary," i. 
194, ii. 189), seems to 
know nothing about 
them. It was through 
Catholic missionaries 
in the seventeenth century that the first informa- 
tion reached Europe of a Jewish community, 
consisting of about five hundred or six hun- 
dred members, in K'ai Fung-Foo, the ancient cap- 
ital of Honan; of one at Hangchau-Foo ; and of 
others in other Chinese towns. But owing to the 
existence of an ancient synagogue at K'ai-Fung- 
Foo, which, though rebuilt several times, had pre- 
served the oldest records of Jewish settlements, the 

interest of the historians was centered 

The Jews upon the Jews there; and the inscrip- 

of K'ai- tious in the Chinese language found on 

Fung-Foo. its marble tablets, dating from the years 

1489, 1512, and 1663, which have been 
often translated and published, have cast unexpected 
light upon a hitherto entirely imknown chapter of 
Jewish history. The following abstracts of these 
inscriptions, taken from "Inscriptions Juives de 
Kai-Fung-Fu," Shanghai, 1900 (see "Jew. Quart. 
Rev." xiii. 20), give an insight into both the history 
and the character of the Chinese Jews. 

The Inscription of 1489 referring to the immigration states : 
" Seventy families came from the Western lands offering tribute 

of cotton cloth to the emperor, who allowed 

The them to settle at Peen-lang " (K'ai-Fung-Foo) . 

Synag-ogue In 1163 the synagogue was erected by a certain 

Records. Yen-too-la; and in 1279 it was rebuilt on a 

larger scale. In 1390 the Jews were granted 
land and additional privileges by Tai-tsou, the founder of the 
Ming dynasty. In 1421 permission was given by the emperor to 
Yen-Tcheng, a physician greatly honored by him, to repair the 

Bird's-Eye View of the Temple Buildings at K'ai-Fung-Foo, China. 

(From "Jewish Quarterly Review.") 

synagogue, incense for use therein being presented by the em- 
peror. In 1461 the synagogue was destroyed by flood, but was 
restored by a "prominent Jew. New copies of the Law were 
procured ; and the table of offerings, the bronze vase, the flower- 
vases, the candlesticks, the Ark, the triumphal arch, the balus- 
trades, and other furniture were presented to the synagogue by 
prominent members of the Jewish community. 
The end of the inscription of 1489 reads : 

"Composed by a pro- 
moted literary gradu- 
ate of the prefecture of 
K'ai-Fung-Foo, named 
Kiu-chung; inscribed by 
a literary graduate of pur- 
chased rank, belonging to 
the district of Tseang-Fu, 
named Tsaou-tso ; and en- 
graved by a literary grad- 
uate of purchased rank, 
belonging to the prefec- 
ture of K'ai-Fung-Foo, 
named Foo-joo. Erected 
on a fortunate day, in the 
middle of summer, in the 
second year of Hung-che, 
A.D. 1488 [read]489j, in 
the forty-sixth year of the 
seventieth cycle, by a dis- 
ciple of the religion of 
Truth and Purity." 

In an inscription of 1512 
set up by a Chinese man- 
darin it is stated : " Adam 
the first man was from 
Teen-chou in the West." 
[This seems to point to In- 
dia or Ceylon as the Chi- 
nese Eden, as does also, 
perhaps, a rather obscure 
sentence in the previous 
(1489) inscription: "Our 
religion comes originally 
from T'heen-chuh" = 
India.— K.] 

Referring to the immi- 
gration, this inscription 
says : " During the Han 
dynasty this religion en- 
tered China. In 1164 a synagogue was built at Peen [K'ai- 
Fung-Foo]. In 1296 it was rebuilt. [The dates in Tobar's 
and Glover's translations differ slightly.] Those who prac- 
tise this religion are found in other places than Peen [K'ai- 
Fung-Foo] ; but, wherever they are met with, they all, 
without exception, honor the sacred writings and venerate 
Eternal Reason in the same manner as the Chinese, shun- 
ning superstitious practises and image-worship. These sacred 
books concern not Jews only, but all men, kings and subjects, 
parents and children, old and young. Differing little from our 
[the Chinese !] laws, they are summed up m 
High Repu- the worship of heaven [God], the honor of par- 
tation of ents, and the veneration of ancestors." Speak- 
Chinese ing of the Jews themselves, the Chinese monu- 
Je^ws. mental testimony continues : " They excel in 
agriculture, in merchandise, in magistracies, 
and in warfare, and are highly esteemed for integrity, fidelity, 
and a strict observance of their religion." 
At the end of the inscription of 1512 occurs : 
"This tablet was erected by the families Yen, L6, Kaou, 
Chaou, Kin, E, and Cheng, at the rebuilding of the synagogue, 
in the first month of autumn, in the seventh year of Chlng-tih, 
of the Ming dynasty, a.d. 1511 [read 1512]." 

Another inscription dated 1663, by a Chinese mandarin, after- 
ward minister of state, begins in the same manner as the first 
two, dwelling first on the virtues of Adam, Noah, Abraham, and 
Moses, and then on the conformity of the Jewish law and litera- 
ture with those of the Chinese. After relating the history of 
the Jewish settlement, it gives a graphic account of the rebel- 
lion which caused the fall of the Ming dynasty in 1642 and the 
destruction of the city, the synagogue, and many Jewish lives, 
and of the rescue of the sacred writings by a Jewish mandarin, 
who, with the help of the troops, restored the city, and together 
with his brother rebuilt the synagogue in 1653 (see Chao Y.vfi- 
Cheng). Only one complete scroll of the Law having been 
recovered from the waters, this was placed in the middle of the 
Ark ; and twelve other scrolls were copied and placed around 


it. Other holy vvritinf?s and prayer-books were repaired by mem- 
bers of the community, whose names are perpetuated in tlie 
tablet, together with the names of all the dignitaries who took 
part in the restoration. 

So long as the Jewish inhabitants of China contin- 
ued to enjoy the imperial protection as mighty men 
of commerce, their Persian brethren furnished them 
with all the necessary means of religious education. 
Their commercial and social decline broke off their 
connection with the West; and a state of ignorance 
followed. Thus were they found by 
Com- the Catholic missionaries in the seven- 

mercial teenth century, and in a worse condi- 
and Social tion by the Protestant missionaries — 

Decline. both endeavoring to convert them, un- 
til the Chinese government interfered 
with their attempts. 

At the beginning of the seventeenth century the 
founder of the Jesuit mission at Peking, Father 
Matteo Ricci, received a young Jew who came to 
see him, declaring that he worshiped one God. At 
the mission, seeing a picture representing the Virgin 
with the child Jesus, he believed she was Rebekah 
with Esau or Jacob, and said that he came from 
K'ai-Fung-Foo, in the province of Honan, where 
ten or twelve families belonging to his religion 
dwelt, having a synagogue, in which there were 
books written in tlie language (Hebrew) of a Bible 
shown to him Ijy 
Ricci. Too old to 
travel, Ricci sent to 
K'ai-Fung-Foo a Chi- 
nese Jesuit. Later, 
the Jesuits Aleni 
(1613), Gozani (1704), 
Gaubel, and Do- 
menge (Father Tobar, 
" Inscriptions Juives 
de Kai-Fung-Fu," 
Shanghai, 1900), 
brought with them 
much information 
from K'ai-Fung-Foo, 
which they had vis- 

When the existence 
of Jews in China be- 
came known to their 
European brethren, 
steps were taken to 
communicate with 
them by Isaac Nieto, 
ha ham of London 
(1760), who addressed 
Hebrew letter to 
them imploring them 
to give information 
of their origin, their 

condition, and their needs. Their answer, writ- 
ten in Hebrew and Chinese, has disappeared. In 
1842 James Finn, British consul at Jerusalem, in- 
terested himself in these Chinese Jews; and a let- 
ter which he received from them (1870) in reply 
to his own, printed in his work " The Orphan Col- 
ony of Jews in China," 1872, disclosed the sad fact 
of their utter destitution and religious decay. But 
this state of affairs had been made known as early 

as 1850 by Dr. Smith, Bishop of Victoria, after in- 
quiries made on behalf of the London Missionary 

In order to secure information of the Chinese 
Jews at K'ai-Fung-Foo, a number of missionaries 
and Jewish merchants were sent thither. They re- 
ported that a few families, Jewish in name only, 
but sharply differentiated from the surrounding 
heathens and Mohammedans, lived there in abject 
poverty. They could read no Hebrew, had not 
had a rabbi for fifty years, intermarried outside the 
faith, and preserved only a few cerenionies and 
names of holy days. 

" The expectation of a Messiah seems to have been entirely 
lost. The rite of circumcision, which appears to have been ob- 
served at the period of their discovery by the Jesuits tWo centu- 
ries ago, had been totally discontinued. . . . They had peti- 
tioned the Chinese emperor to have pity on their poverty, and 
to rebuild their temple. No reply had been received from Pe- 
king ; but to this feeble hope they still clung. Out of seventy 
family names or clans [see above] not more than seven now re- 
mained, numbering about 200 individuals in all, dispersed over 
the neighborhood. A few of them were shopkeepers in the 
city ; others were agriculturists at some little distance from the 
suburbs ; while a few families also lived in the temple precincts, 
almost destitute of raiment and shelter. According to present 
appearances, in the .iudgment of native messengers, after a few 
years all traces of Judaism will probably have disappeared, and 
this Jewish remnant will have been amalgamated with and 
absorbed into surrounding Mohammedanism" (Smith, "The 

Jews at Kai-Fung-1 


Interior of the Synagogue 

(From " Jewish Qu 

1851, pa«sim ; "Jews in 
China," in "North-China 
Herald," No. 25, Jan. 18, 

Two of the Chi- 
nese travelers were 
sent a second time to 
K'ai-Fung - Foo, and 
returned to Shang- 
hai in July, 1851, 
bringing with them 
new information 
which corrected in 
part the previous re- 
ports : 

"During their former 
visit our travelers, by mis- 
taking family names for 
individuals, greatly under- 
rated the number of the 
Jewish community. Cir- 
cumcision also appears 
to be practised, though 
the tradition respecting 
its origin and object ap- 
pears to be lost among 

Attempts to send 
Jews to offer a help- 
ing hand to the for- 
lorn brethren and to 
revive the colony 
were made in England 
and in the United States in 1852 and 1864, but 
without success, owing to the occurrence of the 
T'ai-P'ing rebellion, the federal war, and tlie death 
of Benjamin II., the Jewish traveler, who had in- 
terested himself in them (see Benjamin II. , " Acht 
Jahre in Asien und Afrika," 1858, p. 157, and the 
appeal made in the " Jewish Chronicle " for April 29, 
After the T'ai-P'ing rebels had left the Yang-tse 

at K'ai-Fung-Foo, China. 

»rterly Review.") 




River, going northward in 1857, the Jewish colony 

of K'ai-Fung-Foo was scattered with the rest of 

the population, and its members fled to 

Attempts various places, even to the seaports. 

to Re- Two or three of these were known to 
habilitate the present writer. They had all of 

Colony. the characteristic features of those of 

their race who came to Shanghai in 

1851, although they were dressed like the other 

Chinese and wore a cue. Most of them returned 

to K'ai-Fung-Foo. 

The information given by Aaron Arnauld in 1855 
(see Benjamin II., I.e.); by A. P. Martin, the Ameri- 
can missionary, in his 
work "A Cycle of 
Cathay " (see also 
1895, p.328);byLieb- 
ermann, in his re- 
port to the Anglo- 
Jewish Association 
(see "Jew. Chron." 
July 11, 1879); and, 
finally, by Lehmann, 
an officer of the Ger- 
man army at Kiau- 
Chau (" American He- 
brew," Jan. 12, 1900), 
has given the impulse 
to an agitation which 
promises to bring re- 
lief and possibly re- 
instation to the or- 
phan colony (see 
"Jew. Quart. Rev." 
X i i i. 40; "Jew. 
Chron." June 23, 
1900, and Aug. 38, 
1903). According to 
Aaron Arnauld, cous- 
in of Aaron Arnauld, 
the grand rabbi of 
Strasburg (see Ben- 
jamin II., I.e.), many 
Jews have emigrated, 
during the Chinese 
wars with the Tatars, 
to Kiang-su, to Arnoy, and to Peking; but they have 
no synagogue in those places. A number of Jews 
have under English protection removed to Shanghai 
and Hongkong, where they have engaged in the 
opium and cotton trades. 

In 1900 the community of K'ai-Fung-Foo num- 
bered 140 souls, without a leader, synagogue, or any 
well-defined system of education. Since 1900 re- 
newed efforts have been made by the Society for the 
Rescue of the Chinese Jews, looking toward the res- 
toration of the Jewish religion at K'ai-Fung-Foo. 
Several Jews of Shanghai have interested themselves 
in this work. 

G. H. Ck. 

II. Religious Customs : The synagogue of 
K'ai-Fung-Foo, since 1870 a heap of ruins, is de- 
scribed by the Jesuit fathers of the eighteenth cen- 
tury as having covered a space from 300 to 400 feet 

Jews of K'ai-Fung-Foo, China 

(From a photograph.) 

in length and 150 feet in width, with its four courts 
facing the west; that is, toward Jerusalem (see 
r Kings viii. 88; Dan. vi. 11). In the 
The center of the first court stood, sur- 

Synagogue loundcd in Chinese fashion by trees, 
at K'ai- a large triumphal arch, bearing an in- 
Fung-Foo. scription in Chinese characters re- 
cording the dedication of the building 
to the Creator and Preserver of all things. The 
bath-houses and lavatories in these precincts were 
apparently used for ablution in preparation for 
divine service. The second court, entered by a 
great gate, was opened only on special occasions. 
Dwellings for the 
keepers of the edifice 
flanked its northern 
and southern walls. 
The third court, con- 
tainiug reception- 
rooms for guests, led 
through anotlier tri- 
umphal arch into me- 
morial chapels on 
cachside. The fourth 
court consisted of two 
divisions separated 
1iy a row of trees. 
In the center of one 
htood a large brazen 
vase of incense and 
a marble lion upon a 
pedestal, on either 
side of which there 
was placed a brazen 
vase filled with flow - 
('r.s — certainly in ac- 
cordance with Chi- 
n(>se customs and 
views. Adjoining the 
northern wall, how- 
ever, was a recess in 
\\ liich, in conformity 
\\ ith Gen. xxxii. 33, 
tlie sinews were ex- 
tracted from the ani- 
mals slain for food — 
an institution all the 
more remarkable since nowhere else is the synagogue 
chosen for that practise. The Chinese were so im- 
pressed by it that they gave the Jews 
Peculiar the name of "siuew-pluckers." The 
Religious second division of the court led, 
Rites. through an emj^ty space in its center, 
into the " Hall of Ancestors" to the right 
and the left. Here at the vernal and autumnal equi- 
noxes veneration was paid in Chinese manner to the 
Jewish patriarchs. The mode of veneration, how- 
ever, differed from the Chinese in that only the 
names of the Biblical ancestors were written on a 
tablet, and no picture was presented. Further, in- 
stead of the animal sacrifices mentioned in the 
inscription (see below), incense was used, a censer 
being assigned to each patriarch ; the largest one to 
Abraham as the most venerated, the rest for the 
other patriarchs (the twelve sons of Jacob), Moses, 
Aaron, Joshua, Ezra, and other Biblical person- 



ages, both men and women. In the open space be- 
tween these chapels tabernacles ornamented with 
flowers wisre erected every year at the Feast of 

The synagogue proper— an edifice about 60 x 40 
feet, to which a portico with a double row of four 
columns formed the entrance — had in the center a 
magnificent elevated chair with embroidered cush- 
ions, upon which the scroll of tlie Law rested 
Avhile being read. This was called the "chair of 
Moses" (compare Matt, xxiii. 2; "Rev. Et. Juives," 
xxxiv. 299, XXXV. 110; see Almemar). In front 
of this a table was placed, upon which the name of 
the emperor was written in golden letters, accom- 
panied by the prayer "May he live ten thousand 
myriads of years! " Over the chair of Moses was a 
dome with the " Shema' Yisrael," "Baruk shem 
kebod malkuto," and other Hebrew sentences in- 
scribed in golden Hebrew letters. 

On a large table by the door stood six candelabra 
having three different kinds of light, a vase for in- 
cense, and a tablet recording the generous donations 
of incense by the emperors of the Ming dynasty. 
A laver for the washing of hands (probably for 
the priests before reciting the benediction) stood 

At the extreme end of the synagogue was the 
Holy of Holies (which was totally dark) containing 
the Ark. In the latter were placed the thirteen scrolls 
of the Law, each in a separate case and enclosed 
in silk curtains; that in the middle, which was the 
one most venerated, representing Moses, and 
the others representing the twelve tribes. The 
whole of this part of the synagogue was elevated, 
stairs leading up to it on both sides. 

Holy of and was inaccessible to any one but 

Holies. the rabbi and the priests, probably 
because the scrolls were too sacred 
to be handled by any but the rabbi, and because the 
priests used the place for the "dukan,"or blessing, 
both priests and rabbi undergoing ablution before 
the services. The i)lace, however, regarded with 
especial reverence as the Holy of Holies, bore the 
name "House of Heaven [of God], Bet-El." The 
name given to the synagogue in general was "Li- 
pai se" (Place of Ceremony, or, according to others, 
Weekly IMeeting-IIouse), which seems to indicate 
that it was used only on Sabbath for service. 

As in most Eastern countries, the worshipers put 
off their shoes on entering the synagogue. During 
service they wore a blue head-dress in contradistinc- 
tion to the ^lohammedans, who wear a white 
one. A nmiarkable custom prescribed that he who 
read the Law should cover his face with a trans- 
parent veil of gauze, in imitation of Moses (Ex. 
xxxiv. 3;{), a practise \uiknown otherwise, but to 
which Paul seems to allude as being well established 
in his time, Avhcn he says. "For until this day re- 
maineth the siime veil untaken away in the reading 
of the Old Testament " (II Cor. iii. 14). 

At the side of the reader stood a monitor, to cor- 
rect his reading if necessary (this is probably a 
survival of the meturgeman). The practise of call- 
ing up laymen to read from the Law does not seem 
to have been known. In the inscription of 1489 
tliese rules are given regarding divine service; 

"Thrice a day we pray: morning (at the fourth hour), noon, 
and evening (at the sixth hour)." This corresponds with l>s. 
Iv. 18, not with the Mishnah Ber. Iv. 1. "The worshiper flrst 
bends his body ('"•Mnna'n) ; then he offers the silent prayer, 
swaying the body to and fro: and at the close he retreats 
three paces and then advances Ave, afterward turning toward the 
left and the right, and Anally looks upward and downward In 
order thus to profess the belief that God is everywhere " (com- 
pare R. Akiba in Ber. 31a). 

Very singular, and indicative of powerful Chinese influence, 
is the following : " It is incumbent upon the Jew to venerate his 
ancestors. Twice in the year— in spring and in autumn— he 
offers them oxen and sheep together with the fruits of the 
season " (compare Tobit iv. 17 ; Tosef., Shek. i. 12). Noteworthy 
also are the following passages: "Four days every month are 
devoted to purification, fasting, and charitable acts " [whether 
these are Fridays, the preparatory days for the Sabbath, or the 
four lunar phases of each month, is not clear]. " Each seventh 
day is devoted to rest, and a fresh period of good deeds com- 
mences anew." Here reference is made to the ancient Chinese 
work, the " Book of Diagrams." " In the fourth season of the 
year the Jew places himself under severe restraint for seven 
days [seven in place of the Ten Penitential Days]. One entire 
day [Day of Atonement] he abstains altogether from food, de- 
voting the time to prayer and repentance." 

The Sabbath and festivals were, indeed, strictly 
observed by them, including even the Feast of Sim- 
hat Torah, when Pater Domengesaw them carry the 
thirteen scrolls of the Law in procession round the 
Bet-El Ark ; the Song of Moses, however, was read the 
day before, on Shemini ' Azeret. Services for the Fast 
of Ab and for Purim are also included in their litur- 
gies. Their celebration of the New Moon as a festival 
is proof of a pre-Talmudic tradition (compare Soferim 
xix. 9). Their calendar was regulated 
Sabbaths by the moon like that of the rest of 
and the Jews, and like that of the Chinese. 

Festivals. In this connection the fact should be 
noted that their division of the Torah 
is into fifty-three weekly portions for the Sabbaths of 
the year, as is stated also in the account of the hand- 
ing down of the Law given in the inscription of 1489: 

Abraham is " the nineteenth in descent from Adam, who in 
the year 146 of the Chow dynasty (3108 B.C.) became the founder 
of the religion of the One God, denouncing the worship of 
images. His sublime doctrine was submitted to Moses, who in 
the six hundred and thirteenth year of the Chow dynasty (1641 
B.C.), after forty days' stay on Mount Sinai spent in fasting 
and in communion with God. brought down the Law. From 
him were the fifty-three portions of the Torah, together with the 
tradition handed down to Ezra, the great reformer and contem- 
porary of the founder of the Chinese religion [Confucius]." 

This division differs from the Masoretic tradition, 
which, as a rule, has fifty four portions (see Zunz, " G. 
V. " p. 4, note cc. , where only two exceptional author- 
ities are quoted); it seems to have been based upon 
the regtdar fifty-two Sabbaths of the year, with an 
additional parashah (Deut. xxxiii. -xxxiv.) for She- 
mini 'Azeret or Simhat Torah. As will be seen 
further on, they had also Haftarot for the Minhah 
service, which, again, differed from Talmudical cus- 
tom, and had only its parallel in some Babylonian 
(or ancient Persian ?) congregations (see Shab. 116b; 
Rapoport, " 'Erek Millin," pp. 170 tt seq.). Their 
pronunciation of Hebrew was found by the Jesuit 
fathers to correspond with the one generally accepted 
by the Jews ; also their views of the Merkabah and 
of the future. Bibliomancy was practised by them. 
If the statement in Finn's "The Jews in China" (p. 
7) be correct, they were not particular in regard to 
eating forbidden animals. 

Their literature also bears the stamp of various 




epochs, a fact not fully kept in mind by Jewish 
writers on the subject. According to a description 

given by the missionaries (Finn, I.e. 

Their pp. 28-48), the following classes of 

Literature, books were deposited in the Bet-El 

Ark besides the scrolls of the Law : (1) 
The Ta-King, or Temple Scripture, containing the 
fifty three parashiyyot for the Sabbaths of the year, 
written in large letters with the vowel-points, ac- 
cents, and other scribal signs. (2) The Haftarah, 
or "supplementary books," containing selected por- 
tions from Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kiugs, and the 
Later Prophets. (3) The historical books— proba- 
bly more correctly, as Finn thinks, the Hagiographa, 
comprising Esther, Ezra, Nehemiah, the first chap- 
ters of Chionicles, and the two books of the Mac- 
cabees. These last, together with Judith and Ben 
Sira, in their possession, are another indication of a 
greater antiquity than lias been assigned thoin by 
many writers. (4) Expositors. What these books 
contained was not ascertained by the Catholic fa- 
thers; possibly they were of a IMidrashic character, 
and, if so, they would be of great value to stu 
dents if they could be obtained. (5) Ritual books, 
about fifty in number, one of which bore the title 
" INIinhah Tamid " (Perpetual Afternoon Service), and 
contained besides the ju'ayers the readings for each 
Sabbath afternoon of the year and a special IMinhah 
Maftir (Haftarah). A special ]\Iiuhali for the Nev,- 
Moon festival was also pointed out. 

Their liturgy, as preserved in the books taken 
to Europe, bears quite a diU'erent ciiaracter. These 
books, after careful examination bj' JS'eubauer and 
Elkau Adler ("Jew. Quart. Rev." viii. 123, x. 584), 
have been shown to belong to the geonic time — some 
of the piyyutim are compositions of Saadia— and they 

were introduced into China from Pcr- 

Their sia. The ritual is decidedly Persian ; 

Liturgy, and the directions for the prayers, the 

translations of parts of the piyyutim, 
as well as the colophons at the end of the Penta- 
teuch sections, are in Persian. Parts of the ]\Iish- 
nah.are quoted in their praj-er-book, but nothing 
from the Gemara. 

The Pentateuch shows observance of the same sof- 
eric rules regarding the letter " waw" and the IDC n"'2 
as are found in the Yemenite scrolls (see G. Margo- 
liouth, in "Cat. Hebrew and Samaritan MSS. Brit. 
Mus." 1899, p. 3, No. 6). The Aramean language 
is used in special supplications and songs; also in 
the announcement of the New Moon, which is 
strongly tinged with Messianic hopes. So also in 
the Elijah song for the of the Sabbath. In 
the "Hazkarat Neshamot" seven Biblical men- 
Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Moses, Aaron, Elijah, and 
Elisha (perhaps Joshua and Elijah originally)— and 
seven Biblical women— Sarah, Rebekah, Rachel, 
Leah, Jochebed, Miriam, and Zipporah— are men- 
tioned as representatives of the seven classes of 
saints who dwell under the tree of iife in Eden. The 
Pesali Haggadah is almost the same as that of the 
Yemen Jews. As Elkan Adler ("Jew. Quart. Rev." 
X. 601) suggests, the n''^'^^ (" messenger ") who signed 
his name as copyist upon the Pentateuch was the 
typical transmitter of Persian rites, rituals, and 
writings to these Chinese Jews. Another character- 

istic name for a copyist is " ha-melammed " (the 
teacher). Some of the writings mentioned above 
were first made accessible to European scholars 
when brought to Shanghai from K'ai-Fung-Foo by 
the two Chinese travelers in 1851, as is narrated in 
the following extract: 

Six of the twelve rolls of the Law, which they saw during 
their previous visit, each containing a complete copy of the 
whole Pentateuch, were purchased for four hundred taels of 
silver (about £130) from the Jews duly assembled to the number 
of 3()0 persons ; and the manuscripts were conveyed in open 
day from the synagogue to the lodgings of our travelers. They 
are each written in a line legible hand on thick sheepskins 
sewed together, and are without points, or any of the modern 
divisions into sections or even books. They are in excellent 
preservation, except one, which was injured by a flood during 
the Ming dynasty, but is considered critically of the greatest 
value. . . . Forty smaller Hebrew manuscripts were also 
brought away, which, on further examination, may possibly 
throw light on their early history and migration. 

Facsimiles of the following Hebrew manuscripts, 
which were brought back by the two Chinese en- 
voys from the synagogue, were publislicd in 1851 at 
Shangliai (printed at the London Missionary Soci- 
ety's Press): 

(o) Thirteenth section of the Law, nictr n'l'Ni (Ex. 1. 1-vi. 1). 
The last page contains the following note : " Holiness to Jeho- 
vah! The Uabbi Akil)a, the son of Aaron, the son of Ezra, heard 
it. Shadiavor, the son of Bethuel, the son of Moses, read it. 
Mordecai, the son of Moses, witnessed it. And he believed in 
Jehovah: and He counted it to him for righteousness." (/>) 
Twenty-third section of the Law. iii|i3 n'^N (Ex. xxxvili, 21- 
xl. ;].><). The following note is appended to the last page: " Holi- 
ness to Jehovah 1 The learned Rabbi Phinehas, the son of Israel, 
the s(m of Joshua, the son of Benjamin, heard the reading. I 
have wailed for Thy salvation, O Jehovah, Amen." 
BinLiOGRAPHY: Rev. Eludes Juives., xxxv. 110; xli. 293, 
301; Cordier, Les Juifs en Chine, Paris, 1891; idem, 
Jiibliiilheca Sinica, 1700-68, cols. 6.35-6.38; Jew. Quart. 
Her. viii. 12:j, :jtj2; ix. 740; x. 6:.'4; xiii. 18; J(nir. Am. Or. 
Sdc. ii. 3-tl. iii. 235; Atliourtim, Feb. 6, 1892, p. 180; 3Io- 
natffchrift fUr GcscJi.und \Viti.'<enschaft des Judentliums, 
xxxvii. 289; il). xxxix. 327 et seq.; Jew. Cliron. London, 
April 0, 1900, p. 19; July 22, 1900, p. 21; Jan. 4, 190L p. 15; 
Aug. 4, V.m. p. 10 ; Bloch's Wochenschrift, 19IJ0, pp. 44, 791 ; 
Katz, IsracUtischc MouatsschrifU 1898, Nos. 1-4; Die H'cff, 
No. 20, p. 10;No. 5, p. 9; Lopez, The Portugtiesein Mala- 
/>((/•, p. Ixxxii., Lisbon, 1898; Gesellschaft filr Jildische 
^'t)Us.<kullde, i. 7; Jaarhoeken voor die Geschiedenis dcr 
Joiidcn in Nederland, 1838, p. 120; Delitzsch, dcr 
JU(U.'<chen Poesic, p. V-i8, Leipsic, 1836; UVnivers Israelite, 
1901, Nos. 28, 29, 30; Louis Levy, Lea Jiiifs en Chine; Ben- 
jamin II., Acht Jalire in Asien und Afrika, 1858. pp. 1.56- 
163; Andree. Volk.^kunde dcr Juden. 18«i, pp. ;?44-248; A. 
K. (i lover, Tlie Jews of the E.vtreme Enstini J)iii<i>ora,iii 
The Mciiinah, iv.-vi., and in the Bahnlnniini hikI Orioital 
Rcc(n-ds, v.-vi.; Cat. of liurroiv Lihrarn : Chim'sc scrolls In 
possession of Judge Sulzberger, Philadelphia, Pa., and of 
Lenox Library, New York; Finn, Tlie Jews in Cltina. p. 12, 
London, 1843: idem. The Orphan Colony of Jews in China, 
London. 1873 ; compare letter in Hebrew from Jews of London 
to Jews of China in 1760, Brit. Mus. MS., Add. No. 29,868 ; Chris- 
topher Theophilus von Murr, in Journal zurKnn stun dLit- 
tcratur, 1779, vii. 240 et seq. ; ib. 1780, ix. 81 et seq. ; idem, Ig- 
vatii Koegleri, S. J., Pekini . . . Notiti'V S. S. Bihliorum 
Judaeorum in Imperio Sinen.-<is. p. 83, Halle, 1805; Idem, 
Versuch eincr Geschichte der Juden in Sina, p. 136, Halle, 
1806; De Guignes, in Mem. deLitt. Tirh des Registres de 
VAeademie des Tnscriptions et Belles-Lettres.ISm, xlviii., 
763 rt seq.: Silvestre de Sacy in Notices et Extraits des 
Mauiiscrits de la Bibliotheque du Roi, 1831, iv. 592e£seg., 
xii. 277 et seq. 
E. c. K. 


The sea marking the eastern boundarj' of the Israel- 
itish possessions, whence the boundary proceeded by 
the River Jordan to the Dead Sea (Num. xxxiv. 11). 
It also marked the western boundary of the trans- 
Jordanic tribes (Deut. iii. 17). In later times the sea 
was called Geimesaret or lake of Galilee ; the modern 
name is Bahr Tabariyyah (Lake of Tiberias). It is 
about 13 miles in length and 8 miles wide, its great- 




est ■width being a little north of the center. It is 
680 feet below sea-level. The Jordan flows into and 
passes out of it. The lake itself is filled with vari- 
ous kinds of fish, and even in ancient times provided 
a livelihood for many fishermen. At present the 
land round the lake is sterile, but, according to the 
description of Josephus, was at one time very fertile. 

2. In Josh. xix. 35, Chinnereth is the name of a 
town which by Talmudic authority is identified with 
Gennesor (Neubauer, "G. T." p. 214). It is of con- 
siderable antiquity, as it occurs in a hieroglyphic 
inscription of ThothmesIII. (W. Max MuUer, "Asien 
und Europa," p. 84). 

E. G. n. G. B. L. 

CHINON, SAMSON OF. See Samson of 


CHIOS : Island in the ^gean Sea; Turkish pos- 
session, 344 miles west of Smyrna. It is not known 
with any certainty when the Jews first established 
themselvesat Chios. According To the local legends 
reported by the traveler .loseph Benjamin II, the 
Jewish cemetery of the island contains the tomb of 
Jacob ben Asiier, author of the "Turim," who is 
said to have put in at the island in order to avoid 
shipwreck, and lived there for a number of years, un 
til his death in 1340. The supposed tombstone of this 
learned rabbi is situated at the foot of a terebinth, 
but the inscription has become illegible. The tomb 
is regarded by the Jews as holy ground. Formerly 
troops of pilgrims from Smyrna met there, espe- 
cially on tlie thirty-third day of 'Omer. The syna- 
gogue of the island of Chios is named after Jacob 
ben Aslier. 

Chios was an object of dispute in the Middle Ages 
among the Byzantine emperors, the Genoese and 
the Venetians; audit fell into the hands of the Otto- 
man Turks in loOo. Probably under the Turkish 
dominion the Jewish community of the island grax^lu- 
ally grew. Toward 1700 Isaac al-Ghazzi, a rabbi be- 
longing to a Smyrnese family of Talmudists, was 
chief rabbi of the island ; he is the author of a He- 
brew work. " Doresh Tob," a collection of discourses. 
Nothing further is heard of this community, al- 
though it continued to exist, for the magnificent 
marble tomb of Fernandez Diaz, a Jew of Salonica, 
dating somewhat prior to 1800, still attracts the ut- 
tenfion of visitors to the cemetery-. 

The sinritual leaders of the community during 
the nineteenth century were K. ^Mordecai Aboab, II. 
IVIatathia Alluf, and K. Abraham Franco, who ollki- 
ated for twelve years (1846-58). The chief event in 
the history of the Jews of Chios during that century 
was the earthquake )f April 4, 1881. Twenty-one 
of them were killed, eight disappeared, and twenty- 
four were crippled. The Alliance Israelite Univer- 
selle sent aid to the island through irs representa- 
tives at Smyrna. The catastrophe had some good 
results, however, for the ghetto, situated within the 
walls of the castle, was completely destroyed, and 
the Jews, determining to live outside the city, set- 
tled in the Prankish quarter, among the Greek 
Orthodox, Catholic, and Protestant inhabitants. 

The Jews of Chios number only 200 in a total of 
62,000 inhabitants, including Greek Orthodox, Ro- 
man Catholics, and Mohammedans. In 1885 they 

built, through public subscription, a fine synagogue 
in the Prankish quarter. As the community is too 
small to be elaborately organized, it has a lay pres- 
ident who guards the interests of his coreligionists be- 
fore the government, and raises a tax (the " gabelle " ) 
on meat, which is the only revenue for paying the ex- 
penses of the synagogue and for contributing to the 
support of the two Jewish schools. The schools, 
which are both in the same building, are subsidized 
by the Alliance Israelite Universelle ; together they 
count seventy pupils, fifteen of whom are Gentiles. 
Since 1890 Moses Issachar has been president of the 
community, succeeding his brother Judah, who died 
in that year. 

D. M. Fr. 

CHiaUITILLA. See Gikatilla. 

CHISDAI. See Hasdai ; Hisdai. 

CHITTIM (KITTIM). See Cyprus. 

CHITJN : A word occurring in connection with 
" Siccuth " in Amos v. 26. Scholars have long been 
puzzled to know whether in this passage thej' are 
common nouns or proper names. " Siccuth " is proba- 
bly the Assyrian "Sakkut" (Schradcr, "K. A T." 
pp 442 et seq ), r.n epithet of Ninib and Anu. Ninib 
was identified with Saturn (Jeinsen, "Kosmologie," 
p. 136), *he Assyrian name of which was " Kaiman " 
("Kaiwan'). The Septuagint and Syriac readings 
give ground for holding that JV3 originally stood in 
the Hebrew text in place of JV3 (compare Barton, 
"Studies of Oriental Club of Philadelphia," p. 113; 
and Nowack, " Kleine Propheten," p. 143), the point- 
ing of the latter being a Masoretic distortion on the 
pattern of ppEi' ("abomination"). "Sakkut" and 
" Kaiwan " occur together in Rawlinson, " Inscrip- 
tions of Western Asia," iv. pi. 52, col. 4, line 9, in a 
list of epithets (compare Zimmern, " Beitr. zur Kennt- 
uiss der Babylonischen Religion," i. 10). Probably 
they wore introduced together here through Baby- 
lonian influence in a verse regarded by Wellhausen 
("Kleine Propheten," ad loc.) slwX Nowack, on the 
basis of II Kings xvii. 30, as a gloss. Budde (" Re- 
gion f Israel to the Exile," pp. 67 et seq ) regards 
the verse :.s genuine, and the Babylonian influence 
as potent in the wilderness. Reuss and W. R. Smith 
("Old Testament and the Jewish Church," 2d ed., 
p. 294) translate the two words as common nouns 
and find no trace of foreign worship in the verse, 
\,hicli they regard as genuine. This view is not so 
probable as the other. 

J. JR. G. A. B. 

man of the Zaporogian Cossacks, born about 1595; 
died at Chigirin Aug. 16, 1675. Unlike many other 
Little-Russian pupils of the Jesuits, Chmielnicki did 
not embrace Roman Catholicism, but eariy in life 
became a champion of the Greek Orthodox faith, to 
which most of the Co.ssacks and the Little-Russian 
peasants belonged. While still in the subordinate 
position of a " sotski " (an officer over a hundred) of 
the Cossacks, subject to the Polish magnate Koniec- 
polski, he was deprived by Chaplinski, the bailiff of 
Chigirin, of his estate of Subotovo. Chaplinski 
availed himself of Chmielnicki 's absence to make a 

Cholera Asiatica 



raid on the place, during which the young son of 
the owner received injuries from which he ultimately 
died, and Chmielnicki 's (second) wife was carried 
off. In this raid Chaplinski was aided by the lease- 
holder of Chigirin, the Jew Zachariah Zabilenki. 
At another time, it is related, a Jew reported to the 
Polish government a secret treaty concluded by 
Chmielnicki with the Tatars. These personal indig- 
nities and injuries embittered him against the Poles 
and the Jews. Still, he was not without friends 
among the Jews themselves ; for, according to Na- 
than Hannover, the Jew Jacob Zabilenki— possibly 
a relative of Zachariah— aided him to escape from 
prison when arrested by Koniecpolski. 

It appears, therefore, that though his personal re- 
sentment influenced his decision to rid the Ukraine 
of the Jews, yet there is little doubt that it was his 
great ambition to become the ruler of the liberated 
Ukraine, which was the main motive that led him to 
instigate the uprising of the Little-Russian people 
against the Poles and the Jews. For years the peo- 
ple of Little Russia had been oppressed by the Po- 
lish landlord. Unwilling to attend to the details of 
administration himself, Chmielnicki made the Jew a 
go-between in his transactions with the peasants of 
Little Russia. He sold and leased certain privileges 
to Jews for a lump sum, and, while enjoying himself 
at the court, left it to the Jewish leaseholder and 
collector to become the embodiment of hatred to the 
oppressed and long-suffering peasant. The accu- 
mulated store of animosity was utilized by Chmiel- 
nicki in directing his cruel measures against the 
J?ws. He told the people that the Poles had sold 
them as slaves " into the hands of the accursed Jews. " 
With tliis as their battle-cry, the Cossacks let loose 
their wildest passions and most ruthlessly massacred 
about three hundred thousand Jews with such 
cruelties as the world had seldom witnessed (1648- 

For this great catastrophe the Jews might have 
prepared themselves had they taken warning from 
the uprising of the Cossacks in 1637, when about 
2,000 Jewish leaseholders and tax-collectors were 
killed in Pereyaslav and its vicinity. This inexcusa- 
ble short-sightedness may be accounted for in part by 
the influence of the cabalistic teachings which dom- 
inated the minds of the South-Russian Jews, and 
which, according to the interpretation of the Zohar 
by the cabalists, brought them to believe firmly in 
the coming of the Messiah in 1648. 

It may be added that, in spite of his numerous 
massacres of Poles and Jews, Chmielnicki failed to 
secure the liberation of the Ukraine. See also 
Cossacks and Little Russia. H. R. 

CHOBA or CHOBAI : A town included among 
those which the Jews fortified against the attacks 
of Holofernes. It Is mentioned in two places (Ju- 
dith iv. 4; XV. 4, 5). Its connection with Jericho in 
Judith iv. 4 has induced Reland to look for it in the 
neighborhood of that city. He identifies it with 
Coabis. Conder (" Pal. Explor. Fund Memoirs," ii. 
231) seeks to identify it with Al-Makhubbi. 

E. G. H. <S. B. L. 

CHOIR: A collection of singers with trained 
voices who take part in divine service and who 

are separated from the congregation. The first 
choir mentioned in the Bible is the one organ- 
ized by the Levites for the Temple service, to be ac- 
companied by musicians. The choir also sang at 
the offering of public sacrifices (" when the burnt 
offering began, the song of the Lord began," II 
Chron. xxix. 27) and at tlie wine-libation (Maimon- 
ides, "Yad," Kele ha-Mikdash, iii.). Two priests 
with silver trumpets gave the signal for the choir 
to begin (Tamid vii. 3). 

The prophet Samuel and King David are said to 
have subdivided the Levites into twenty -four orders, 
each to serve a certain day (Ta'an. 27b; compare 
I Chron. XXV.). Some acted as doorkeepers, and 
others were engaged as either singers or musi- 
cians. Each one was assigned his post in the choir 
or orchestra, and was not permitted, under penalty, 
to assume the position of another. 
Levitical Hence the choristers could not be 
Choir in the instrumentalists, nor vice versa. Five 

Temple, years' preparation, from the age of 
twenty-five to thirty, was required of 
every Levite ; this preparation included instruc- 
tion in singing. This limitation, in vogue at 
the Tabernacle, was, according to the Talmud, 
eliminated in the Temple service, where ability to 
sing, and not age, was the qualification of the Levite 
chorister (Hul. 24a). At the dedication of Solomon's 
Temple the sons of the Levites accompanied the 
choir in singing the praise of God (II Chron. v. 13). 
These young Levites "sweetened" the music with 
their soprano voices, but were not permitted to use 
instruments, and were restricted from entering the 
priests' hall in the Temple before the adult Levites 
had begun to sing. They were not allowed to stand 
on the same platform with tlie latter, but had to 
take up a position on the ground below ('Ar. 13b). 
The Temple choir was composed of no less than 
twelve adult singers besides the young assistants. 

The question whether vocal or instrumental music 
formed the principal service is decided in favor of 
the choir (Suk. 50b ; Maimonides, ib.). Graetz infers 
that the twelve Levites mentioned in the Mishnah 
served in the dual capacity of singers and players 
"Kritischer Commentar zu den Psalmen," p. 65, 
Breslau, 1882), which is contrary to Maimonides, 
who states: "The instrumentalists were not in- 
cluded in the number of twelve. . . . Others who 
stood there were playing the musical instruments " 
("Yad," ib. iii. 3). 

Women took an active part in choir-singing. 
At the exodus from Egypt, Miriam formed a chorus 
composed of women, and sounded the praise of God 
to the accompaniment of drums and dance-music. It 
is said: "God gave to Heman fourteen sons and 
three daughters. All these were under the hands of 
their father for song in the house of 

Female the Lord " (I Chron. xxv. 5), from 
Choristers, which passage some writers errone- 
ously infer that women were included 
in the Temple choir. But the words "all these" 
refer only to the sons, and not to the daughters, as 
is proved by the number of choir members men- 
ti^ned in the list {ib. 7-31; Weisel, ad loc). Ezra 
mentions 200 singing men and singing women 
among those that returned from Babylon to Jeru- 



Cholera Asiatica 

salem (Ezra ii. 65); but for the Temple service 
only the sons of Asaph are counted {ih. iii. 10; com- 
pare Neh. vii. 67-xi. 22). The women choristers, 
however, were heard in dirges in honor of the 
dead. " All the singing men and the singing women 
spake of Josiah in their lamentations " (II Chron. 
XXXV. 25). R. Mei'r says those were the wives of 
the Levites (Pirke R. El. xvii.). 

The Rabbis, after the destruction of the Second 
Temple, issued a decree prohibiting all instrumental 
or vocal music, as a sign of national mourning : " The 
ear that listens to music should be [barren] deaf; 
any house where there is song should eventually be 
destroyed " (Git. 7a). Later on, however, R. Hal 
Gaon contended that this referred only 
After to Arabian love-songs. Maimonides 

Temple permitted the choir to sing in God's 

Times. praise at the synagogue and at all re- 
ligious feasts ("Yad," Ta'anij'ot, v. 
14 ; Shulhan 'Aruk, Orah Hayyim, 560, 3). 

R. Isaiah Hurwitz (died in 1573 at Safed, Pales- 
tine) regrets the choir's custom of prolonging their 
singing at the end of the benedictions , thus interfer- 
ing with the prompt response of "Amen" by the 
congregation; also their arbitrary connection and 
division of the words and syllables, which produce 
a wrong and meaningless reading. " Surely the choir 
of our holy Temple was sweet and pleasing both 
to God and to men, with due respect to precision 
and correct pronunciation of every letter of the 
words. This example we must follow " (" Shene 
Luhot ha-Berit," p. 253b, Amsterdam, 1698). See 
also"Sefer Hasidim," §158, on the necessity for 
singing prayers and the praises of God. 

The modern musical scale was introduced into the 
synagogue at Venice about 1600. Six to eight 
members, who became masters of music, formed a 
choir and sang on every holiday the "Hallel," "En 
Kelohcnu," " 'Alemi," " Yigdal,"and " Adon '01am." 
Some members objected to this innovation; and 
the question, submitted in 1605, was 

Scientific decided favorably by R. Judah Aryeh 

Musical Modena, who was supported by 
Choir the opinion of the following rabbis: 

in Later Benzion Zarfuto, Leib Saraval, Ba- 
Times, ruch b. Samuel, Ezra Panu of Man- 
tua, and Judah b. Moses of Venice 
("Te'udat Shelomoh," xxiv.). 

Solomon Hazzan of Mctz, in his manual for can- 
tors, admits that a cantor can not get along with- 
out choristers, "just as it is impossible for the earth 
to exist without wind " ; but he deprecates the low 
character of some of the singers, and their misbeha- 
vior in frequenting drinking-places, in neglecting to 
pray in the synagogue daily, and in chatting during 
the prayers when they attend on Saturdays and hol- 
idays (ih. xxiii.). lie admonishes the choir to be 
careful in singing the Sabbath "Zemirot" at home, 
lest it appear that they praise God for remuneration 
only {ib. xvi.). 

The beginning of tlie nineteenth century gave 
birth to two extreme parties: the Neo-Hasidim in 
Poland and the Reformers in Germany. Wliile dia- 
metrically opposite in their views, both agreed that 
singing in the house of prayer is an essential part of 
the service. The Hasidim, however, opposed the 

church music and the special, organized choir, as they 
all joined in singing at prayers and sang the "Zemi- 
rot" at home. On the other hand, 
Among the Reformers not only chose a trained 
Hasidim choir, but, through llie iutluence of 
and Israel Jacobsohn at Berlin in 1817, 

Reformers, introduced the organ to accompany 
them (see Organ) ; and afterward per- 
mitted even a mixed choir of men and women. 
This action, according to Graetz, "History of the 
Jews," V. 563-572, called out strong protests from 
the Orthodox rabbis headed by R. Moses Sofer, as 
being prohibited according to the Talmud • " to listen 
to the voice of woman is leading to lusting after 
her" (Ber. 24a; Shulhan 'Aruk, Orah Hayyim, 75, 
3). The male choir is still maintained in Ortho- 
dox synagogues. [A far more important ques- 
tion than that raised by the employment of female 
choristers, is whether non-Jewish choristers of either 
sex should be engaged in a Jewish synagogue; 
whether the most sacred parts of the service should 
thus be sung bj' persons unable to enter into the 
spirit of the religious community which they repre- 
sent. It is greatly to be deplored that this question 
has never received the serious consideration on the 
part of modern congregations which it really de- 
serves.— k.] 

Bibliography: Abraham Portaleone, onnjn ^aSr, xii.-xiii. 
Mantua, 1612 ; Solomon Hazan, 7\T:h'if miy'^i Offeubach, 1718 ; 
Ellezer Lieberman, n;j Six, pp. 14-18, Dessau, 1818 ; Abraham 
b. Lob, a^nn -inx, Responsum 1., Amsterdam, 1820; Joseph 
Levin Saalschiitz, Gesch. unci Wilrdlguiig der Musik hei 
den HehrUern, Berlin, 1829; Abraham Zutra (Klein), r:;r.'7a 
'•'', pp. 40, 109, Hanover, 1834; Leopold Low, Lebensalter in 
der Jlld. Literatur, Szegedin, 1875; idem, Gemmmelte 
Schriften, 1898, iv. 108-119 ; P. Smolenskin, a"nn >o-^-f2 n-;}nn, 
part ii., pp. 267-269 ; Meir Rabbinowicz, □''Jncn, pp. 215-221, 
New York, 1888; Cantor en-Zeitung, vii. No. 3. 
K. J. D. E. 

CHOLERA ASIATICA (In Hebrew sometimes 
yn ^iri, " the bad disease " ) : A specific and com- 
municable disease, characterized by violent vomiting 
and purging. It prevails endemically in some parts 
of India, and from time to time is diffused epidem- 
ically throughout the world. The mortality is 
about 50 per cent of all the persons attacked. The 
first appearance of the disease in Europe occurred in 
1817, when it broke out in Lower Bengal and thence 
spread over Europe, until it disappeared in 1823. 
Since then the disease has appeared in Europe on 
six different occasions ; viz., in 1826, 1837, 1846, 1863, 
1882, and 1892-96. 

According to all the etiological factors, excepting 
Alcoholism, of course, the Jews should suffer from 
cholera more frequently than, or at least as often as, 
orher races. But careful investigation has shown 
that during most of the epidemics Jews 
Immunity were affected to a lesser degree than 

of Jews. non-Jews; indeed, during some epi- 
demics they are said to have shown 
perfect immunity. 

According to Boudin, the Jews in Algiers, not- 
withstanding the fact that they are overcrowded in 
small and dark dwellings, and often in underground 
cellars, enjoy better health than the inhabitants of 
other races. Thus during the cholera epidemic of 
1844-45, the mortality per 1,000 of the population 
was as follows: 

Cholera Asiatica 
Chorin, Aaron 






4.5 5 



During the epidemic of cholera in Budapest, Hun- 
gary, in 1851, wliile the mortality among Christians 
was 1.85 per cent, that among tlie Jews was only 
0.257 per cent, or one-seventh as great. During 
the epidemic of 1866 there were in every 100 deaths 
in the general hospital 51.76 deaths from cholera, 
and in the Jewish hospital 34.0 onlj- (Tormay). 

From a pamphlet published in 1868 by Dr. Scalzi, 
professor of medicine in the University of Rome, it 
appears that in every 100 attacks of cholera in 1866, 
the Catholics had 69.13 deaths; the inhabitants be- 
longing to other cults, 43.13; the Jews, 
22.0 only. In proportion to the population the mor- 
tality from cholera would have been 45 per cent 
for the Jews, and 1 per cent for others. 

Dr. Mopother of Dublin ("Revue Scientifique," 
1881, p. 625), in one of his lectures on public hy- 
giene, states that there was noted a surprising im- 
munity of the Jews in Whitechapel, 

London London, during recent and former 

Epidemics, epidemics of cholera ,- and Mr. -Wolff, 

surgeon to the poor of the Spanish 

and Portuguese synagogues in London, thus refers 

to the immunity of the London Jews in 1849: 

" The.v [the Jews] do not suffer from the depression caused 
by habitual into.xication. These circumstances in their favor 
enabled them during the epidemic of 1849 to enjoy an al- 
most complete immunity from the disease, which raged with 
frightful violence in the immediate neighborhood of the district 
where they most congregate, and the sanitai-y conditions of 
which, as regards cleanliness, ventilation, etc.. were decidedly 
unfavorable" ("Medical Times and Gazette," London, vol. 
Vii., 1853, p. 356). 

During some epidemics, however, the Jews are 
stated to have suffered severely. Thus, according 
to Hirsch, in Algiers and in Smj'rua, in 1831, the 
Jewish population suffered more from cholera than 
the rest of the population. The same was the case 
in 1831 with the Jews in Poland, Jassy (Rumania), 
and many other places (Hirsch, "Handbuch der 
Historisch Geograph. Pathologie," Erlangen, 1851, 
i. 129). From evidence collected by Boudin the 
mortality of the Jews during the cholera epidemic 
in 1831 seems to have been perceptibly higher than 
that of tlie non-Jews ; but thirteen years later (as 
shown above) the exact opposite was the case. 

During the last epidemic of cholera in Europe 
(1891-96), there is also evidence that in some places 
at least the Jews enjoyed a relative immunity from 
the disease. Thus in 1892 in Hamburg, Germany, 
according to Dr. J. J. Reincke ("Deutsche Medici- 
nische Wochenschrift," .1893, p. 193), during the 
months of August and September there were buried 
in the general cemetery 6.4 times the average num- 
ber of dead for the three previous j'ears; in the Jew- 
ish cemetery, only 3.5 times as many. According 
to Dr. Georg Buschau ("Globus," Ixvii. 47), there is 
evidence tending to show that in Berlin, Breslau, 
etc., the Jews suffered during the recent epidemics 
of cholera in Germany in a lesser degree and had a 
lower mortality than non-Jews. 

Similar evidence is given concerning Russia. 

During the cholera epidemic in Nicolayev the Jews 

had a lower rate of morbidity and 

In mortality than the non-Jews. In that 

Germany city there were at tliat time about 75,- 
and 000 inhabitants, of whom about 15,000 

Russia. were Jews; that is, one Jew to four 

non-Jews. Among the latter the 

scourge attacked 756, of whom 382 died ; among the 

former only 36 were attacked, and but 13 of these 

succumbed ("Vrach," 1893, xiv. 115). 

Dr. Barazhnikov reported to the St. Petersburg 
Medical Societ)' that during the epidemic of cholera 
in 1894 in the government of IMohilev the morbidity 
among the Jews w^as greater, and the disease, as a 
rule, ran a severer, than among the non- 
Jews; but the percentage of mortality was smaller 
among the Jews. He adds that the fact must not 
be forgotten that the Jews in that locality, although 
generall}^ l)oorer, are more intelligent than their 
neighbors, and take better care of their health (" Pro- 
ceedings of the St. Petersburg Medical Society," 
1895, p. 206). 

As to the causes of this comparative immunity of 
the Jews from cholera, authorities differ. Some 
think that it is due to the Jews' regular habits 
of life, and to the fact that they are engaged 
mostly in occupations and professions which do not 
ex])Ose them to infection (Lombroso, Bordier, La- 
gueau, Boudin, Hirsch, etc.). But, as Buschan aptly 
points out, while this may hold good in epidemics of 
other infectious diseases, in the case of cholera the 
Jew should, according to present knowledge as to 
the propagation of the disease, be attacked more 
frequently. The Jewish population is engaged 
mostly in occupations which favor the infection of 
cholera. Second-hand clothing is usually bought 
1)3' the Jews, and, according to Buschan, during epi- 
demics of cholera they do an exceptionally large 
business of this kind. 

Buschan points otit that the immunity of the Jews 
is due to a racial characteristic of a somatic nature, 
which enables them to resist infection better than 
the Aryan races. On the other hand, those who 
argue that the immunity is not due to any racial 
characteristic, point out that the dis- 
Varying- case attacks preferably people addicted 
Opinions to the abuse of alcohol, who suffer (as 
Respecting a result of this) from the various forms 
Immunity, of dyspepsia common among habitual 
drinkers, and that people of temperate 
habits are seldom attacked. The Jews are known 
all over the world as an abstemious people, and 
their immunity is commensurate Avith their sobriety. 
The latter view seems to be borne out by facts ob- 
served by physicians practising among the Jews. 

Bibliography: Boudin, Traite de. Genpraphie Medicale, 
Paris, 1857; Hirsch, Handbuch der Historisch-Geograph. 
Pathologie, Erlangen, 1851 ; De Certaincs Immunites Phy- 
snologiqiicH de la Race Juive. in Revue Scientifique, Paris, 
1881, i. 625; Legoyt, De Certainei^ Immunites de la Race 
Juive, in Jovrn. de la Soc. de Stati)<t. de Paris, 1869, p. 118; 
G. Buschan, Einfluss der Rasxe auf die Form und Hdufig- 
keit Pathnlogischer Veriinderungen, in Globus, Ixvii. 31, 
43, 60. 76, Brunswick, 1895; S. O. Grusenberg, Ghetto i Zara- 
zitelnmia Bohiesni, in Sbornik v Polzu Yevreiskikh Na- 
chalnyiih Shkol, p. 483. St. Petersburg, 1896: Tormay, Die 
Lebens- und Sterblichkeits-Verhttltriisse der Stadt Pest, 
J. M. Fi. 



Cholera Asiatica 
Chorin, Aaron 

CHOR-ASHAN (R. V. Cor-Ashan) : This 

is, perhaps, better given, with the earlier manu- 
scripts (Baer), as "Bor-ashan." The Septuagint 
also contirms the latter spelling, although one read- 
ing gives "Beersheba." Chor-ashan (I Sam. xxx. 
30) or Bor-ashan is probably the place known as 


E. 6. H. G. B. L. 

garian rabbi ; born at Weisskirchen, Moravia, Aug. 
3, 1766; died at Arad, Hungary, Aug 24,1844. At 
the age of fourteen he studied in the yeshibah of 
Rabbi Jeremias in Mattersdorf, Huugar}-, and two 
years later at Prague in the higher Talmudical school 
of Ezekiel Landau. Here he also - learned German. 
Chorin married Dec. 26, 1783, and entered com- 
merce ; but his business career being unsuccessful, 
he accepted the post of rabbi at Arad in the spring 
of 1789, which position he occupied till his death. 

In 1798 Chorin publislied his first pamphlet, 
"Imre No'am " (Words of Pleasantness), in which he 
argued that as the sturgeon had scales it was per- 
mitted as food according to Scripture. 
His First His opinion, although following that 

Work. of Ezekiel Landau and other authori- 
ties, was strongly opposed by Mor- 
decai Benet and his partizans. Rabbi Isaac Kries- 
haber of Piiks wrote a refutation, " Makkel No'am " 
(Staff of Pleasantness), which called forth a second 
pamphlet by Chorin, " Shiryon Kaskassim " (Coat of 
Mall), Prague, 1799. 

By his determined opposition to the traditional 
usages in Hungary, Chorin incurred tlie hostility of 
most of his colleagues. In the spring of 1802 he 
journeyed to the Somogy district. The favorable 
impression which his sermons made upon his Jewish 
hearers tbere induced liim to consider himself as the 
future rabbi of this district, and on the title-page 
of a pamphlet he publislied he a.ssumed this title. 
The ricli and prominent Moses Lakenbacher, presi- 
dent of the congregation of, promised 
Chorin his iniluence with his brethren of the district; 
but when Lakenbacher became aware of tlie strong 
opposition of the conservative party against tbe re- 
former, he soon turned against him. 

At Prague in 1803 Chorin published " ' Emek ha- 
Shaweh" (Vale of the Plain), a work divided into three 
parts. The first and most important part, "Rosh 
Amaiiali" (Head of tlie Perennial Stream), in 
which he granted to the spiritual guides of the people 
authority to modify the traditional laws and adapt 
tliem to the requirements of the time, led to much 
opposition to him. Chorin treats of Maimonides' 
thirteen articles of faith, and gives eviilence of 
knowledge rare among his Hungarian contempo- 
raries. Next to the Ilalakah, Chorin also interpreted 
the Ilaggadah in a piiilosophical way. This method 
he applied in like manner to the Zohar, which he, 
far from all mysticism, considered as a rich source 
of speculative knowledge. This view referred only 
to the theoretic or intuitive, and not the practi- 
cal, Cabala, the belief in which he considered as 
contradictory to sound reason. At the beginning 
of tiiis book are printed the approbation of Rabbi 
Moses Mimzand a eulogistic Hebrew poem of Rabbi 

Moses Kunitz, This work gave great offense to 
the Orthodox party, which thwarted the publication 
of a second edition, for whicli Chorin 
Opposition had prepared many corrections and 
by the additions. Mord. Benet wrote to the 
Orthodox. Arad congregation that the book con- 
tained heresies and must be burned. 
The congregation, however, stood by their rabbi; 
but some of its members sided with Benet, and their 
leader, a rich man, publicly insulted Chorin while he 
was preaching. The Arad board now applied to 
Moses Milnz to certify that the book contained no 
heresies. Having given his approbation to the au- 
thor, Miinz Avas in a great dilemma, since he was 
urged by the Orthodox party to condemn Chorin 
and to inflict upon him an exemplary punishment. 
He concluded to yield to the insinuations, and Sept. 
1, 1805, he invited two rabbis to come to Alt-Ofen 
to form with him a tribunal before which Chorin 
was summoned. The session of the court was pro- 
longed to the next day, but then Miinz failed to 
appear. Samuel Butschowitz, rabbi of Assod, now 
pronounced sentence that " Chorin must retract the 
contents of his book. Should he re- 
Sentence fuse to do so, his beard will be cut off 
Pro- as a penalty for his heretical transgres- 

nounced. sions." Thereupon Chorin, whom the 
populace had stoned in the courtyard 
of the synagogue, declared that he subordinated his 
views to those of the theologians of his time, and 
desired that his book be suppressed. The court also 
decreed a reduction of Chorin's salary, but the board 
of his congregation indignantly rejected this decree. 
Chorin appealed to the imperial government, which, 
June 24, 1806, annulled the judgment and condemned 
the leader of his adversaries at Arad to pay the ex- 
penses of the lawsuit; the same was also to be pun- 
ished for his scandalous conduct on Sabbath Teshu- 
bah, 1804. Chorin declared that he forgave his 
adversary, and declined his claims for compensation 
of the expenses. To avoid further trouble, he de- 
termined to give up writing. 

The Reform movement among the Jews of Ham- 
burg met his hearty approval. In "Kin'at ha- 
Emet " (Zeal for Truth), a paper writ- 
Attitude ten April 7, 1818, and published in the 
Toward collection " Nogah ha-Zedek " (Light 
Reform. of Righteousness), he declared himself 
in favor of reforms, such as German 
prayers, the use of the organ, and other liturgical 
modifications. The principal prayers, the Shema', 
and the eighteen benedictions, however, should be 
said in Hebrew, he declared, as this language keeps 
alive the belief in the restoration of Israel. He also 
pleaded for opening the temple for daily service. 
Influenced by ]\Ioses Miinz, Chorin recalled this 
writing Feb. 19, 1819; but a year later he pub- 
lished "Dabar be-'Itto" (A Word in Its Time), in 
which he reaflSrmed the views expressed in "Kin'at 
ha-Emet," and pleaded strongly for the right of 
Reform. A German translation by Lob Herzfeld ap- 
peared at Vienna. This directed upon him the atten- 
tion of the progressive party in Austria and in Ger- 
many. Michael Lazar Biedermann, a prominent 
man, proposed the appointment of Chorin at the 
new temple to be erected at Vienna; but the 

Chorin, Aaron 
Chosen People 



government being opposed to it, Mannheimer was 
elected instead. 

The government of the grand duchy of Baden 
asked Chorin (Feb. 3, 1821), through the banker S. 
Haber, for his opinion about the duties 
Consulted of a rabbi, and about the reforms in 
by Baden, the Austrian states. Chorin answered 
by writing "IggeretElasaf," or "Let- 
ter of an African Rabbi to His Colleagues in Europe, " 
which was published byM. I. Landau, Prague, 1826. 
In it he stated that the Torah comprised religious 
truths and religious laws, the latter partly applica- 
ble only in Palestine, partly obligatory everywhere. 
These may be temporarily suspended, but not en- 
tirely abolished, by a competent authority, such as 
a synod. Only ordinances and precautionary laws 
which are of human origin may be abrogated in 
conformity with the circumstances of the time. As 
for mere customs and usages (minhagim), the gov- 
ernment, after having consulted Jewish men of 
knowledge, may modify or abolish them; but in no 
other way may it interfere with religious affairs. 
Chorin also pleaded for the establishment of consis- 
tories, schools, a theological seminary, and for the 
promotion of agriculture and professions among the 
Jews. Some of these ideas he carried out in his own 
congregation, which included a great number of 
mechanics. He succeeded in founding a school, and 
introducing liturgical reforms into the synagogue; 
even an organ was installed at his instance. He per- 
mitted the eating of rice and pulse during the days 
of Passover. 

To his theory of a synod regulating and modify- 
ing Jewish laws and customs, Chorin always adhered. 
In his "Treue Bote" (Prague, 1831) he declared 
himself against the transfer of the Sabbath to Sun- 
day, but expressed the opinion that, considering the 
requirements of our time, synods might mitigate 
the severity of the Sabbatical laws, especially in re- 
gard to traveling and writing. 

In another treatise, "Hillel," which appeared at 
Ofen, 1835, he interpreted the prophetic promises 
about the reuniting of Israel to signify the estab- 
lishing of a supreme religious authority at Jerusa- 
lem. "Hillel," in the form of a dialogue, and other 
contributions of his pen were published in the 
fourth volume of "Bikkure ha-'Ittim." In 1819 he 
wrote " Abak Sofer " (The Dust of a Writer), pub- 
lished by M. I. Landau, Prague, 1828, containing 
glosses about Yoreh De'ah, Eben ha-'Ezer, the phy- 
lacteries, an exposition of Prov. i. 10 et seq., and two 

In his "Yeled Zekunim" (Child of Old Age), 
Vienna, 1839, partly in Hebrew, partly in German, 
he again strongly advocated practical reforms in re- 
gard to railroad traveling on the Sabbath and on 
holidays, the abridgment of the seven days of mourn- 
ing, the use of the organ, etc., and gave a short 
sketch of his life. His biographer, Leopold Low, 
•wrote an introduction to this work. 

In consequence of the Damascus affair in 1840, 
Chorin republished the apology written 1753 by 
Sonnenfels, in which the author proves the falsity 
of the blood accusation. Chorin added an introduc- 
tion and Low a biographical notice. 

On July 26, 1844, during the last weeks of his life, 

he wrote from his sick-bed a declaration expressing 
his full accord with the rabbinical conference at 
Brunswick, and Aug. 11 he sent an address to the con- 
ference of Hungarian rabbis at Paks. 

He took an active part in the efforts for Jewish 
emancipation, and was very influential with the 
state authorities. His grandson, Franz Chorin, was 
Hungarian deputy. 

Bibliography : Leopold Low. Oesammelte Schriften, Szeg- 
edin, 1889-90, ii. 251-420; Jost, Culturgeschichte, Berlin, 
184T, iii. 24-33, 73-75, 175-176; Stelnschneider, Cat. Bodl. 
No. 4751, pp. 845-846; Fiirst, Bibl. Jud. 1. 176; Zedner, 
Cat. Hebr. Books Brit. Mus. pp. 186-187; Zeitlln, Bihl. 
Hehr. Post-Mendelssohniana, pp. 56-57; Allg. Zeit. des 
Jud. 1844, pp. 547-551; Jost's Ann a Jen, 1840, pp. 2a5-208: 

Litcraturhlatt des Orients, ii., No. ; 
L. G. 

S. Man. 

CHORIN, FRANZ: Hungarian deputy; grand- 
son of Aaron Chorin; born at Arad May 11, 1842. 
He studied law at Arad, Budapest, and Vienna, and 
began practise in his native city, where he soon be- 
came vice-president of the bar association. He was 
elected in 1870 as representative of the city of Arad 
to the Hungarian Parliament, of which he was a 
member continuously for twenty-one years. He is 
recognized as one of the leading orators and jurists 
of the country. The Exchange Law of 1876 is en- 
tirely his work. For many years he agitated for 
the modification of Hungarian criminal procedure in 
accordance Avith the more liberal English laws. 
His efforts culminated in success when, in 1896, he 
was appointed to draft and report upon this bill, 
which was subsequently passed by the House. In 
Parliament he had often the opportunity of defend- 
ing his coreligionists, and contributed largely to the 
eradication of anti-Jewish prejudice. In 1881 he 
became director of the coal-mining company of Sal- 
gotarjan ; since then he has devoted himself to labor 
({uestions. The city of Szatmsir, which he repre- 
sented in the Hungarian Parliament from 1895 to 
1901, elected him an honorary citizen in 1902, in 
recognition of his public services. 

s. L. V. 

CHORNY, JOSEPH JUDAH : Russian trav- 
eler; born at Minsk April 20, 1835; died at 
Odessa April 28, 1880. His parents destined him 
for the wine-growing industry; but after having 
been graduated as a viticulturalist, he, owing to an 
indomitable passion for travel and exploration, aban- 
doned this career. For eight years Chorny, with 
practically no means, explored a great part of the 
Caucasus, Transcaucasia, and many Asiatic coun- 
tries; studying everywhere the life, customs, and 
history of the inhabitants, and chiefly those of the 
Jews. In 1875, on returning from his travels, he 
endeavored to publish his studies on the Jews of the 
countries he had visited, but failed to find the nec- 
essary means. He resumed the life of an explorer; 
and after five years of hardships and privations 
returned, in ill health and poverty, to Odessa, where 
he died shortly after his arrival. 

Chorny was highly appreciated by the officials of 
the Russian government, and his studies on the 
Caucasus and Transcaucasia, published in various 
Russian papers, attracted the attention of the min- 
ister of the interior, Loris Melikov, who recom- 
mended Chorny to the protection of the governor- 
general of Odessa. The most noteworthy of Chorny 's 



Chorin, Aaron 
Chosen People 

Studies were : " Kratkiya Istoricheskiya Svyedeniya 
Gorskikh Yevreyakh Terskoi Oblasti," Terskiya 
Vyedomosti, 1869; "Gorskie Yevrei," in "Kavkaz," 
1870, vol. iii. ; "On the Caucasian Jews," in "Den," 
1870, No. 38. 

Cliorny bequeathed his manuscripts to the Society 
for Promoting Culture Among tlie Russian Jews ; 
and the latter commissioned A. Harkavy to edit 
them. They were published with Harkavy's notes 
under the title "Sefer ha-Massa'ot " (Book of Trav- 
els), St. Petersburg, 1884. 
Bibliography : Ha-Zefirah, 1880, p. 148 ; Ha-Meliz, 1880, p. 

117 ; Zeitlin, Bibl. Post-Mendels. p. 399. 

H. R. I. Br. 

CHOSAMEUS : One of "the -sons of Annas" 
that had " strange wives " (I Esd. ix. 32). The name 
can not be identified with any in the corresponding 
list of Ezra x. 32. It is, most probably, a combi- 
nation of tlie last part of "Maluch" with the first 
part of " Shemariah," names found in the Ezra list, 
the remaining syllables of these names having been 

E. G. n. G. B. L. 

CHOSEN PEOPLE.— Biblical Data: Name 
for the Jewish people expressive of the idea of their 
having been chosen by God to fulfil the mission of 
proclaiming His truth among all the nations. This 
choice does not imply a superior claim, but a supe- 
rior duty and responsibility on the part of the Jew- 
ish people, inasmuch as they have been pledged by 
the covenant which God concluded with Abraham, 
their ancestor, and again with the entire nation on 
Sinai, to testify, by precept and example, to the 
truth revealed to them, to lead a holy life as God's 
priest-people, and, if needs be, sacrifice their very 
lives for the sake of this truth. In this peculiar sense 
they are called God's own people; their religious 
genius, as manifested in their patriarchs, prophets, 
inspired poets, sages, and heroes, having rendered 
them the chosen people of religion to a far greater 
extent than the artistic and pliilosophical genius of 
the Greeks made that nation the chosen people of 
art and philosophy, or the juridical and political 
genius of the Romans made them the chosen people 
of law and politics. 

Unlike any other nation, the Jewish people began 
their career conscious of their life-purpose and world- 
duty as the priests and teachers of a universal relig- 
ious truth; and their whole history, 
Conscious- with all its tragic sternness, was and 

ness of to the end of time will be devoted to 
Selection, the carrying out of this purpose and 
the discharge of this duty. This view 
is expressed in all the Biblical and rabbinical pas- 
sages referring to Israel as the chosen people, or to 
Abraham as their ancestor. "For I have singled 
him out [A. V., "have known him"] to the end that 
he may command his children and his house after 
him, that they may keep the way of the Lord to do 
justice and judgment" (Gen. xviii. 1, Hebr. ; com- 
pare Neh. ix. 7. "Thou art the Lord, the God who choose Abram"). 

That Israel's character as the chosen people is 
conditioned by obedience to God's commandments 
is stated in the very words of the Sinai cove- 
nant: "Now therefore, if ye will obey my voice 

indeed, and keep my covenant, then ye shall be a 
peculiar treasure unto me above all people: for all 
the earth is mine ; and ye shall be unto 
Conditions me a kingdom of priests, and an holy 
of Choice, nation" (Ex. xix. 5, 6). " The Lord did 
not set his love upon you, nor choose 
you, because ye were more in number than any peo- 
ple ; for ye were the fewest of all people : but because 
the Lord loved you, and because he would keep the 
oath which he had sworn unto your fathers" (Deut. 
vii. 7, 8). The great obligation imposed upon Israel 
as the chosen people is especially emphasized by the 
prophet Amos (iii. 2) : " You only have I singled out 
[R. v., "known"] of all the families of the earth: 
therefore will I visit upon you all your iniquities." 
Compare Deut. xiv. 2: "Thou art an holy people 
unto the Lord thy God, and the Lord hath chosen 
thee to be a peculiar people unto himself, above 
all peoples that are upon the face of the earth," 
and ib. xxiv. 18, 19, R. V. 

Particularly is the world-mission of the chosen 
people dwelt upon by Deutero-Isaiah, the seer of the 
Exile (Isa. xli. ; xlii. 1-7; xliii. 10, 
God's "Ye are my witnesses, saith the 
Witnesses Lord, and my servant whom I have 
and Their chosen"; ib. verse 21, R. V., "The 
Inherit- people which I formed for myself that 
ance. they might set forth my praise " ; com- 
pare xliv. 1, 2; xlix. 6, 7). 
As God's chosen people, Israel is also called His 
"inheritance " (Deut. iv. 20; ix. 26, 29; xxxii. 9; Ps. 
xxxiii. 12: "The people whom he hath chosen for 
his own inheritance"; I Kings viii. 53, Jer. x. 16; 
and elsewhere). As the children of the Patriarchs 
they are His chosen ones (Ps. cv. 6). 

In Rabbinical Literature : According to the 

Rabbis, Israel has not been chosen as the people of 
the Law on account of its racial superioritj-. " Israel 
is of all nations the most wilful or headstrong one 
[n"lD1X3t>* TJ?], and the Torah was to give it the right 
scope and power of resistance, or else the world 
could not have Avithstood its fierceness " (Bezah, 25b). 
"The Lord offered the Law to all nations; but all 
refused to accept it except Israel " (Mek. Yitro, Pes. 
R. K. 103b, 186a, 200a). "A Gentile who conse- 
crates his life to the study and observance of the Law 
ranks as high as the high priest, "says R. Meir, by de- 
duction from Lev. xviii. 5; II Sam. vii. 19, Isa. 
XX vi. 2; Ps. xxxiii. 1, cxviii. 20, cxxv. 4, where all 
stress is laid not on Israel, but on man or the right- 
eous one (Sifra, Ahare Mot, 86b; Bacher, "Ag. 
Tan."ii. 31). Israel is likened to the olive. Just 
as this fruit yields its precious oil only after being 
nuich pressed and squeezed, so Israel's destiny is 
one of great oppression and hardship, in order that 
it may thereby give forth its illuminating wisdom 
(Ex. R. xxvi.). Poverty is the quality most befit- 
ting Israel as the chosen people (Hag. 9b). Only 
on account of its good works is Israel among the 
nations "as the lily among thorns" (Cant. R. ii. 2), 
or "as wheat among the chaff" (Midr. Teh. i. 4; 
Weber's "System der Altsynagogalen Theologie," 
etc., pp. 59-69, is full of glaring errors and misstate- 
ments on the subject of Israel as the chosen people). 
In the Jewish liturgy, praise is frequently offered 
to God for having chosen Israel from among all the 




nations of the earth: in Ahabah Rabbah, in the 

benediction before the reading from the Law, and 

in the seven benedictions of the holy 

In the days and New JVIoon ; concerning 

Liturg-y. which see Geiger's ".Tud. Zeit." vii. 
55; and Einhorn, in " Protocolle der 
Zweiten Rabbinerversammlung," p. 75, Fraulifort- 
on-the-Main, 1845. 

"The character of Israel as the chosen people," 
writes Gudemann (" Das Jiidenthuni," 1902, p. 44) 
"does not involve the inferiority of other nations. 
The universality of Israel's idea of God is sufficient 
proof against such an assumption. Every nation re- 
quires a certain self-consciousness for the carrying out 
of its mission. Israel's self-consciousness was tem- 
pered by the memory of its servitude in Egypt and 
the recognition of its being ' tlie servant of the Lord. ' 
It was the noblesse oblige of the God-appointed 
worker for the entire human race." 

E. c. K. 

("The Conqueror") : King of Persia from 591 to 
628. Chosroes, on the plea of avenging the death 
of his father-in-law, the Byzantine emperor Maurice 
(Mauritius), who had been murdered by the usurper 
Pliocas (602), invaded Asia Minor and Syria at the 
head of a large army. The Jews joined tlie Persians 
in great numbers under the leadership of Benjamin 
of Tiberias, a man of immense wealth, by whom 
they were enlisted and armed. The Tiberian Jews, 
with those of Nazareth and the mountain cities of 
Galilee, marched on Jerusalem with the Persian divi- 
sion commanded by Shahrbaraz. Later they were 
joined by the Jews of southern Palestine; and sup- 
ported by a band of Arabs, the united forces took 
Jerusalem by storm (July, 614). Ninety thousand 
Christians are said to have perished. The story that 
the Jews purchased the Cliristian prisoners from 
their Persian captors and put them to death in cold 
blood is a pure invention. In conjunction with the 
Persians, the Jews swept through Palestine, des- 
troyed the monasteries which abounded in the 
country, and expelled or killed the monks. Bands 
of Jews from Jerusalem, Tiberias, Galilee, Damas- 
cus, and even from Cyprus, united and undertook 
an incursion against Tyre, having been invited by 
the 4,000 Jewish inhabitants of that city to surprise 
and massacre the Christians on Easter night. The 
Jewish army is said to have consisted of 20,000 men. 
The expedition, however, miscarried, as the Chris- 
tians of Tyre learned of the impending danger, and 
seized the 4,000 Tyrian Jews as hostages. The 
Jewish invaders destroyed the churches around 
Tyre, an act which the Christians avenged by killing 
two thousand of their Jewish prisoners. The be- 
siegers, to save the remaining prisoners, withdrew. 

The immediate results of these wars filled the 
Jews with joy. Many Christians became Jews 
through fear. A Sinaitic monk embraced Judaism 
of his own free will, and became a vehement assail- 
ant of his former belief. 

The Palestinian Jews were free from the Christian 
yoke for about fourteen years; and they seem to 
have deluded themselves with the hope that Chos- 
roes would resign Jerusalem and a province to 
them, in order that they might establish a Jewish 

commonwealth. Not only did Chosroes, however, 
do nothing to promote the establishment of a Jew- 
ish commonwealth, but, on the contrary, it is proba- 
ble that he taxed the Jews oppressively. 

Thus there arose great discord between the allies, 
which ended in the deportation of many Palestin- 
ian Jews to Persia. This treatment 
Results caused the Jews to go over to the 
of the Roman emperor Ileraclius, who had 
Invasion, succeeded Phocas, and who concluded 
a treaty (627), promising them am- 
nesty and other advantages. Chosroes, defeated by 
Heraclius in a series of battles, fled from his capital, 
but was seized and, after a confinement of four days, 
executed (Feb. 28, 628). 

Bibliographt: Th. Noldeke, Ancient Iran, s.v. Persia, In 
Encyc. Brit.; Gratz, Gesch. der Juden, v. 23-27, note 8, pp. 

K. A. R. 

CHOTZNER, JOSEPH: English rabbi and 
author; born at Cracow, Austria, May 11, 1844; 
educated at the Breslau rabbinical seminary and the 
University of Breslau. After his ordination Cliotz- 
ner became the first rabbi of the congregation at 
Belfast, Ireland, officiating from 1870 to 1880; 
and he again held the rabbinate there from 1892 to 
1897. In the mean time (1880-92) he had become 
house master and teacher of Hebrew at Harrow 
School, where several Jewish boys had recently en- 
tered. The experiment was made of placing all of 
them in a separate house under the supervision of 
Dr. Chotzner. After some twelve years' experience 
it was found more expedient to spread the Jewish 
boys among their comrades, and Dr. Chotzner left 
Harrow for Belfast. Since 1897 he has been lecturer 
at Montefiore College, Ramsgate. 

Chotzner is the author of : (1) "Lei Shimmurim" 
(The Night of Observances), a collection of satirical 
poems on certain Hebrew superstitions, Breslau, 
1864; (2) " The Songs of Mirza Schaflfy, " translated 
into Hebrew, ih. 1868; (3) "Modern Judaism" 
(1876); (4) "Humor and Irony of the Hebrew 
Bible," 1883; (5) "Zikronot" (Records), 1885. 

His son, Alfred James Chotzner, was gold 
medalist at Cambridge University, and subsequently 
entered the Indian civil service. 

Bibliography : C. D. Lippe, Bibliographisches Lexikon, i. 
.T. E. Ms. 

CHOVEVEI ZION (Lovers of Zion) : Asso- 
ciations, in Europe and the United States, of per- 
sons interested in agricultural settlement of Jews in 
Palestine and in the connection of Jews with the 
future of the Holy Land. 

This movement, which was the predecessor of 
political Zionism (see Basel Congress), had as its 
sponsors a number of men living in different coun- 
tries, but whose common interest in and observa- 
tions of the phenomena of Jewish life, stimulated 
by the persecution of the Jews in Rumania prior to 
1880, and more recently in Russia, led to the foun- 
dation of organizations like the Chovevei Zion As- 
sociation of England, whose objects are: 

1. To foster the "national idea" in Israel. 

2. To promote the colonization of Palestine and 




ueigliboring territories by Jews by establisliiuc; new 
colonies, or by assisting tliose already established. 

3. To diffuse the knowledge of Hebrew as a living 

4. To better the moral, intellectual, and material 
status of Israel. 

5. The members of the association pledge them- 
selves to render cheerful obedience to the laws of the 
lands in which they live, and as good citizens to 
promote their welfare as far as lies in their power. 

The appeal from Palestine to Jews to settle there 
as agriculturists, made in 1867, went unheeded. But 
from 1879 on, there were active in the advocacy of 
colonization Dr. Lippe and Pineles in Rumania, Lili- 
enblum and Leon Pinsker in Ru.ssia, a non-Jewish 
Syrian and Palestinian Association "in Loudon, and 
Laurence Oliphant. The idea of agricultural settle- 
ment in Palestine, tested first by the founding of the 
colony of Samarin by the Rumanian Chovevei Zion, 
was voiced in 1881 by N. L. Lilienblum in an arti- 
cle in the " Razsvyet " entitled " The Jewish Ques- 
tion and the Holy Land." The most serious objec- 
tion to the new idea came from those who feared 
that resettlement in Palestine would mean the ob- 
servance of the 613 commandments and the re- 
building of the Temple. Charles Netter, who 
subsequently became tlie leading exponent of the 
agricultural settlement idea, opposed the new move- 
ment — which had excited the enthusiastic interest of 
the Jews of Russia — on the ground that Palestine 
was unsuitable for colonization. 

Baron Edmund de Rothschild having agreed to 
pay the expenses of six colonists to Palestine, the 
movement, initiated by Pinsker and supported by 
Rabbi Jlohilewer of Byelostock, took practical shape. 
The Odessa Central Committee, whicli had been 
called into existence in 1881, and which was now 
recognized by the Russian government, went no 
further in the direction of active propaganda than 
to send Pinsker and Mohilewer upon a tour of private 
and public agitation throughout Europe. 

However, the movement spread with the emigra- 
tion from Russia. Various societies with a similar 
purpose were founded at Berlin (Ezra), Vienna 
(Kadimah), London (B'nei Zion, 1887), and America 
(Shove Zion in New York, Chovevei Zion in Phila- 
delphia, 1891). 

In 1890 it was recognized that some endeavor 
should be made to give form and coherence to 
various movements, and Dr. Haffkine, with M. Mey- 
erson, encouraged by the prospect of tinancial sup- 
port from Baron Edmund de Rothschild, organized 
the Paris Central Committee. The actual leadership 
of the movement, however, remained with the Odessa 
conunittee, which was well supported, and which 
kept in touch with those who had already set- 
tled in Palestine. The movement, however, reached 
its zenith in 1893, when organizations existed in 
every country, except France, that had an apprecia- 
ble Jewisli population. 

In December, 1892, the movement of Jews toward 
Palestine was checked by tlie Turkisii authorities, 
who prohibited further immigration. Additional dis- 
couragement was caused by the difficulty of finding 
markets for the produce of the colonies, and also by 
the coloring given to the idea by such men as Colo- 

nel Goldsmid, who, at the head of the Chovevei Zion 
Association of England, with its military organiza- 
tions, sought to give the movement a strong national 
tendency. In addition, the colonists were in con- 
stant need of support. The Ilirseh Argentine Set- 
tlement followed, and affected the agitation in West- 
ern Europe. Though the colonies continued to lind 
support, and though some new ones were founded 
the movement seemed, by 1894, to have spent its 

Typical of the enthusiasm which the idea had 
once aroused was the mass-meeting held in London 
in 1892, on the advice of Sir Samuel Montagu, to 
petition the sultan, through Lord Rothschild and 
the British Foreign Office, for the right of settle- 
ment. A detailed plan was then worked out for 
colonization on a large and regulated scale. 

The decline of the Chovevei Zion was consequent 
upon the suddenly created leadership, in 1896, of Dr. 
Theodor Herzl. Indirectly every Chovevei Zion 
championed, without formally adopting, his doc- 
trine, and, indirectly, all were represented at the 
first Zionist congress. A more or less direct adher- 
ence to the Zionist movement, which had no sym- 
pathy for individual, sporadic colonization, was 
forced upon the old organizations by their members. 
But while they would not disavow the nationalist 
standpoint, they declined to become a medium of the 
new propaganda. A conference, the first of its kind 
in London, was held (March, 1898) in the Finsbury 
(Clerkenwell) town-hall, and lasting twelve hours ; it 
decided upon reorganization, and accepted the leader- 
ship of the Vienna Executive Committee created by 
the previous congress. This was typical of the 
process of transition from a philanthropic to an 
avowed political movement, which continued until 
the Minsker Conference (September, 1902), when 
tiie Russian Chovevei Zion associations without 
exception accepted the platform of the Zionist 

The literature of the movement is extensive, but 
scattered. A vast number of polemical pamphlets 
have been published, as well as brochures on coloni- 
zation and propagandist literature and on the foster- 
ing of Hebrew as a living tongue, which must be in- 
cluded in the literary efforts of the Chovevei Zion 
(see Zionism). 

innnoGRAPnY : Palestlna (organ of the Chovevi Zion Associ- 
ation of England), 1891-98; Report of Proceedings Clerhen- 
icell Town Hall Conference, 1898; The Maccahcean, i., ii., 
and iii., 1901-03. 
E. C. J. DE H. 

CHOYNSKI, JOSEPH: American heavy- 
weight pugilist; born at San Francisco, Cal., Nov. 
8, 1868. His first appearance in the prize-ring was 
in 1884, when he met and was defeated by J. J. 
Corbett in one round. He has encountered most of 
the prominent pugilists ; and among those whom 
he has defeated, or with whom he has fought drawn 
battles, have been Dan Creedon, "Kid" McCoy, 
James Jeffries, T. Sharkey, and Steve O'Donnell. 
Choynski has fought more than fifty battles, of 
which he has lost but seven. 

A. F. H. V. 

CHRIST (Greek, Xpiardg): Septuagint translation 
of Hebrew "Mashiah" (" Messiah "= The Anointed), 




applied by Christians exclusively to Jesus as the 
Messiah (see Jesus of Nazareth and Messiah). 
J. K. 

CHRISTIAN : A word denoting a follower of 
Jesus as the Messiah or Chiist. It originated, ac- 
cording to Acts xi. 26, in Antioch, the Syrian capi- 
tal, where, shortly after the failure of the Hellenistic 
movement in Jerusalem {ib. viii. 1, xi. 19), the doc- 
trine of the risen Christ was propagated among the 
non-Jewish population, and where the first impor- 
tant church of the Christians was established by 
Barnabas and Paul about the year 44. This early 
origin of the name has been questioned by F. C. 
Baar ("Paulus, der Apostel Jesu Christi," i. 103), 
Lipsius (" Ueber den Ursprung • des Christenna- 
mens," 1878), Hausrath ("Neutestameutliche Zeit- 
geschichte," ii. 392), and Weizsacker ("Aposto- 
lisches Zeitalter," p. 90), but is upheld by Keim 
("Aus dem Urchristenthum," pp. 171-181). Jose- 
phus, in the well-known passage concerning Jesus 
("Ant." xviii. 3, c^ 3; not all of which is spurious), 
speaks of the "tribe of Christians" as still existing. 

It is certain that except in Acts xi. 26, xxvi. 28, and 
I Peter iv. 16 — passages referring to the persecution 
of Christians in Rome — the name occurs nowhere in 
the New Testament or in the early Christian litera- 
ture. In all probability it owes its origin to a Ro- 
man or Latin-speaking population. The fact that 
the early Christians met for worship in the name of 
Christ and called themselves those " of Christ " (I 
Cor. i. 12) induced the pagans to regard them as the 
partizan followers of a leader of that name. Hence 
they coined the name " Christiani " for them, as a 
nickname after the example of "Caesarians" or 
" Pompeians. " Unfamiliar with the name " Christus, " 
the pagans pronounced the name also " Chrestos " 
{XpnaTog), and spoke of the Christians as " Chrestiani " 
(Tertullian, "Apologia," p. 8; Justin, "Apologia," 
i. 4; compare Suetonius, "Claudius," p. 25: "Ju- 
djBos impulsore Chresto assidue tumultuantes Roma 
expulit"; Gratz, "Gesch." iii. 3, 449, is wrong in 
taking Chrestos for a special agitator in Rome). 

The name came into general use among the Chris- 
tians themselves during the second century, when 
it became endeared to them all the more because 
it entailed persecution and martyrdom (I Peter 
iv. 16; Luke iv. 22; Tacitus, "Hist." xv. 44; 
Suetonius, "Nero," p. 16; Pliny, "Epistles," x. 96; 
Ignatius, " Epistles to the Magnesians," p. 4; and 
elsewhere). They continued, however, to call one 
another also "the brethren" (Acts ix. 30, xi. 1; 
Rom. xvi. 14; Gal. i. 2), "the saints" (Acts ix. 13, 
32; xxvi. 10; Rom. xii. 13, xvi. 15; Heb. vi. 10), 
"believers" or "faithful ones" (Acts x. 45; I Tim. 
iv. 3), "the elect" (Matt. xxiv. 22, 24; Markxiii. 20- 
22; I Peter i. 1, 2), and in the earlier time also " the 
disciples " (Acts ix. 26, xiii. 52, xx. 30). 

To the Jews, to whom the reported appearance of 
the Messiah was a matter of frequent occurrence in 
those times, when the good tidings of redemption 
from the domination of Rome were constantly ex- 
pected (Josephus, "Ant." xvii. 10, §§ 6, 7; xviii. 4, 
1 1 ; XX. 5, § 1), the word " Christian " had no specific 
meaning ; and when the followers of Jesus of Naza- 
reth began to teach a " way " different from that of 

Bibliography : Hastings, Diet. Bibl. s 
Encijc. Bibl. s.v. 

the mother-synagogue (Acts ix. 2; xviii. 25; xix. 9, 
28; xxii. 4; xxiv. 14, 22), they received the name of 
"the sect of the Nazarenes" (Acts xxiv. 5, xxviii. 
22; in Hebrew, "Nozerim"). 

Cheyne and Black. 


German author and Christian missionary ; born of 
Jewish parents; baptized in 1719; died at Nurem- 
berg about 1735. He was the author of two Judoeo- 
German works : " Yesod Emunat Yeshu'a " (The 
Basis of the Faith of Jesus), Berlin, 1712; and "Die 
Bekehrung Israels," Schwabach, 1722. 

Bibliography : Sammlung von Alten und Neuen Theolo- 
gischen Sachen, 1"23, p. 638 ; Wolf, Bibl. Hehr. Hi., No. 1898b. 
D. I. Br. 


Jewish convert to Christianity ; born in the middle 
of the seventeenth century; died at Prossnitz at the 
beginning of the eighteenth. He was baptized in 
1674 at Strasburg, having formerly borne the name 
of Baruch as hazzan at Bruchsal. After having 
occupied for twenty years tlie chair of Semitic stud- 
ies at the University of Leipsic, he retired to Pross- 
nitz, where he returned to Judaism. 

Christiani's works comprise the following, all 
published at Leipsic : (1) " Zcbah Pesali " (The Sacri- 
fice of Easter), 1677, an account of the Jewish cele- 
bration of Easter in tlie time of Jesus and at the 
present; (2) "Se'udat Purim " (The Meal of Purim), 
1677, a description of Jewish fasting and feasting ; 
(3) " Zahakan Melummad u-Mitharet " (The Scholarly 
Gambler Repenting), 1683, a German translation of 
the work of Leon of Modena on gambling ; (4) Abra- 
vanel's commentary on the first Prophets, with a 
Latin index, 1686; (5) the text of Jonah Avith Tar- 
gum, Masorah, and the commentaries of Rashi, Ibn 
Ezra, Kimhi, and Abravanel, and a Hebrew-Latin 
vocabulary, 1683; (6) " Iggeret " (Letter), 1676, the 
epistle of St. Paul to the Jews, translated from the 
Greek into Hebrew ; (7) "Traktat von dem Glauben 
und Unglauben der Juden," 1713. 

Bibliography: Schudt, Jildische MerckwUrdigkeitenA. 253, 
573; il. 56, 88 et seq.; Reineccius, in the Introduction to 
Traktat von dem Glauben und Unglauben der Juden; 
Filrst. Bibl. Jud. i. 178; Allg. Deutsche Biographie, iv. 213. 
D. I. Br. 

thor and Jewish convert to Christianity; born at 
Altorf at the end of the seventeenth century ; died 
at Prague about 1740; probably a member of the 
Keyser family of Schleusingen (Bavaria). He 
claimed to have been a rabbi at Schleusingen before 
his baptism in 1715. 

Christiani wrote : (1) " Kurze Beschreibung einer 
Jiidischen Synagoge und eine Beschreibung der 
Synagogalen Gebrauche " (Regensburg, 1723); (2) 
" Die Schlacht- und Visitir-Kunst " (^■^». 1724); (3) 
"Ausgang von dem Verstockten Judenthum und 
Eingang zum Wahren Christenthum," an account of 
his conversion, his profession of faith, and several 
orations (Erfurt, 1720); (4) "Rede zurEinladung filr 
Rabbinische Studien," written in Hebrew and Ger- 
man, inserted in Johann David Kohler's " Program " 
(Altorf, 1715); (5) a German translation of the 




" Sefer ha-Minbagim " of Jacob Levi (MaHaRIL), 
published at Bremen in 1733. 

Bibliography : Wolf, Bibl. Hebr. ill. 665, iv. 895 ; Fiirst, Bihl. 
Jud. i. 178. 

D. I. Bk. 

CHRISTIANI, PABLO: Jewish convert of 
Montpellier, France ; contemporary of Nahmanides. 
After having been baptized, Cliristiaui joined the 
Order of the Dominicans and attempted to convert 
his former coreligionists. Failing to make prose- 
lytes among the Jews of Provence, to whom he had 
been sent by his zealous general, Raymond de Pen- 
yaforte, Christiani planned the conversion by force 
of tlie Aragonian Jews. To this purpose he per- 
suaded Raymond de Penyaforte to- bring about a 
religious controversy between him and Nahman- 
ides, in which he felt assured of victory. Raymond 
de Penyaforte secured the consent of King James ; 
and Nahmanides was summoned to Barcelona, in 
1263, to answer Christiani's questions. 

The disputation took place in the king's palace, 
in the presence of the whole court and many eccle- 
siastical dignitaries, and lasted four days (July 20- 
24). As suggested by Nahmanides, the subjects of 
discussion were three : (1) whether the Messiah had 
appeared ; (2) whether the Messiah announced by 
the Prophets was to be considered as a god, or as a 
man born of human parents; and (3) whether the 
Jews or the Christians were in possession of the 
true faith. Christiani undertook to demonstrate 
from the Talmud itself the truth of the Christian 
faith, and feigned indignation at Nahmanides when 
he declared that he did not believe in those and other 
Haggadic stories. Christiani hoped to proiit by the 
reserve he felt Nahmanides would be forced to main- 
tain through fear of wounding the feelings of the 
Christian dignitaries who were present. 

He was, however, deceived. Nahmanides mod- 
erately but firmly refuted all the arguments of 
Christiani. As the disputation turned 
Nah- in favor of Nahmanides the Jews of 

manides Barcelona, fearing the resentment of 
Victorious, the Dominicans, entreated him to dis- 
continue; but the king, whom Nah- 
manides acquainted with the apprehensions of the 
Jews, desired him to proceed. The controversy was 
therefore resumed, and concluded in a complete vic- 
tory for Nahmanides, who was dismissed by the 
king with a gift of three hundred maravedis as a 
mark of his respect. 

The Dominicans, nevertheless, claimed the vic- 
tory, and Nahmanides felt obliged to publish the 
proceedings of the controversy. Obtaining a copy of 
this publication, Christiani selected from it certain 
passages which he construed as blasphemies against 
the Christian religion, and denounced them as such 
to Raymond de Penyaforte. A capital charge 
■was then instituted, and a formal complaint against 
the work and its author was lodged with the 
king. Finally, Nahmanides was sentenced to exile 
for two years, and his pamphlet was ordered to be 

Tne failure of the controversy did not, however, 
discourage Christiani. Provided through the agency 
of Raymond de Penyaforte with letters of protec- 
IV. -4 

tion from King James, he Avent on missionary 
journeys, compelling the Jews everywliere to listen 
to his speeches and to answer hisques- 
Christiani's tious, either in their synagogues or 
Prosely- wherever else he pleased. They were 
tizing even required to defray the expenses 
Tour. of his mission. Inspiteof the protec- 
tion granted him by the king, Chris- 
tiani did not meet with the success he had expected ; 
he therefore went to Pope Clement IV. and de- 
nounced the Talmud, asserting that it contained pas- 
sages derogatory to Jesus and Mary. The pope issued 
a bull (1264) to the Bishop of Tarragona, command- 
ing him to submit all the copies of the Talmud to the 
examination of the Dominicans' and Franciscans. 
A commission was then appointed by the king, Chris- 
tiani being one of its members, to act as censors of 
the Talmud ; and they obliterated all passages which 
seemed to them to be hostile to Christianity. In 
1269 Christiani interceded with King Louis IX. of 
France and obtained from liim the enforcement of 
the canonical edict requiring Jews to wear badges. 

Bibliography: Wilikualjha-Ramhan; Wagenseil, Disputa- 
tio R. MoMs Nachmanidis cum Fratre Paulo, Altdorf , 1674 ; 
Carpzov, Prooemium to Raymoud Martin's Pugio Fidei; 
Gratz, Gesch. dcr Juden, vii. 120 et seq. 
G. I. Br. 

JUDAISM : Christianity is the system of religious 
truth based upon the belief that Jesus of Nazareth 
was the expected Messiah, or Christ, and that in 
him all the hopes and prophecies of Israel concern- 
ing the future have been fulfilled. While compri- 
sing creeds which differ widely from one another 
in doctrine and in practise, Christianity as a whole 
rests upon the belief in the God of Israel and in 
the Hebrew Scriptures as the word of God; but it 
claims that these Scriptures, which it calls the Old 
Testament, receive their true meaning and interpre- 
tation from the New Testament, taken to be the 
written testimonies of the Apostles that Jesus ap- 
peared as the end and fulfilment of all Hebrew 
prophecy. It furthermore claims that Jesus, its 
Christ, was and is a son of God in a higher and an 
essentially different sense than any other human 
being, sharing in His divine nature, a cosmic prin- 
ciple destined to counteract the principle of evil 
embodied in Satan; that, therefore, the death of 
the crucified Christ was designed by God to be the 
means of atonement for the sin inherited by the 
human race through the fall of Adam, the first 
man; and, consequently, that without belief in 
Jesus, in whom the Old Testament sacrifice is typi- 
fied, there is no salvation. Finally, Christianity, as 
a world-power, claims that it represents the highest 
form of civilization, inasmuch as, having made its 
appearance when the nations of antiquity had run 
their course and mankind longed for a higher and 
deeper religious life, it regenerated the human race 
while uniting Hebrew and Greek to become the heir 
to both ; and because it has since become the ruling 
power of history, influencing the life of all nations 
and races to such an extent that all other creeds and 
systems of thought must recede and pale before it. 

These three claims of Christianity, which have 
frequently been asserted in such a manner as di- 




rectly or implicitly to deny to Judaism, its mother 
religion, the purpose, if not the very right of its 
continued existence, will be examined from a his- 
torical point of view under three heads: (1) the New 
Testament claim as to the Christship of Jesus; (2) 
the Church's claim as to the dogmatic truths of 
Christianity, whether Trinitarian or Unitarian; and 
(3) the claim of Christianity to be the great power 
of civilization. The attitude taken by Jews to- 
ward Christianity in public debates and in literary 
controversies will be treated under Polemics and 
Polemical Litekatuke; while the New Tes- 
tament as literature and the personality of Jesus 
OF Nazareth will also be discussed in separate 

I. It is a matter of extreme signiticance that the 
Talmudic literature, which is based on tradition at 
least a century older than Christianity, has not even a 
specific name for the Christian belief or doctrine, 
but mentions it only occasionally un- 
The der the general category of " jMinim " 

Messianic (literally, "distinctive species of be- 
Movement. lief"), heresies, or Gnostic sects. As 
one of these it could only be regarded in 
the second century, when Ciiristianity was in danger 
of being entirely absorbed by Gnosticism. At first it 
was viewed by the Jews simply as one of the numerous 
Messianic movements which, aimed against Roman 
rule, ended tragically for their instigators, and from 
which it differed only in one singular fact; viz., that 
the death of the leader, far from crushing the move- 
ment, gave, on the contrary, rise to a new faith 
which gradually, both in principle and in attitude, 
antagonized as none other the parent faith, and 
came to manifest the greatest hostility to it. There 
is no indication in Jewish literature that the appear- 
ance of Jesus, either as a teacher or as a social or 
political leader, made at the time a deep or lasting im- 
pression on the Jewish people in general. Outside of 
Galilee he was scarcely known. This at least seems 
to be the only explanation of the fact that the Tal- 
mudic passages, some of which are old, confound 
Jesus, on the one hand, with Ben Stada, who was 
tried in Lydda— probably identical with Theudas 
"the magician," the pseudo-Messiah who appeared 
in 44(Josephus, "Ant." xx. 5, § 1; Acts v. 36)— and, 
on the other, with the Egyptian "false prophet" 
who created a Messianic revolt a few years later 
("Ant."xx. 8, §6; /(7ew, "B. J." ii. 13, §5; Actsxxi. 
38; see Tosef., Sauh. x. 11; Sanh. 67a, 107b; Shab. 
104b; Sotah47a; compare Matt. xxiv. 11 and 24). 
As to Jesus ben Pandera, or Jesus the pupil of R. 
Joshua ben Perahyah, see Jesus in Jewish Legend. 

The only reference to Jesus in contemporary 
Jewish literature is found in Josephus, "Antiq- 
uities" xviii. 3, § 3, a passage which has been inter- 
polated by Christian copyists, but appears to have 
originally contained the following words (see Theo- 
dore Reinach, in "Rev. Etudes Juives," xxxv. 1-18; 
A. V. Gutschmid, "KleineSchriften," 1893, iv. 352): 
"There was about that time [a certain] Jesus, a 
wise man; for he was a worker of miracles, a 
teacher of men eager to receive [new (revolution- 
ary) tidings], and he drew over to him many Jews 
and also many of the Hellenic world. He was [pro- 
claimed] Christ; and when, on denunciation by the 

priucipal men amongst us, Pilate condemned him 
to be crucified, those that were first [captivated] by 
him did not cease to adhere to him; and the tribe of 
Christians, so named after him, is not extinct at 
this day." 

The Gospel records agree upon one essential point 
confirmed by Josephus {I.e. 5, i^ 2; compare Matt, 
iii. 1-13; Mark i. 2-9; Luke iii. 1-21; John iii. 22 
et seq.\ Acts xiii. 24); viz., that the main impulse to 
the Christian movement was given by John the 
Baptist, an Essene saint, who— among the many 

that, by penitence, fasting, and bap- 
John the tisms, prepared themselves for the 
Baptist. coming of the Messiah (Luke ii. 25, 36 

et seq. ; Mark xv. 43 ; compare ib. ii. 18 ; 
Matt. ix. 14, xi. 18; compare Pesik R. xxxiii., xxxiv. ; 
Josephus, "Vita," § 2) — stood forth as the preacher 
of repentance and "good tidings," causing the peo- 
ple to flock to the Jordan to wasli themselves clean 
of their .sins in expectation of the Messianic kingdom. 
Some of his followers were known afterward as a 
class of Baptists under the name " Disciples of John " 
(Acts viii. 25; xix. 3, 4), and seem partly to have 
joined the Mandffians (Brandt, "Die Maudilische 
Religion," pp. 137 et seq., 218 etseq., 228; see al.<»o 
Hemkkohaptists). Jesus, however, being one of 
John's disciples, the moment the latter had been put 
in prison stepped to the front as a preacher of the 
" Kingdom of Heaven " in the very language of his 
master (Matt. iv. 12 et seq., xiv. 3-5; Mark i. 14). 
Still, to the very last he had to admit in his argu- 
ment with the elders (Matt. xx. 26; Mark xi. 32; 
compare ib. viii. 28) that John was universally ac- 
knowledged prophet, while he was not. Indeed, 
Herod Antipas, upon learning of Jesus' miraculous 
performances, expressed the belief that John the 
Baptist had risen from the dead (Matt. xiv. 2, xvi. 
14; Mark vi. 14). Nor did Jesus himself, according 
to the older records, lay claim to any title other than 
that of a prophet or worker by the Holy Spirit, like 
any other Essene saint (Matt. xiii. 57; xxi. 11, 46; 
Lukevii. 16, 39; xiii. 33; xxiv. 19; John iv. 19, 44; 
compare Josephus, " B. J. " i. 3, ^ 5 ; ii. 8, § 12 ; idem, 
"Ant." xiii. 10, § 7; Luke ii. 25, 36). Gradually, 
however, the fame of Jesus as " healer " and " helper " 
of those stricken with disease so eclipsed that of 
John, at least in Galilean circles, that the latter was 
declared to have been only the forerunner of the one 
destined to subdue the wliole kingdom of Satan — 
that is, the Elijah of the Messianic kingdom— and a 
declaration to this effect was finally put into the 
mouth of John as though made by him at the very 
start (Mark i. 2, ix. 13, xi. 2-19; Luke i. 17). 

Jesus, as a man of the people, deviated from the 
practise of the Essenes and Pharisees in not shun- 
ning contact with the sinners, the Publicans and 
the despised 'Am ha-Arez, as contaminating, and in 

endeavoring to elevate them; follow- 

Jesus as a ing the maxim, " They that are whole 

Man of the need not a physician, but they that 

People. are sick" (Matt. ix. 12, and parallels; 

compare Antisthenes, in Diogenes 
Laertius, vi. 6). He felt the calling to preach the 
gospel to the poor (Luke iv. 16 e< seq., after Isa. 
Ixi. 1 et seq.), and truly became the redeemer of the 
lower classes, who were not slow to lift him to the 




station of the Messiah. Still, lie apparently made 
no such claim before his entrance into Jerusalem, as 
is evidenced by the warning given to the disciples 
and to the spirits of the possessed not to disclose tiie 
secret of his being the Sou of David (Matt. xii. 16, 
xvi. 20; Mark i. 24, iii. 13, viii. 80; Luke iv. 41). 
His reference to himself as the "Son of man," after 
the manner of Dan. vii. 13, and Enoch, xlvi. 2 et seq., 
in Matt. xx. 18, and Mark x. 33, has no historical 
value; whereas in Mark ii. 28 and ]Matt. viii. 20 
"Son of man" stands for ''man" or "myself." 
While the eschatological predictions in Matt, xxiv., 
XX v. ; Luke xvii. 22 et seq., and elsewhere have been 
taken over literally from Jewish apocalypses and 
put into the mouth of Jesus, the teachings and 
doings of Jesus betray, on closer analysis, rather an 
intense longing after the Jlessianic time than joy 
and satisfaction over its arrival. And as the so- 
called " Lord's Prayer " — an exquisite compilation of 
Hasidic prayer formulas (Luke xi. 1-13; Matt. vi. 
9-13; see Charles Taylor, "Sayings of the Jewish 
Fathers," 1901, p. 176)— is, like the Kaddish, a peti- 
tion rather than a thanksgiving for the Messianic 
kingdom, so is the entire code of ethics laid down by 
Jesus for his disciples in the Sermon on the Moimt 
(Matt, v.-vii., x. ; Luke vi. 20, xi.-xii., and else- 
where) not a law of conduct for a world rejoicing 
in a redeemer that has come, but a guide for a 
few of the elect and saintly ones who wait for the 
immediate downfall of this world and the rise of 
another (Matt. x. 28, xix. 28, xxiv. 34-37). Only 
later events caused the allusion to tlie " Son of man" 
in these sayings to be referred to Jesus. As a mat- 
ter of fact, a sjnrit of great anxiety and unrest per- 
meates the sayings of Jesus and the entire New Tes- 
tament epoch, as is indicated by such utterances as 
" Watch, therefore ; for ye know not what hour your 
Lord doth come " (Matt. xxiv. 43, xxv. 13); "The 
kingdom of God cometh not with observation [that 
is, calculation], but suddenly, imperceptibly it is 
among you" (Luke xvii. 20, 21); compare the rab- 
binical saying: "The Messiah cometh nyiH nOTI^ 
[when least expected], like a thief in the night "(Sanh. 
97a, b). See. further, Matt. xxiv. 43; I Thess. v. 2; 
II Peter iii. 10; Rev. iii. 3. A number of sayings 
allude to the sword, to contention, and to violence, 
which do not altogether harmonize with the gentle 
and submissive character assigned generally to Jesus. 
Such are the following: "Think not that I came to 
send peace on the earth: I came not to send peace, 
but a sword " (Matt. x. 34, R. V.) ; " Suppose ye that 
I am come to give peace on earth? I tell you. Nay ; 
but rather division. . . . The father shall be divided 
against the son, and the son against the father," etc. 
(Luke xii. 51-53); " From the days of John the Bap- 
tist until now the kingdom of heaven suffereth vio- 
lence, and the violent take it by force" (Matt. xi. 
12)— words hardly reconcilable witli the concluding 
sentences of the chapter: "Come unto me, all ye 
that labor and arc heavy laden. . . . Take my yoke 
upon you . . . and ye shall (ind rest " {I.e. xi. 28- 
30). The advice given by Jesus to his disciples to 
provide themselves each with a sword (Luke xxii. 
36; compare ih. verse 49; John xix. 10, though dis- 
avowed in Matt. xxvi. 53, 53); the allusion by 
Simeon the saint to the sword and to the strife as re- 

sulting from Jesus' birth (Luke ii. 34, 35); an<l the 
disappointment voiced by Cleopas, " We trusted that 
it had been he which should have redeemed Israel " 
(Luke xxiv. 21 ; compare Matt, i, 21, where Jesus is 
explained as j;:*>in\ Joshua, who shall "save his peo- 
ple from sin ") — all these point to some action which 
gave cause for his being handed over to Pontius 
Pilate as one who was " perverting the nation, and 
forbidding to give tribute to Coesar" (Luke xxiii. 2); 
though the charge was refuted by the saying, "Ren- 
der unto Cnesar the things that are Ca\sar's " (JMatt. 
xxii. 21 ; Mark xii. 17; Luke xx. 25, R. V.). He was 
tried and crucified as " King of the Jews " or " Jles- 
siah " ; and all the alleged charges of blasphemy, 
in that he called himself " Son of God " in the Mes- 
■sianic sense, or announced the destruction of the 
Temple, prove, in the light of the ancient Jewish 
law, to be later inventions (Matt. xxvi. 63-65; Mark 
xiv. 58; Luke xxii. 70). See Crucifixion of Jesus. 
That the movement did not end with the crucifix- 
ion, but gave birth to that belief in the risen Christ 

which brought the scattered adherents 

The Risen together and founded Christianity, is 

Christ. due to two psychic forces that never 

before had come so strongly into play : 
(1) the great personality of Jesus, which had so im- 
pressed itself upon the simple people of Galilee as to 
become a living power to them even after his death; 
and (2) the transcendentalism, or other-worldliness, 
in which those penance doing, saintly men and 
women of the common classes, in their longing for 
godliness, lived. In entranced visions they beheld' 
their crucified Messiah expounding the Scriptures 
for them, or breaking the bread for them at their 
love-feasts, or even assisting them when they were 
out on the lake fishing (Luke xxiv. 15, 30, 31, 36; 
John XX. 19, xxi.). In an atmosphere of such per- 
fect naivete the miracle of the Resurrection seemed 
as natural as had been the miracle of the healing of 
the sick. Memory and vision combined to weave 
the stories of Jesus walking on the water (compare 
Matt. xiv. 25, Mark vi. 49, and John vi. 19 with 
John xxi. 1-14), of the transfiguration on the Mount 
(compare Matt. xvii. 1-13, Mark ix. 2-13, and Luke 
ix. 29-36 with Matt, xxviii. 16 et seq.), and of his 
moving through the air to be near the divine throne, 
served by the angels and the holy (not " wild ") 
beasts ("hayyot"), and holding Scriptural combats 
with Satan (Mark 1. 12, 13; Matt. iv. 1-11; compare 
with Acts vii. 15, vii. 55). The Messiahship of Jesus 
having once become an axiomatic truth to the "be- 
lievers," as they called themselves, his whole life 
was reconstructed and woven together out of Mes- 
sianic passages of the Scriptures. In him all the 
Testament prophecies had " to be fulfilled " (Matt. 
i. 22; ii. 5, 15, 17; iii. 3; iv. 14; viii. 17; xii. 17; 
xiii. 14, 35; xx. 14; xxvi. 56; xxvii. 19; John xii. 
38; xiii. 18; xv. 25; xvii. 12; xviii. 9; xix. 24, 36). 
Thus, according to the Jewish view, shared by 
many Christian theologians, there grew up, through 
a sort of Messianic Midrash, the myths of Jesus' 
birth from a virgin (after Isa. vii. 14), in Bethlehem, 
the city of David (after Micah v. 1 et seq. ; there 
was a town of Bethlehem also in Galilee, which 
Griltz identifies with Nazareth; see "Monatsschrift," 
xxix. 481) ; the genealogies in Luke iii. 23-38 and 




in Matt. i. 1-17, with the singular stress laid upon 
Tamar, Rahab, and Ruth, the converted sinners and 
heathens, as mothers of the elect one (compare Gen. 
R. ii, ; Hor. 10b; Nazir 23b; Meg. 14b); likewise the 
story of Jesus' triumphal entry into Jerusalem ri- 
ding upon a young ass (after Zech. ix. 9), and of his 
being hailed by the people's "Hosanna" (after Ps. 
cxviii. 26; compare Midr. Teh. to the passage; also 
Matt. xxi. 1-11, and parallels). 

Similarly, his healing powers were made proofs 
of his Messiahship (after Isa. xxxv. 5, 6; compare 
Gen. R. xcv. and Midr. Teh. cxlviii. ), also his death 
on the cross w-as taken, with reference to Isa. liii. 
and old Essene tradition of the suffering Messiah 
(Pesik. R. xxxiv.-xxxvii.), to be the atoning sacri- 
fice of the Lamb of God slain for-man's sin (John i. 
29; Actsviii. 32; Rev. xiii. 8; compare Enoch xc. 8), 
and his resurrection the beginning of a new life 
(after Zech. xiv. 5: I Chron. iii. 24; Sibyllines, 11. 
242; Matt. xxiv. 30; I Thess. Iv. 16). Men lield 
their love-feasts in his memory — turned into paschal 
feasts of the new covenant (Matt. xxvl. 28, and par- 
allels; Jolm xix. S'Setseq.) — and led lives of volun- 
tary poverty and of partial celibacy (Acts 11. 44; 
Matt. xlx. 12). 

Out of these elements arose the life -picture of 
Jesus, shaped after later events and to a great ex- 
tent reflecting the hostile sentiments entertained 
against the Jewish people by the new sect when, In 
the final struggle with Rome, the latter no longer 
shared the views and destinies of the former. Many 
antiuomistic views put into the mouth of Jesus have 
their origin in Pauline — i.e., anti-Judeau — circles. 
Thus the sajing, " Not that which goeth into the 
mouth defileth a man ; but that which cometh out 
of the mouth, this defileth a man " (Matt. xv. 11, and 
parallels), Is Irreconcilable with Peter's action and 
vision in Acts xi. 1-10. What Jesus actually said 
and did is difiicult to determine. Many of his teach- 
ings can be traced to rabbinical sayings 

Jesus' current In the Pharisaic schools ; and 

Teachings, many sentences, if not entire chapters, 

have been taken over from Essene 

writings (see Didascalia; Essenes; Golden Rule; 

Jesus op Nazareth; Matthew). 

On the other hand, there are utterances of striking 
originality and wondrous powder which denote great 
genius. He certainly had a message to bring to the 
forlorn, to " the lost sheep of the house of Israel " 
(Matt. x. 6, XV. 24), to the outcast, to the lower classes, 
to the " 'am ha-arez," to the sinners, and to the publi- 
cans. And whether the whole life-picture is reality 
or poetic imagination, in him the Essene ideal reached 
its culmination. But it is not correct to speak, as 
Christian theologians do, of a possible recognition 
or an actual rejection of Jesus' Christship by the 
Jews. Whatever his greatness as teacher or as 
friend of the people, this could not establish his claim 
to the Messianic title; and whether his Galilean fol- 
lowers were justified in according it to him, or the 
authorities at Jerusalem in denying it and in de- 
nouncing him to the Roman prefect— probably more 
from fear than from spite (John xix. 15)— is not a 
matter that can be decided from the scanty records 
(compare Matt. xxvi. 5; Luke xiii. 31; xix. 47, 48; 
XX. 19; xxiii. 43 with Matt, xxvii. 25-28; Mark xv. 

14; Luke xxiii. 23 (see Crucifixion). The vehement 
language of Jesus, in denouncing Sadducean misrule 
and the hypocrisy and narrowness of the Pharisaic 
leaders, was not altogether new and unheard of: it 
was the privilege of the Essene preachers, the popu- 
lar Haggadists (see Pharisees and Sadducees). 
Most of his teachings, a great number of which echo 
rabbinical sayings, and have been misunderstood or 
misapplied altogether by the late Gospel compilers 
(see Gospels, The Four), were addressed to a circle 
of men who lived in a world of their own, far away 
from the centers of commerce and Industry. His 
attitude toward Judaism is defined by the words: 
" Think not that I am come to destroy the law or 
the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to ful- 
fil" (Matt. v. 17). The rejection of the Law by 
Christianity, therefore, was a departure from its 
Christ, all the New Testament statements to the 
contrary notwithstanding. He himself declined 
even the title of "good master," because he wanted 
to reserve this epithet for God alone (Matt. xix. 17): 
Christianity, contrary to all his teaching, turned 
him into a God. 

II, This radical change was brought about by 
Saul of Tarsus or Paul, the real founder of the 
Christian Church, though Peter formed the first 
community of the risen Christ (Matt. xvi. 16; Acts 
1. 15; I Cor. XV. 5). Having, under the influence 
of a vision, turned from an earnest persecutor of 
the new sect into its vigorous champion (Acts ix. 
1-14. xxll. 3-16, xxvl. 9-18; I Cor. ix. 1, xv. 8 et 
seq. ; Gal. 1. 16), he construed the belief in the ato- 
ning death of Christ held by the rest into a system 
altogether antagonistic to Judaism 
Paul's and its Law, claiming to have received 
Anti- the apostleship to the heathen world 

nomistic from the Christ he beheld in his visions. 
and Operating with certain Gnostic ideas, 

Gnostic Avhich rendered the Messiah as Son 

Views. of God a cosmic power, like Philo's 
"logos," aiding in the world's creation 
and mediating between God and man, he saw both 
in the Crucifixion and in the Incarnation acts of 
divine self-humiliation suffered for the sake of re- 
deeming a world polluted and doomed by sin since 
the fall of Adam. Faith alone in Christ should save 
man, baptism being the seal of the belief in God's 
redeeming love. It meant dying with Christ to sin 
which is inherited from Adam, and rising again with 
Christ to put on the new Adam (Rom. vi. 1-4 ; I Cor. 
XV.; Gal. iii. -iv.). See Baptism. 

On the other hand, Paul taught, the law of Moses, 
the seal of which was Circumcision, failed to redeem 
man, because it made sin unavoidable. By a course 
of reasoning he discarded the Law as being under 
the curse (Gal. ill. 10 et seq.), declaring only those 
who believed in Christ as the Son of God to be 
free from all bondage (Gal. iv.). In opposition 
to those who distinguished between full Prose- 
lytes and "proselytes of the gate," who only ac- 
cepted the Noachidian laws (Acts xv. 20), he abro- 
gated the whole Law ; claiming God to be the god of 
the heathen as well as of the Jews (Rom. iii. 29). 
Yet in enunciating this seemingly llberar doctrine 
lie deprived faith, as typified by Abraham (Gen. xv 
6; Rom. iv. 3), of its naturalness, and forged the 




shackles of the Christian dogma, with its terrors of 
damnation and hell for the unbeliever. God, as 
Father and the just Ruler, was pushed into the back- 
ground ; and the Christ— who in tiie Gospels as well 
as in the Jewish apocalyptic literature figured as 
judge of the souls under God's sovereignty (Matt, 
xvi. 27, XXV. 31-33; compare Enoch, iv. xiv. et 
seq. ; IIEsd. vii. 33 with Rom. xiv. 10; II Cor. v. 10) 
—was rendered the central figure, because he, as 
head and glory of the divine kingdom, has, like Bel 
of Babylonian mythology fighting with the dragon, 
to combat Satan and his kingdom of evil, sin, and 
death. While thus opening wide tlie door to admit 
the pagan world, Paul caused the influx of the en- 
tire pagan mythology in the guise of Gnostic and 
anti-Gnostic names and formulas. No wonder if he 
was frequently assailed and beaten by the officials 
of the synagogue: he used this very synagogue, 
which during many centuries had been made the 
center of Jewish propaganda also among the heathen 
for the pure monotheistic faith of Abraham and the 
law of Moses, as the starting-point of his antinomis 
tic and anti-Judean agitations (Acts xiii. 14, xiv. 1, 
xvii. 1 et seq., xxi. 27). 

For a long time Christianity regarded itself as part 
of Judaism. It had its center in Jerusalem (Irenasus, 

"Adversus Haereses, i. 26); its first 

Early fifteen bishops were circumcised Jews , 

Christi- they observed the Law and were rather 

anity unfriendly to heathenism (Sulpicius 

a Jewish Severus, "Historia Sacra," ii. 31; 

Sect. Eusebius, "Hist. Eccl."iv. 5; compare 

Matt. XV. 26), while they held friendly 
intercourse with the leaders of the synagogue (see 
Griltz," Gesch. der Juden," iv. 373 et seq. ; and Ebign- 
ITES, Minim, and Nazarenes). Many a halakic and 
haggadic discussion is recorded in tlie Talmud as 
having taken place between the Christians and the 
Rabbis (see Jacob the Gnostic). Probably the 
Christian Congregation, or Churcli of the Saints, 
did not distinguish itself in outward form from 
the " Kehala Kaddisha " at Jerusalem, under which 
name the Essene community survived the downfall 
of the Temple (Ber. 9b; compare Eccl. R. ix. 9: 
'Edah Kedoshah). Of course, the destruction of the 
Temple and of the Judean state and the cessation 
of sacrifice could not but promote the cause of Chris- 
tianity (see Justin, "Dial, cum Tryph." xi.); and 
under the impression of these important events the 
Gospels were written and accordingly colored. 
Still, Jew and Christian looked in common for the 
erection of the kingdom of heaven by the Messiah 
either soon to appear or to reappear (see Joel, " Blicke 
in die Religionsgesch." 1. 33 et seq.). It was dur- 
ing the last struggle with Rome in the days of Bar 
Kokba and Akiba that, amidst denunciations on 
the part of the Christians and execrations on the 
part of tlie Jewish leaders, those hostilities began 
which separated Church and Synagogue forever, 
and made the former an ally of the arch-enemy. 
Pauline Christianity greatly aided in the Romani- 
zing of the Church. It gravitated toward Rome as 
toward the great world-empire, and soon the Church 
became in the eyes of the Jew heir to Edom (Gen. 
XX vii. 40). The emperor Constantine completed what 
Paul liad begun — a world hostile to the faith in which 

Jesus liad lived and died. The Council of Nice in 
325 determined that Church and Synagogue should 
have nothing in common, and that whatever smacked 
of the unity of God and of the freedom of man, or 
offered a Jewish aspect of worship, must be elimi- 
nated from Catholic Christendom. 

Three causes seem to have been at work in making 
the Pauline system dominant in the Church. First, 
the pagan world, particularly its lower 
Paganism classes, having lost faith in its old 
Pre- gods, yearned for a redeemer, a man- 
dominant, like god, and, on the other hand, was 
captivated by that work of redeeming 
love which the Christian communities practised, 
in the name of Jesus, in pursuance of the an- 
cient Essene ideals (see Charity). Secondly, the 
blending of Jewish, Oriental, and Hellenic thought 
created those strange mystic or Gnostic systems 
which fascinated and bewildered the minds of the 
more educated classes, and seemed to lend a deeper 
meaning to the old beliefs and superstitions. Thirdly, 
woman appeared on the scene as a new factor of 
Church life. While the women of Syria and of 
Rome were on the whole attracted by the brightness 
and purity of Jewish home life, women in the New 
Testament, and most of all in Paul's life and letters, 
are prominent in other directions. Aside from those 
visions of Mary Magdalene which lent support to 
the belief in the Resurrection (Matt, xxviii. 1, 
and parallels), there was an undisguised tendency 
on the part of some women of these 
Woman's circles, such as Salome; Thecla, the 
Part in the friend of Paul ; and others (see " Gos- 
Early pel of the Egyptians," in Clement, 

Church. "Stromata," iii. 964; Conybeare, 
"Apology and Acts of ApoUonius 
and Other Monuments of Early Christianity," pp. 
24, 183, 284), to free themselves from the tram- 
mels of those principles upon which the sanctity 
of home rested (see Eccl. R. vii. 26). A morbid emo- 
tionalism, prizing love as " the greatest of all things " 
in place of truth and justice, and a pagan view of 
holiness which tended to make life oscillate be- 
tween austere asceticism (demanding virginity and 
eunuchism) on the one side, and licentiousness on 
the other (see Matt. xix. 12; Sulpicius Severus, 
"Dialogi Duo," i. 9, 13, 15; Eusebius, "Hist. Eccl." 
vi. 8; Clement, I.e. iii. 4; Cyprian, Ep. iv. ; Rev. ii. 
14), went hand in hand with Gnosticism. Against 
this exaggeration of the divine attribute of love and 
the neglect of that of justice, the Rabbis in the 
ancient Mishnah seem to utter their warning (Meg. 
iv. 9; Yer. Ber. i. 3). When, finally, the reaction set 
in, and Gnosticism both as an intellectual and as a 
sexual degeneracy (compare Sifre on Num. xv. 39) 
was checked by a strong counter-movement in favor 
of positive Christianity, two principles of extraor- 
dinary character were laid down by the fraraers of 
the Church : (1) the Trinitarian dogma with all its 
corollaries ; and (2) a double code of morality, one 
for the world-fleeing monks and nuns and the clergy 
—called the really religious ones— and another for 
the laity, the men of the world. 

The Trinitarian formula first occurs in Matthew 
(xxviii. 19, R. V.) in the words spoken by the risen 
Christ to the disciples in Galilee: " Go ye therefore, 




and make disciples of all the [heathen] nations, 

baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of 

the Sou, and of the Holy Ghosi " ; 

Trini- but it appears to have been still 

tarianism. unknown to Paul (I Cor. vi. 11; Acts 

ii. 38). 

It is quite significant for the liistoriau to observe 
that, while in the older Gospel (Mark xii. 29) Jesus 
began reciting the first commandment with the Jew- 
ish confession, "Hear, O Israel; the Lord our God, 
the Lord is one," this verse is omitted in Matt. xxii. 
37. Christ, the preexistent Messiah (Gen. li. i.), 
being either identified with the Shekinah or divine 
glory (Rom. Lv. 4; Col. i. 27; see Mayor, "Epistle of 
James," p. 75, notes), or with tiie "Memra" or 
"Logos," Philo's second god ("Fragments," ed. 
Mangey, ii. 625; compare " De Somniis," i. 39-41, 
ed. Mangey, i. 655 et seq.), was raised by Paul to the 
rank of a god and placed alongside of God the Fatlier 
(I Cor. viii. 6, xii. 3; Titus ii. 13; compare I John 
V. 20); and in II Cor. xiii. 14 the Trinity is almost 
complete. In vain did the early Christians protest 
against the deification of Jesus (" Clementine Hom- 
ilies," X vi. 15). He is in Paul's system the image of 
God the Father (II Cor. iv. 4; compare I Cor. viii. 
6); and, being opposed "to Satan, the god of this 
world," his title "God of the world to come" is as- 
sured. However repugnant expressions such as " the 
blood," "the suffering," and "the death of God" 
(Ignatius, "Ad Romaoos, " iii., v. 13; idem, "Ad 
Ephesios." i. 1; Tertullian, "Ad Praxeam") must 
have been to the still monotheistic sentiment of 
many, the opponents of Jesus' deification were de- 
feated as Jewish heretics (Tertullian, l-.c. 30; see 
Ari.\nism and IMonauciiians). 

The idea of a Trinity, which, since the Council of 
Nice, and especially through Basil the Great (370), 
had become the Catholic dogma, is of course re- 
garded by Jews as antagonistic to their monothe- 
istic faith and as due to the paganistic tendency of 
the Church ; God the Father and God the Son, to- 
gether with "the Holy Ghost ["Ruah ha-Kodesh"] 
conceived of as a female being," having their paral- 
lels in all the heathen mythologies, as has been shown 
by many Christian scholars, such as Zimmern, in 
his"Vater, Sohn, und Fursprecher, " 1896, and in 
Schrader's "K. A. T." 1902, p. 377; Ebers, in his 
"Sinnbildliches: die Koptische Kunst," 1892, p. 10; 
and others. 

There was a lime when the Demiurgos, as a sec- 
ond god, threatened to becloud Jewish monotheism 
(see Gnosticism and Elisha ben Abuyah): but 
this was at once checked, and the absolute unity 
of God became the impregnable bulwark of Juda- 
ism. "If a man says: 'lam God,' he lies, and if 
' Son of man,' he will repent," was the bold interpre- 
tation of Num. xxiii. 18, given by R. Abbahu with 
reference to Christianity (Yer. Ta'an. ii. 1, 65b). 
"When Nebuchadnezzar spoke of the ' Son of God ' 
(Dan. iii. 25), an angel came and smote him on the 
face," saying; "Hath God a son?" (Yer. Shab. vi. 
8d). In the Church, Uuitarianism was suppressed 
and persecuted whenever it endeavored to assert its 
birthright to reason; and it is owing chiefly to 
Justinian's fanatic persecution of the Syrian Uni- 
tarians that Islam, with its insistence on pure mono- 

theism, triumphed over the Eastern Church. Hence- 
forth Moslem and Jewish philosophj- stood together 
for the absolute unity of God, not 
Persecu- allowing anj' predicate of the Deity 
tion of which might endanger this principle 
Unitarians, (see Attributes); whereas Christian 
philosophers, from Augustine to Hegel 
successivelj^ attempted to overcome the metaph3'si- 
cal difficulties involved in the conception of a Trinity 
(see David Friedrich Strauss, "Glaubenslehre," i. 

The next radical deviation from Judaism was 
the worship of the Virgin Mary as the mother of 
God ; the canonical and, still more, the apocryphal 
writings of the New Testament offering the wel- 
come points of support to justify such a cult. The 
Jew could only abhor the medieval adoration of 
]\Iary, whicli seemed to differ little from the worship 
of Isis and her son Horus, Isthar and Tammuz, Frig 
and Balder. Yet this was but part of the human- 
ization of the Deity and deification of man instituted 
in the Church in the shape of image-worship, de- 
spite synods and imperial decrees, prohibitions 
and iconoclasm. The cross, the lamb, and the fish, 
as symbols of the new faith, failed to satisfy the 
heathen minds ; in the terms of John of Damascus, 
they demanded "to see the image of God, while 
God the Father was hidden from sight"; and con- 
.sequently the second commandment had to give 
way (see "Image- Worship," in Schaff-Herzog, "En- 
cj'c"). It is no wonder, then, that the Jews beheld 
idolatry in all this, and felt constrained to apply the 
law, " Make no mention of the name of other gods " 
(Ex. xxiii. 13; Mek. to the passage and Sanh. 63b), 
also to Jesus; so that the name of one of the best and 
truest of Jewish teachers was shunned by tlie medi- 
eval JeAv. Still, the Jewish code of law offered 
some toleration to the Christian Trinitj', in that it 
permitted semi-proselytes ("ger toshab") to wor- 
sliij) other divine powers together Avith the One God 
(Tosef., Sanh. 63b; Shulhan 'Aruk, Orah Hayyim, 
156, Isserles' note). 

It was, indeed, no easy matter for the Jew to dis- 
tinguish between pagan idolatry and Christian 
image-worship (Shulhan 'Aruk,. Yo- 
Medieval reh De'ah, 141). Moreover, image-wor- 
Image- ship went hand in hand with relic- 
Worship, worship and saint-worsinp; and so 
the door was opened Avidc to admit in 
the guise of saints the various deities of paganism, 
the policy of the medieval Church being to create a 
large pantheon of saints, apostles, and angels along- 
side of the Trinity in order to facilitate the conquest 
of heathen nations. In contrast to the uncompromi- 
sing attitude of Judaism, the Church Avas ever ready 
for compromise to win the great multitudes. It Avas 
this spirit of polytheism Avhich led to all those 
abuses the opposition to Avhich was the chief factor 
of the Reformation — -Avhose aim and purpose were 
a return to Pauline Christianity and the New Testa- 
ment with the help of a deeper study of the Old 
Testament at the hand of JeAvish scholarship (see 
Luther; Reformation; Reuchlin). 

But the Trinitarian dogma rested mainlj^ upon 
Paul's conception of the mediatorship of Christ. 
For no sooner was the idea of the atoning poAver 



of the death of the righteous (Isa. liii. 4-10; see 
Atonement) applied to Jesus (Matt. xx. 28; Luke 

xxii. 37 ; Acts viii. 32) thau Christ 
Mediator- became the necessary mediator, "de- 
ship liveriug mau from the power of 
of Christ. Satan and the last enemy — death" (I 

Tim. ii. 5; Col. i. 13; I Cor. xv. 26). 
While Judaism has no room for dualism, since God 
spoke through the seer, "I formed the light and 
created tne darkness : I make peace and create evil " 
(Isa. xlv. 7) ; and while the divine attributes of jus- 
tice and love, punitive wrath and forgiving mercy, 
are only contrasted (n"'Omn moipnmo, Ber. 7a; 
Philo, "Quis Rerum Divinarum Heres Sit," xxxiv. ; 
Siegfried, " Philo," pp. 21Bet .icq.), but never divided 
into separate powers, the world of Satan and the 
world of Christ are arrayed against each other, and 
an at-oue-ment by the blood of the cross is necessi- 
tated in the Pauline system (Col. i. 20; Rom. iii. 25). 
God had to reconcile the world to Himself through 
the death of Jesus (H Cor. v. 18) and render "the 
children of wrath " children of His grace (Ephea. ii. 
3; Rom. iii. 25, v. 10). "The love of God required 
the sacrifice of his own begotten Son " (John iii. 16). 
This view is regarded as repugnant by the pure mono- 
theistic sentiment of the Jew, itself grounded upon 
the spirituality and holiness of God, and was op- 
posed by R. Akiba when he, with direct reference 
to the Christian doctrine, said: "Happy are ye, 
Israelites! Before whom do ye purify yourselves, 
and who is the one who purificth you but your 
Father in heaven, for it is said : ' Israel's hope [" mik- 
weh," also interpreted as " source of purification "] is 
God ' " ( Jcr. xvii. 13 ; IMishuah Yoma, end). But the 
whole dogma of Jesus' incarnation and crucifixion 
has for its background a world of sin and death 
ruled by Satan and his hosts of demons (II C!or. iv. 
4; Ephes. ii. 1, vi. 12 et seq.; II Tim. ii. 26). In 
fact, the whole coming of Christ is viewed in the 
New Testament as a battle with Satan (see Matt. iv. 
1 et seq., xii. 29; Luke x. 18; John xii. 31; John 
iii. 8). The story of Adam's fall, which caused the 
Book of Wisdom to say (ii. 24) that " through the 
envy of the devil death came into the world " (com- 
pare Ecclus. [Sirach] xxv. 24), was made by Paul 
(compare II Esdras iii. 7, 21, and Apoc. Baruch, 
xvii. 3) the keynote of the entire human history 
(Rom. V. 12). Forthoseof the Rabbis who accepted 
this view the Law was an antidote against "the 
venom of the Serpent "—that is, the germ or the 
inclination to sin ('Ab. Zarah, 22b; Shab. 146a); to 
Paul, who antagonized the Law, the " breath of the 
serpent" became a power of sin and everlasting 
doom of such a nature that none but God Himself, 
through Christ Ilis son, could overcome it. 

In adopting this view as the doctrine of Oiugin.\l 
Sin the Church deprived man of both his moral 
and his intellectual birthright as the child of God 

(Tcrtullian, " De Anima," xvi., xl. ; 

The Doc- Augustine, "DeNuptiis et Concupi- 

trine of scentiis," i. 24, ii. 34; Strauss," Glau- 

Original benslehre," ii. 43 ei seq.), and declared 

Sin. all the generations of man to have 

been born in sin — a belief accepted 
also by the Lutherans in the Augsburg Confession 
and by Calvin ("Institutes," II. i. 6-8; Strauss, I.e. 

ii. 49). In vain did Pelagius, Socinus, and the Arnu'n- 
ians protest against a view which dei)rived man of 
his prerogative as a free, responsible i)erson (Strauss, 
I.e. p. 53). No longer could the Christian recite the 
ancient prayer of the Synagogue: "My God, the 
soul which Thou gavest unto me is pure " (Ber. 
60b). And while, in all Hellenistic or pre-Christian 
writings, Enoch, Methuselah, Job, and other Gen- 
tiles of old were viewed as prototypes of humanity, 
the prevailing opinion of the Rabbis being that "the 
righteous among the heathen have a share in the 
world to come" (Tosef., Sanh. xiii. 2; Sanh. 105a; 
see all the passages and the views of a dissenting 
minority in Zunz, "Z. G." pp. 373-385), the Church, 
Catholic and Protestant alike, cojisigns without ex- 
ception all those who do not believe in Jesus to the 
eternal doom of hell (Strauss, I.e. ii. 686, 687). 
Christ's descent into hell to liberate his own soul 
from the pangs of eternal doom became, therefore, 
one of the fundamentals of the Apostolic creed, 
after I Peter iii. 18, iv. 6 (see Schaff-Herzog, " En- 
cyc." art. "Hell, Christ's Descent into"). It is ob- 
vious that this view of God could not well inculcate 
kindly feelings toward Jews and heretics; and the 
tragic fate of the medieval Jew, the persecutions he 
suffered, and the hatred he experienced, must be 
chiefly' attributed to this doctrine. 

Paul's de])reciation of the Law and his laudation 

of faith (in Christ) as the only saving power for Jew 

and Gentile (Rom. iii. 28, x. 4; Gal. 

Faith iii. 7 et seq.) had, in the Middle Ages, 

and an injurious effect upon the mental 

Reason, progress of man. Faith, as exhib- 
ited by Abraham and as demanded 
of the people in the Old Testament and rabbinical 
writings, is njIDK. a simple, childlike trust in God ; 
and accordingly "littleness of faith "—that is, want 
of perfect confidence in the divine goodness — is de- 
clared by Jesus as well as by the Rabbis in the Tal- 
mud as unworthy of the true servant and son of God 
(Gen. XV. 6; Ex. xiv. 31; Num. xiv. 11, xx. 12; 
Hab. ii. 4; II Chron. xx. 20; Mek. to Ex. xiv. 31; 
Matt. vi. 30; Sotah 48b). Paul's theology made 
faith a meritorious act of saving quality (Rom. i. 
16); and the more meritorious it is the less is it in 
harmony with the wisdom of the wise, appearing 
rather as " foolishness " (I Cor. i. 18-31). From this 
it was but one step to Tertullian's perfect surren- 
der of reason, as expressed in " Credo quia absur- 
dum," or, more correctly, "Credibile quia ineptum; 
ccrtum est quia impossibile est " (To be believed be- 
cause it is foolish; certain because impossible"; 
" De Carne Christi," v.). Blind faith, which renders 
the impossible possible (Mark ix. 23, 24), produced 
a credulity throughout Christendom which became 
indifferent to the laws of nature and which depre- 
cated learning, as was shown by Draper (" History 
of the Conflict l)ctween Science and Religion ") and 
by White ("History of the Warfare of Science with 
Theology "). A craving for the miraculous and 
supernatiu-al created ever new superstitions, or 
sanctioned, under the form of relic- worship, old 
pagan forms of belief. In the name of the Chris- 
tian faith reason and research were condemned, 
Greek philosophy and literature were exterminated, 
and free thinking was suppressed. Whereas Juda- 




ism made the study of the Law, or rather of the 
Torah — which is learning, and included science and 
philosophy as well as religion — the foremost duty 
of each member of the household (Deut. vi. 7, xi. 
19; Josephus, "Contra Ap." ii. §§ 18, 36, 41), medi- 
eval Christianity tended to find bliss in ignorance, 
because knowledge and belief seemed incompatible 
(Lecky, "History of European Morals from Augus- 
tus to Charlemagne," ii. 203-210; idem, "History 
of the Rise and Influence of the Spirit of Rational- 
ism in Europe," i. 1-201). 

It was the resuscitated pagan thinkers, it was the 
Mohammedan and the Jew, who kept the lamps of 
knowledge and science burning ; and to them in large 
measure the revival of learning, through scholastic 
philosophy in the Catholic cloisters and afterward in 
western Europe in general, is due.' Not merely the 
burning of witches and heretics, but the charges, 
raised by priests and mobs against the Jews, of having 
poisoned the wells, pierced the consecrated host, and 
slain innocent children in order to use their blood, can 
mainly be traced to that stupor of the mind which 
beholds in every intellectual feat the working of 
Satanic powers, alliance with which was believed 
to be bought with blood. On the other hand, the 
Church was ever busy infusing into the popular 
mind the belief that those rites which served as 
symbolic expressions of the faith were endowed 
with supernatural powers, "sacrament" being the 
Latin word used for " mysterion," the name given to 
forms which had a certain magic spell for the be- 
liever. Both baptism and the eucharist were re- 
garded as miracle-working powers of the Christian 
faith, on participation in which the salvation of the 
soul depended, and exclusion from which meant 
eternal damnation (see the literature in Schaff- 
Herzog, " Enc)'c. " «. i). "Sacrament"). 

The expectation by early Christianity of a speedy 

regeneration of the world by the reappearance 

of Jesus exerted a strange influ- 

Asceticism. ence also on the whole moral and 

in the Mon- social state of humanity. The entire 

asteries. Christian life being a preparation for 
the world to come (and this change 
being expected to take place soon; Matt. x. 23; I 
Cor. i. 7 ; I Peter i. 13), only those that renounced 
the joys of the flesh were certain of entering the 
latter. This view gave rise to asceticism in the mon- 
asteries, for which genuine religiosity was claimed ; 
while marriage, home, and state, and all earthly com- 
forts, were only concessions to the flesh. Henceforth 
the ideal life for the priest and recluse was to differ 
from that for the people at large, who were to 
rank as inferiors (iStrauss, I.e. i. 41 et seq.). Whereas 
in Judaism the high priest was not allowed to oflici- 
ate on the Day of Atonement unless he had a wife 
that made home sacred to him (Yoma i. 1, after Lev. 
xvi. 11, 17), celibacy and virginity were prized as 
the higher virtues of the Christian elect, contempt 
of the world with all its material, social, and intel- 
lectual pursuits being rendered the ideal of life (see 
Ziegler, "Gesch. der Ethik," 1886, pp. 192-242). 
Thus, to the Jew Christendom, from the days of the 
emperor Constantine, presented a strange aspect. 
The Church, formerly the declared enemy of Rome- 
Babel (Rev. xvii.), had become her ally, accepting 

Edom's blessing, "By thy sword slialt thou live" 
(Gen. xxvii. 40), as her own; and, on the other hand, 
there appeared her priests ("gallah" = hair-clipped) 
and monks (" kummarim "), in the guise of the old 
Hebrew Nazarites and saints, claiming to be the true 
heirs to Israel's prophecy and priesthood. Indeed, 
medieval Judaism and Christianity formed the great- 
est contrast. Children of the same household, invo- 
king the same God and using the same Scriptures as 
His revealed word, they interpreted differently life 
and its meaning, God and religion. Their Bible, Sab- 
bath, and festivals, their whole bent of mind and soul, 
had become widely divergent. They no longer un- 
derstood each other. 

Yet, while neither Augustine nor Thomas Aqui- 
nas, the chief framers of the Church dogma, nor 
even Luther and Calvin, the Reform- 
Medieval ers, had any tolerance for Jew or Mos- 
Jewish lera, the authorities of the Synagogue 
Views of accorded to Christianity and Islam a 
Christi- high providential mission in human 
anity. history. Saadia (died 942), the first to 
examine the Christian dogma, says (in 
his "Emunot we-De'ot," ii. 5) that, unconcerned by 
the sensual Trinitarian belief of the common crowd, 
he would discuss only the speculative value given 
by Christian thinkers to the Trinity ; and so, with 
p'euetrating acumen and profound earnestness and 
love of trutli, he endeavors to lay bare either the 
metaphysical errors of those who, as he says, make 
of such attributes as life, power, and knowledge 
separate parts of the Deity, or the defects of the 
various philosophical constructions of the divinity 
of Jesus (see Kaufmann, "Gesch. der Attributen- 
lehre," pp. 38-52; Guttmann, "Die Religionsphilo- 
sophie des Saadia," pp. 103-113). 

Grander still is the view of Christianity taken by 
Judah ha-Levi in the "Cuzari." After having re- 
jected as incompatible with reason all the claims of 
the Trinity and of Christ's origin (i. 5), and remarked 
that both Christianity and Islam accepted the roots, 
but not the logical conclusions, of Israel's faith, 
(iv. 11) — rather amalgamating the same with pagan 
rites and notions — he declares (iv. 23) that both 
form the preparatory steps to the Messianic time 
which will ripen the fruit in which adherents of 
those faiths, too, will have a share, all the branches 
thus proving to be " the one tree " of Israel (Ezek. 
xxxvii. 17; see D. Cassel, " Das Buch Kuzari,"337). 
This view is shared by Maimonides, who writes in 
"Yad," Melakim, xi. 4: "The teachings of the 
Nazarene and the Ishmaelite [Mohammed] serve the 
divine purpose of preparing the way for the Mes- 
siah, who is sent to make the whole world perfect 
by worshiping God with one spirit : for they have 
spread the words of the Scriptures and the law of 
truth over the wide globe ; and, whatever of errors 
they adhere to, they will turn toward the full truth 
at the arrival of the Messianic time." And in his 
Responsa (No. 58) he declares: "The Christians be- 
lieve and profess in common with us that the Bible 
is of divine origin and given through Moses, our 
teacher; they have it completely written down, 
though they frequently interpret it differently." 

The great rabbinical authorities, R. Gershom of 
Mayence (d. 1040; see "Ha-Hoker," i. 2, 45); Rashi 




and his school; the French Tosafists of the twelfth 
century ('Ab. Zarah, 2a); Solomon ben Adret of 
Barcelona, of the thirteenth century; Isaac b. She- 
shet of the fourteenth century (Responsa No. 119); 
Joseph Caro (Shulhaa 'Aruk, Orah Hayyim, 156, 
end; Yoreh De'ah, 148; and Hosheu Mishpat, 266), 
and Moses Isserles of the sixteenth century declare 
that Christians are to be regarded as Proselytes of 
the Gate and not as idolaters, in spite of their image- 
worship. Still more emphatic in the recognition of 
Christianity, as teaching a belief in the Creator, 
revelation, retribution, and resurrection, is Joseph 
Yaabez, a victim of Spanish persecution (1492), 
who, in his "Ma'amar lia-Ahdut," iii., goes so far as 
to assert that " but for these Christian nations we 
might ourselves have become infirm in our faith dur- 
ing our long dispersion." 

The same generous view is taken by his contem- 
porary Isaac Arama ("' 'Akedat Yizlaak," Ixxxviii.). 
Eliezer Ashkenazi (sixteenth century) warns his co- 
religionists, in his " Ma'ase ha-Shem, " written in Tur- 
key, " not to curse a whole Christian nation because 
a portion wrongs us, as little as one would curse 
one's own brother or son for some wrong inflicted." 
Jacob Emden at the middle of the eighteenth cen- 
tury wrote : " Christianity has been given as part of 
the Jewish religion by the Apostles to the Gentile 
world; and its founder has even made the moral 
laws stricter than are those contained in Mosaism. 
There are, accordingly, many Christians of high 
qualities and excellent morals who keep from hatred 
and do no harm, even to their enemies. Would 

that Christians would all live in con- 
Christian- formity with their precepts! Thej^ 
ity Com- are not enjoined, like the Israelites, 
pared with to observe the laws of Moses ; nor do 
Islam. they sin if they associate other beings 

with God in worshiping a triune God. 
They will receive reward from God for having 
propagated a belief in Him among nations that 
never heard His name ; for ' He looks into the 
heart. ' Yea, many have come forth to the rescue 
of Jews and their literature" ("Resen Mat'eh," p. 
15b, Amsterdam, 1758, and "Lehem ha-Shamayim" 
to Ab. V. 17). Leone del Bene (Judah AsahelMeha- 
Tob) also may be mentioned, who, in his "Kis'ot 
le-Bet David," 1646, xxiv., xxvi., xlvi., xlviii., com- 
pares ^lohammedanism with Christianity, and de- 
clares the latter as superior, notwithstanding its 
Trinitarian dogma. A highly favorable opinion 
of Jesus is expressed also in a Karaite fragment 
noted in Steinschneider, "Ozerot Hayyim," Cata- 
logue of the Michael Library, pp. 377 et seq., Ham- 
burg, 1848. Compare Jew. Encyc. 1. 223, s.v. Afen- 


The persistent attacks of Christian controversial- 
ists against the Jewish belief gave rise, of course, 
to a number of polemical works, written in self- 
defense, in which both the Christian dogmas and the 
New Testament writings are submitted to unsparing 
criticism. Foremost among these — not to mention 
Nahmanides' published disputation with Pablo 
Cliristiani— is that of Hasdai Crescas, who. in a 
Spanish "tratado" on the Christian creeds (1396), 
sliowed the irrationality of the doctrines of Origi- 
nal Sin, the Trinity, the Incarnation, the Virginity 

of Jesus' Mother, and Transubstantiation, and v lio 
investigated the value of baptism and of the New 
Testament compared with the Old; beginning with 
the following three axioms: "(1) Reason can not 
be forced into belief; (2) God Himself can not alter 
the laws of a priori truth and understanding; (3) 
God's justice must comprise all His children." 
Another vigorous defender of Judaism against 
Christianity was Simon ben Zemaii Duuan (1361- 
1440), who, in his great work, " Magen Abot," reiter- 
ates the assertion that Jesus, according to his own. 
words, did not come to abrogate the Law; and then 
exposes the many self -contradictory statements in 
the New Testament concerning Jesus. The "Ik- 
karim " of Joseph Alho is (not- merely in ch. xxv. 
of sect, iii., but in its totality) a defense of liberal 
Jewish thought against Christian dogmatism ; and 
it therefore dwells with especial emphasis on the 
fact — which all Jewish thinkers from Saadia and 
Maimonides down to Mendelssohn accentuated — 
that miracles can never testify to the verity of a be- 
lief, because every belief claims them for itself. As 
to the two Hebrew standard works of New Testa- 
ment criticism in the Middle Ages, written for apol- 
ogetic purposes, the " Sefer Nizzahon " and the 
"Hizzuk Emunah," see Muhlhausen; Lippmann, 
and Isaac ben Abraham Troki. 

III. To offer to the great Gentile world the Jew- 
ish truth adapted to its psychic and intellectual ca- 
pacities — this was the providential mis- 
Christi- sion of Christianity. Yet, in order to 
anity's become a unifying power for all the 
Historic nations on the globe, shaping and re- 
Mission, shaping empires, and concentrating 
the social, political, and spiritual 
forces of humanity in a manner never before at- 
tempted or dreamed of, it required an inspiring ideal 
of sublime grandeur and beauty, which should at 
once fascinate and stir souls to their very depths and 
satisfy their longings. Nothing less than the con- 
quests of Cyrus the Lord's "anointed," called "to 
subdue nations and to break their prison doors " (Isa. 
xlv. 1, 2), than Alexander's great empire over the 
earth, still more than a kingdom that would en- 
compass all that for which Rome and Alexandria 
and Jerusalem stood — "a kingdom of the people of 
the saints of the Most High" (Dan. vii. 17-27)— 
nothing less than this was the goal which they that 
were told to "go forth and make disciples of all 
nations " (Matt, xxviii. 19) had in view. The Jew- 
ish propaganda, begun in the Babylonian Exile (Isa. 
xlv. 6; xlix. 6; Ivi. 6, 7; Ixvi. 21), and systematically 
pursued in Alexandria and Rome (Matt, xxiii. 15; 
Schiirer, "Gesch." iii. 302 et seq., 420 et seq.), was 
to be left far behind, and, by battering down the 
barriers of the Law and the Abrahamic faith, was 
to be rendered elastic enough to suit the needs of a 
polytheistic world. Such was the view of the mis- 
sionary of Tarsus. 

But it was, after all, the glad tidings of the Jew 
Jesus which won humanity for Abraham's God. 
Jewish righteousness, "Zedakah," which is the 
power of helpful love readjusting social inadequa- 
cies, was destined to go forth from the Synagogue 
in order to lift the burden of wo from suffering 
humanity and to organize everywhere works of 




charity. By this the Church, " the congregation of 
the Lord," conquered the masses of the vast Roman 
empire, and, as she learned the better to apply the 
Jewish system (see Essenes) to the larger field 
opened, achieved ever-increasing wonders with the 
mighty resources at her disposal. The poorhouse, 
or hospital, " transplanted as a branch of the tere- 
binth of Abraham to Rome " (sec Charity), became 
a mighty factor of human beneficence, and moved 
the deepest forces of the Church to glorious activity. 
Christianity, following the matchless ideal of its 
Christ, redeemed the despised and outcast, and en- 
nobled suif ering. It checked infanticide and founded 
asylums for the young; it removed the curse of 
slavery by making the humblest bondsman proud 
of being a child of God; it fought against the cruel- 
ties of the arena; it invested the home with purity 
and proclaimed, in the spirit of Ezek. xviii. and 
Yer. Sanh. iv. 22a, the value of each human soul as 
a treasure in the eyes of God ; and it so leavened the 
great masses of the empire as to render the cross of 
Christ the sign of victory for its legions in place of 
the Roman eagle. The " Galilean " entered the world 
as conqueror. The Church became the educator of 
the pagan nations ; and one race af tei' anotiier was 
brought under her tutorship. The Latin races were 
followed by the Celt, the Teuton, and the Slav. 
The same burning enthusiasm which sent forth the 
first apostle also set the missionaries aglow, and 
brought all Europe and Africa, and finally the 
American continent, under tlie scepter of an omnip- 
otent Church. The sword and the cross paved the 
way through vast deserts and across the seas, and 
spread the blessings of a civilization claimed to be 
Christian because its end was the rule of Christ. 

Judaism, however, denies the validity of this 

claim. As Isaac Troki (in his "Hizzuk Emunah," 

i. 2, 4a, 6) says, "none of the Mes- 

Messianic sianic promises of a time of perfect 

Promises peace and unity among men, of love 
Not and truth of universal knowledge and 

Fulfilled, undisturbed happiness, of the cessa- 
tion of all wa-ong-doing, superstition, 
idolatry, falsehood, and Jiatred [Isa. ii. 1 etseq., 18; 
xi. 1-9, Ixv. 19, 23; Jer. iii. 17; Ezek. xxxiv. 25, 
xxxvi. 25 etseq., xxxvii. 26; Zech. xiii. 2, xiv. 9; 
Zeph. Iii. 13] have been fulfilled by the Church." 
On the contrary, the medieval Church divided men 
into believers and unbelievers, who are to inherit 
heaven and hell respectively. AVith the love which 
she poured forth as the fountain of divine grace, 
she also sent forth streams of hatred. She did not 
foster that spirit of true holiness which sanctifies the 
whole of fife — marriage and home, industry and com- 
merce—but in Jewish eyes seemed to cultivate only 
the feminine virtues, love and humility, not liberty 
and justice, manhood and independence of thought. 
She has done much in refining the emotions, unfold- 
ing those faculties of the soul which produce the 
heavenly strains of music and the beauties of art 
and poetry ; but she also did all in her power to 
check intellectual progress, scientific research, and 
the application of knowledge. Her tutorship suf- 
ficed as long as the nations under her care were in the 
infant stage; but as soon as they awoke to self- 
consciousness and longed for freedom, they burst 

the shackles of dogma and of ecclesiastical authority. 
Thus the Church was broken up into churches. 
Under the iufiuence of Judaism and of Arabic phi- 
losophy, Scholasticism arose, and then came the 
Reformation; and the process of disintegration 
continues throughout Protestantism. The tendency 
of historical inquiry and Biblical criticism is to 
leave nothing but the picture of the man Jesus, 
the Jew, as a noble type of humanity, and to re- 
turn to simple monotheism (see Reuan, " Le Juda- 
isme et le Christiauisme," 1883; idem, "L'Eglise 
Chretienne," 1879, p. 248; Alexander von Hum- 
boldt, in Samter, "Moderne Judentaufen," and 
in A. Koliut, "Alexander von Humboldt und das 
Judenthum," 1871, p. 176; Berner, " Judeuthum und 
Christenthum," 1891, p. 31; Alphonse de Caudolle, 
in Jellinek, "Franzosen liber Juden," 1880, p. 27; 
Singer. "Briefe Beruhmter Christ. Zeigenossen," 
p. 114. No lumian individual, however great in his 
own environment, can, according to the Jewish view, 
present a perfect ideal of humanity for all ages and 
phases of life. "No one is holy but God": to this 
Jewish conception of man Jesus also gave expression 
(Matt. xix. 17). Man as the image of God requires 
all the ages and historical conditions of progress 
to unfold the infinite possibilities of the divine life 
planted in him. "Each age has its own types of 
righteousness" (Tan., Mikez, Vienna ed., p. 48), and 
only by the blending of all human efforts toward 
the realization of the true, the good, and the beau- 
tiful can the highest perfection be attained at the 
end of historj', "each mount of vision forming a 
stepping-stone to Ziou as the sublime goal " (Midr. 
Teh. to^Ps. xxxvi. G). 

Christianity is not an end, but the means to an 
end ; namely, the establishment of the brotherhood 
of man and the fatherhood of God. Here Christian- 
ity presents itself as au orb of light, but not so cen- 
tral as to exclude Islam, nor so bright and unique 
as to eclipse Judaism, the parent of both. Moreover, 
room is left for other spiritual forces, for whatever 
of permanent value is contained in Brahmanism, 
especially its modern theistic sects, and in Buddhism 
(see Eucken, "Der Wahrheitsgehalt der Religion," 
Leipsic, 1901;Happel, "Die Religiosen und Philo- 
sophischen Grundanschauungen der Inder," 1902), 
and in the theosophic principles derived from it, and 
for all religious and philosophical sj'stems that may 
yet be evolved in the process of the ages. In fact, 
whatever constitutes humanity and bears the image 
of God, whatever man does in order to unfold the 
divine life (Gen. i. 27; Lev. xviii. 5; Ps. viii. 6; 
Job xxviii. 28; Eccl. xii. 13) — that helps to make 
up the sum of religion. 

For the modern tendency toward pure theistic and 
humanitarian views among the various systems of 
religious thought, see Ethical Culture ; Unitari- 


Bibliography: Graetz, Hfet. of the Jews, 11., Hi., Iv., passim ; 
Hamburger, U. B. T. 11., s.v. ChrMenthum; Gelger, Das 
jKclentlmm und Sc'me GescTi. 1865, 1., 11., Supplement; M. 
Schrelner. Die Jdugsten Urtheilc ilber dUis Judenthum, 
1903 ; Perles, THiat Jews May Learn from Ha/rnaeh, In 
Jew. Quart. Bev. 1903; M. Giidemann, Das Judenthum, 
1903; Toy, Judaism and Chri.'^tianitij, 1890; Hamack, His- 
tory of Dogma, i.-v., Eng. transl. by N. Buchanan; D. 
Strauss, Die 'CliriMliche Gkfuhcnslehre, 1840-41, i., 11.; Cbwol- 
son. Die BlntanJdaije nnd So)istige MitteJalterliche Be- 
schutdigungcn, pp. 1-78, Frankfort-on-the-Maln, 1901 ; Lecky, 



History of European Morals from Augustus to Charle- 
magne, 1874, i., ii.; Ziegler, Oesch. der Christlichen Ethik, 
18Sd. David Einhora, Unterscheidungslehre Zwischen Ju- 
de^ithum und Christentlmnu in Sinai, 1860, pp. 193 et sec;., 
and 1861, pp. 100 ct scq. 


CHRISTINA AUGUSTA: Queen of Sweden ; 
bom at Stockholm Dec. 7, 1G26; died at Rome 
April 19, 1689. She was a daughter of Gustavus 
Adolphus and Mary Eleauora of Brandenburg, and 
reigned from 1632 to 1654. Her attitude toward tlie 
Jews was most benevolent. Acquainted with He- 
brew literature, which she eagerly studied in her 
youth, she welcomed eminent Hebrew scholars at 
her court. Thus Menasseh ben Israel, recommended 
to her by Vossius, was kindly received; and his 
pleadings for the Jews and their literature met with 
great sympathy. 

Christina was, furthermore, interested, together 
with England, in permitting Jews to settle in the 
West Indies, and especially favored a Portuguese 
Marano, Isaac Manoel Texeira, whom she appointed 
financial agent and resident minister at Hamburg, 
and on account of whom she more than once re- 
monstrated with the Senate of Hamburg, demand- 
ing for her Jewish minister the honors enjoyed 
by other ministers resident. During her sojourn at 
Ilainburg she resided at the home of Manoel Texeira, 
regardless oi the severe censures pronounced upon 
her from the Protestant pulpits. She appointed as 
her physician Benedito de Cast ro (Baruch Nehemiah). 
Christina contrived by every possible means to 
prevent the banisiunent of the Jews of Vienna, de- 
creed by Emperor Leopold in 1670; but unfortunate 
circumstances rendered lier efforts futile. 
Bibliography: Arohenholz, Memoircn dcr KOnigin Chris- 
tine, i. 'M ct frq.. nerlin, l~")l-()4 ; Zeitschrift des Vereins 
fllr lfni,ih,inii-ri,r (le^^ch. ii. 409 et seq.: Gratz, Gesch. der 
Judcii. X. M), :.'(ii;, :.':;«; Kavserlingr, in Wertlieimer's Jahr- 
Mlchcr <ii r Isnnlilrii. 1800," pp. 1-13. 

o. L Br. 

CHRISTOLOGY. See Messiah. 

CHRONEGK, LUDWIG : German actor; born 
at i'.iiindenburg-ou-tlK-lIavel Nov. 3, 1837; died 
at i^kiningcn July 8, 1890. He was the stage-man- 
ager and " Intendanzrath " of the famous Meininger 
troupe established at Weimar by Duke George of 
Meiningcn. Chronegk had but little schooling, 
as his bent for the stage asserted itself while he 
was still a boy. At eighteen he Avent to Paris to 
study French methods. A year later, 1856, he re- 
turned to Berlin, where he continued in histrionic 
training under Corner, the manager of Kroll's 
Theater. On being graduated. Chronegk went to 
Liegnitz, Gorlitz, Hamburg (Thalia Theater), and 
Leipsic (Stadttheater), playing juvenile roles. 

In 1866 he joined the Meiningers, with whom 
lie acted until 1870, when he became "regisseur." 
Two years later he was appointed stage-director, and 
from tiiat time dates the fame of both company and 
director. Chronegk, Avhose eye for stage-realism 
was far in advance of his time, realized that the 
puppet-like maneuvers of the supernumeraries were 
neither natural nor graceful, and he took each indi- 
vidual in hand and converted him or her into an in- 
dependent force. He reanimated the various indi- 
viduals of tiie mobs, caused them to act as human 
beings, and in so doing revolutionized German stage- 

methods. This course antagonized the conservative 
element, and in consequence Chronegk was de- 
nounced by members of his profession, and more 
particularly by a short-sighted i)ress. He persisted, 
liowever, and lived to see his methods indorsed and 

But whatever good Chronegk accomplished in this 
one direction, he almost counteracted by the harm 
he did in another. In perfecting the ensemble, he 
sacrificed the individual, and as a consequence the 
]Meiniugers gave performances which, though ex- 
ceptional as a whole, were yet full of flaws when 
viewed critically and analytically. When the com- 
pany appeared in London in 1881, this fact was most 
apparent, especially in "Julius Caesar," which was 
produced with a Brutus so pitifully weak as to mar 
the entire performance. It Avas the same with 
"Othello," in Avliich Lud wig Barnay alone escaped 
being classed as respectably mediocre. 

During the twenty -six years that Chronegk was 
Avith the ]Meiningers, from May 1, 1874— Avheu they 
first appeared at the Friedrich-Wilhelm Theater, 
Berlin— until 1890, he staged 2,591 plays, in eighteen 
foreign and eighteen German cities. 

Bibliography: Tlie Theatre, iii. 328-332, iv. 102-105; Meyers, 
s. E. Ms. 


CHRONICLES, BOOKS OF.- Biblical Data : 

The two books of Chronicles form a history of 
the Temple and its priesthood, and of the house of 
David and the tribe of Judah, as guardians of the 
Temple, Avith references to the other tribes, and 
Avitli some connected material. The contents may 
be briefly summarized as follows: 

(a) I Chron. i.-ix. contains chiefly genealogies, 
from Adam, through Noah's sons, and then partic- 
ular!}' through the line of Shem to Esau and Israel 
and their descendants. The last twelve verses of 
ch. i. contain a list of Edomitish kings and chiefs. 
Brief narratives from various periods are inter- 
spersed among the genealogies {e.r/., ii. 28; iv. 9, 10, 
39-43; v. 9, 10, 18-22, 25, 26). The last genealogy 
in this collection, ix. 35-44, that of Saul's family, 
forms a kind of transition to the folloAving section. 

(b) I Chron. x.-xxix. This section is concerned 
Avith David's reign, the introduction being the last 
battle and the death of Saul (x. 1-12, parallel to I 
Sam. xxxi. 1-13), and the conclusion, the accession 
of Solomon (xxiii. 1 ; xxviii. 5 ct seq. ; xxix. 22 et 

(c) II Chron. i.-ix. is devoted to Solomon's reign. 
The first chapter speaks of his sacrifice at Gibeon 
(vs. 1-13) and Solomon's splendor (vs. 14-17). The 
building of the Temple is described in ch. ii.-iv., 
and its dedication in v. 1-14. The following chap- 
ters speak of Solomon's prayer, vision, sacrifices, 
glory, and in ix. 31 the death of Solomon is men- 

(d) II Chron. x.-xxxvi. contains the history of the 
kingdom of Judah doAvn to the fall of Jerusalem, 
Avith the division of the kingdoms as preface, and 
the restoration-edict of Cyrus as appendix (viz., x. 
1-19, accession of Behoboam and division of the 
kingdom; xi. xii., Behoboam; xiii. 1-22, Abijah; 
xiv.-xvi., Asa; xvii.-xx., Jehoshaphat; xxi., Jeho- 




ram; xxii. 1-9, Ahaziah; xxii. 10-12,. xxiii., Atha- 
liah; xxiv., Joash; xxv., Ainaziah; xxvi., Uzziali; 
xxvii., Jotham; xxvlii., Ahaz; xxix.-xxxii., Heze- 
kiah; xxxiii. 1-20, Manasseh; xxxiii. 21-25, Anion; 
xxxiv., XXXV., Josiali; xxxvi. 1-3, Jehoahaz; xxxvi. 
4-8, .Tehoiakim; xxxvi. 9, 10, Jelioiachin; xxxvi. 
11-13, Zedekiah; xxxvi. 17-21, fall of Jerusalem; 
xxxvi. 22, 23, restoration-edict of Cyrus. 
In Rabbinical Literature : Rabbinical litera- 
ture does not recognize the division of Chronicles 
into two books. In B. B. 15a it is named as one 
D^ONT 'I^T (IDD), and the Masorah counts the verse 
I Chron. xxvii. 25 as the middle of the book. Tra- 
dition regards this one book as consisting of two 
unequal parts; viz., (1) lists largely of a genealog- 
ical nature with brief historical details ; and (2) an 
extensive history of the kings in "Jerusalem. The 
authorship of the first part, which is designated " Ya- 
has " (Dn^ = " genealogy") of the " Dibre ha-Yamim " 
is ascribed to Ezra (B. B. 15a). In Pes. 62b this part 
is connected with a Midrash and quoted as pDHV "1DD 
("Book of the Descents"); while Rashi names the 
Midrash (D^O\n nam jTl^Jno), "Mishnahof Dibre 
ha-Yamim," etc., which, according to him, contained 
expositions of certain passages of the Torah. This 
part was not to be explained to the men of Lud 
nor to those of Nehardea, for reasons not stated ; 
perhaps it was feared that these interpretations 
might meet with irreverence. 

On the whole. Chronicles was regarded with sus- 
picion ; its historical accuracy was doubted by the 
Talmudic authorities, it being held to be a book for 
homiletic interpretation, k^X D^DNT nai Ijnj nh 
{J'-n>f) (Lev. R. i. 3; Ruth R. ii., beginning; com- 
pare Meg. 13a). The names were treated with great 
freedom ; and many which clearly belonged to dif- 
ferent persons were declared to indicate one and the 
same man or woman (Sotah 12a; Ex. R. i. 17, et 
passim). Numerous as these fanciful interpreta- 
tions of verses in Chronicles are in Talmudic-^Iid- 
rashic literature, the loss of many similar exposi- 
tions was deplored (Pes. 62b). E. G. H. 

Critical View. — I. Position in Old Testament 

literature : Cln-onicles, which in the Hebrew canon 
consists of a single book, is called in the Hebrew 
Bible WD'^n nan (" Annals") ; in the LXX. —Codex B, 
TrapaTiELiroixevuv (" of things left out ") ; Codex A adds 
(twv) l3aciMo)v Iov6a ("concerning the kings of Ju- 
dah") ; i. e. , a supplement to the Book of Kings ; in the 
Vulgate, Liber Primus (and Secundus) " Paralipome- 
non. " The modern title " Chronicles" was suggested 
by Jerome's speaking of the book in his "Prologus 
Galeatus" as "Chronicon totius divinae historiae." 
The book belongs to the Hagiographa, or "Ketu- 
bim," the third and latest-formed section of the He- 
brew canon. The view that its canon- 
Title, icity was matter of discussion among 
the Jews seems to rest on insufficient 
evidence (Buhl, "Kanon und Text des A. T." Eng. 
ed., p. 31). In Hebrew lists, manuscripts, and print- 
ed Bibles, Chronicles is placed either first (Western 
or Palestinian practise, as in the St. Petersburg 
Codex), or last (Eastern or Babylonian, as in the 
Babylonian Talmud) ; see Ginsburg, "Introduction," 
pp. 1-8. In Greek and Latin lists, and in manu- 
scripts and editions of the LXX. and Vulgate, 

Chronicles usually follows Kings; the exceptions 
are more numerous in the Latin lists (Swete, " The 
Old Testament in Greek According to the Septua- 
gint," Introduction, pp. 201-230). 

Chronicles, originally a single work, is first found 
divided into two books in Codices A and B of 
the LXX., which were followed by subsequent 
versions, and ultimately by printed editions of the 
Hebrew text. It is part of a larger work, Chroni- 
cles-Ezra-Nehemiah, composed (see Section II.) in 
the Greek period between the death of Alexander 
(u.c. 323) and the revolt of the Maccabees (b.c. 167). 
It expresses the piety of the Temple community, and 
their interest in its services and history. They felt 
that the services had reached an ideal perfection, 
and were led to think of the " good kings " as having 
shaped their religious policy according to this ideal. 
Probably the author of Chronicles did not intend 
to supersede Samuel and Kings. There are slight 
traces of Chronicles in Ecclesiasticus (Sirach), {e.g., 
xlvii. Setscq. ; compare I Chron. xxv.) ; perhaps also 
in Philo (see Ryle, "Philo and Holy Scriptures," 
pp. 286 et seq.), and in the N. T. (for example, com- 
pare II Chron. xxiv. 21 with Matt, xxiii. 35). The 
references to Samuel-Kings are more numerous. 
The omission (see Swete, I.e. p. 227) of Chronicles 
from some Christian lists of canonical books is prob- 
ably accidental. 

II. Composition: (a) Relation to Ezra-NehemiaJi. 
Chronicles, Ezra, and Nehemiah were originally a 
single work. This is shown by the identity of style, 
theological standpoint, and ecclesiastical interests, 
as well as by the fact that Chronicles concludes with 
a portion of a paragraph (II Chron. xxxvi. 22, 23) 
w^hich is repeated and completed in Ezra i. 1-4. 
Comparison shows that Chronicles ends in the mid- 
dle of a sentence. The division of the original work 

arose from the diverse nature of its 

Author- contents: Chronicles was merely a less 

ship and interesting edition of Samuel-Kings; 

Date. but Ezra-Nehemiah contained history 

not otherwise accessible. Hence read- 
ers desired Ezra-Nehemiah alone; and Chronicles 
(from its position in many manuscripts, etc., after 
Nehemiah) only obtained its place in the canon by 
an afterthought. 

(b) Author. The author's name is unknown; the 
ascription by some Peshitta manuscripts to "Jo- 
hanan the priest," perhaps the Johanan cf Neh. xii. 
23 (Barnes, "Chronicles," p. xii., in "Cambridge 
Bible for Schools and Colleges"; idem, "An Appa- 
ratus Criticus to Chronicles in the Peshitta Version," 
p. 1), can have no weight. From the keen interest 
shown in the inferior officials of the Temple, espe- 
cially the singers, the author seems to have been a 
Levite, possibly one of the Temple choir. 

(c) Date. Chronicles-Ezra-Nehemiah must be 
later than the times of Ezra and Nehemiah (458-432). 
In style and language the book belongs to the latest 
period of Biblical Hebrew. The descendants of 
Zerubbabel (I Chron. iii. %A) are given, in the Mas- 
oretic text, to the sixth generation (about B.C. 350); 
in the LXX., Syriac, and Vulgate, to the eleventh 
generation after Zerubbabel (about B.C. 200). The 
list of high priests in Neh. xii. 10, 11, extends to 
Jaddua (c. 330). These lists might, indeed, have been 



made up to date after the book was completed ; but 
other considerations point conclusively to the Greek 
period; e.g., in Ezra vi. 23, Darius is called "the 
king of Assyria." On the other hand, the use of the 
book in Ecclesiasticus (Sirach) referred to above, 
the absence of any trace of the Maccabean struggle, 
and the use of the LXX. Chronicles by Eupolemus 
{c. B.C. 150; see Swete, I.e. p. 24), point to a date 
not later than B.C. 200. Hence Chronicles is usually 
assigned to the period B.C. 300-250. 

(d) Sources. Chronicles contains (see Section I.) 
much material found, often word for word, in other 

books of the Bible, and has also frequent references 
to other authorities. In regard to these sources, 
the contents may be classified thus: {A) passages 
taken from other O. T. books, with textual or edi- 
torial changes, the latter sometimes important ; (B) 
passages based upon sections of other 0. T. books, 
largely recast; {€) passages supposed on internal 
evidence to have been taken from or based on ancient 
sources, no longer extant and not much later than 
the close of the Exile, and in some cases perhaps 
earlier (see classification, p. 62) ; {D) passages sup- 
posed on internal evidence to be the work of late 

I Chronicles. 







i. to ix. 

Genealogies: from Adam 

vi. 54-81 = Josh. xxi. 5- 

i. 1-ii. 17,basedonGen., 

ii. 9, 25-33, 42- 

Iii. 17-24. 

to David; of the tribes 


Num., Josh., I Kings, 

45, 49. 

iv. 21-23. 

and clans; of the houses 

and Ruth. 

iv. 1-20, 25-27, 


of Saul, David, the high 

iii. 1-16, based on II 


vi. 16-.53. 

priests, etc. 

Sam. and Kings. 

vi. 1-15. 

vii. 1-13, 25- 

iv. 24, 28-33, based on 

vii. 14-24. 


Gen., Ex., Num., and 

viii., ix. 


X. to XlLi. 

History of David, from the 

X. 1-xi. 41a = I Sam. 

XV. 1-xvi. 7, 37-43, based 

z. 41b-47. 

xii. 1-xxlii. 5. 

death of Saul to the Cen- 

xxxi.; II Sam. v. 1-3. 

on II. Sam. vi. 12-20. 

sus and Plague. 

6-10 ; xxiii. 8-39. 
xiii. 6-xiv. 17 = II Sam. 

vi. 1-11 ; V. 11-23. 
xvi.8-24=:Ps. cv. 1-15; 

xcvi. 1-13 ; cvi. 1, 47 

et seq. 
xvii.-xx. = II Sam. vii.; 

viii.: X.; xi. 1 ; xii. 26. 

30, 31 ; xxi. 18-22. 

xxi., based upon II Sam. 


Preparations for building 



the Temple, anointing of 


Solomon, death of David. 

II Chronicles. 







1. to ix. 


i. 14-17 ^ I Kings X. 26- 

viii. 1-11 = I Kings ix. 

10, 11, 17-24. 
Viii. 17-ix. 31 = I Kings 

Ix. 25-x. 28 ; xi. 41-43. 

i. 1-13, based upon I 

Kings 4-13. 
ii.-vii., based upon I 

Kings v.-ix. 

viii. 12-16. 

X. to xiviil. 

Rehoboam to Abaz. 

X. 1-xi. 4 = I Kings xll. 

XV. 16-xvi. 6 = 1 Kings 

XV. 13-22. 
xviii. = I Kings xxil. 2- 

xxi. 1, 5-lOa = I Kings 

xxil. 50, II Kings viii. 

17-22, 24a. 
XXV. 1-4, 17-28 = II 

Kings xiv. 2-14, 17, 19, 

xxvi. 1^ = 11 Kings xiv. 

21. 22; XV. 2, 3. 
xxvli. 1-3, 7-9:= II Kings 

XV. 33-a5, 38. 

xii. 2a, 9-xiii. 2, 22, 

based on I Kings xiv. 

21. 25-28 ; xv. 1, 2, 7. 
XX. 31-37, based on I 

Kings xxii. 41-49. 
xxii., xxiii., based on 

II Kings vii. 24-xi. 20. 
xxiv., based on II Kings 

xi. 20-xii.21. 
xxvi. 20-23, based on 

II Kings XV. 5-8. 
xxvlii., based on II 

Kings xvi. 

xi. 5-12. 
xiv. 8, 9, 11, 12. 
xxvi. 6-10. 
xxvii. 4-6. 

xi. 13-xii. 8. 
xiii. 3-21. 
xiv. 1-7, 9-11, 

13-xv. 15. 
xvi. 7-14. 

xix. 1-xx. 30. 
xxi. 2-4, 10b- 

XXV. 5-16. 
xxvi. 5, 11-20. 




Hezekiah to the return 
from the ExUe. 

xxxiii. 1-10 = II Kings 

xxi. 1-10, 18. 
xxxvl. 22, 23 ^ Ezra i. 


xxix.-xxxii., based on 

II Kings xviii.-xx. 
xxxiii. 21-2.5, based on 

II Kings xxi. 19-24. 
xxxiv. 1-xxxvi. 21, 

based on II Kings 


xxili. 30. 

xxxiii. 11-19. 




post-exilic writers (compare ib.). In the precediug 
table space prevents the presentation of details. 
In C and D, Kittel's analysis in "S. B. O. T." is 
mostly followed, but not in all details, nor in his 
separation of the D material into various strata. 
Small portions from extant books embedded in B, 
C, and D are not indicated. 
The non-Biblical sources may be classified thus: 

(1) An earlier historical work cited as : " The Book 
of the Kings of Judah and Israel " (II Chron. xvi. 
11, XXV. 26, xxviii. 26); "The Book of the Kings of 
Israel and Judah" [ib. xxvii. 7, xxxv. 26); "The 
Acts of the Kings of Israel " {ib. xxxiii. 18) ; and 
perhaps also as " The Midrash of the Book of Kings " 
{ib. xxiv. 27). 

(2) Sections of a similar history of David and 
Solomon (unless these references are to that portion 
of the former Avork which dealt with these kings), 
cited as: "The Words of Samuel the Seer" (I Chron. 
xxix. 29) ; " The Words of Nathan the Prophet " {ib. ; 
II Chron. ix. 29) ; and " The Words of Gad the Seer " 
(I Chron. xxix. 29). 

(3) Sections of "The Book of the Kings of Israel 
and Judah," and po-ssibly of other similar works, 
cited as: "The Words of Shemaiah the Prophet and 
of Iddo the Seer" (II Chron. xii. 15); "The Words 
of Jehu the Son of Hanani " {ib. xx. 34); "The 
Words of the Seers" (LXX., R.V., margin); "of his 
Seers" ("S. B. O. T."); "of Hozai" (II Chron. 
xxxiii. 19-20, R. V.); "The Vision of Iddo the 
Seer " {ib. ix. 29) ; " The Vision of Isaiah the Prophet " 
{ib. xxxii. 32) ; " The Midrash of the Prophet Iddo 
{ib. xiii. 22) ; " The Acts of Uzziah, Written by Isaiah 
the Prophet" {ib. xxvi. 22); and "The Prophecy of 
Ahijah the Shilonite " {ib. ix. 29). 

In the absence of numbered divisions like the 
present chapters and verses, portions of the work 
are indicated by the name of the prophet who figures 
in it— probably because the Prophets were supposed 
to have been the annalists {ib. xxvi. 22). Thus, 
" the Vision of Isaiah " is said to be in " The Book of 
the Kings of Judah and Israel " ; and " the Words 
of Jehu the son of Hanani," inserted in "The Book 
of the Kings of Israel." 

Thus the main source of Chronicles seems to have 
been a late post-exilic ]Midrashic history of the kings 
of Judah and Israel. Possibly, this had been di- 
vided into histories of David and Solomon, and of 
the later kings. The author may also have used a 
collection of genealogies; and perhaps additions 
were made to the book after it was substantially 
complete. In dealing with matter not found in 
other books it is difficult to distinguish between 
matter which the chronicler found in his source, 
matter which he added himself, and later additions, 
as all the authors concerned wrote in the same spirit 
and style; but it may perhaps be concluded that 
details about Levites, porters, and singers are the 
work of the chronicler (compare Section III. of this 

III. Relationship to Samuel-Kings : (a) Comparison 
of Contents. Chronicles omits most of the material 
relating to Saul and the northern kingdom, inclu- 
ding the accounts of Samuel, Elijah, and Elisha, 
and most of Avhat is to the discredit of the " good 
kings " ; , the story of Bathsheba. Chronicles adds 

(see table, B and D) long accounts of the Tem- 
ple, its priests and its services, and of the observ- 
ance of the Pentateuchal laws ; also records of sins 
which account for the misfortunes of " good kings " 
— e.g., the apostasy of Joash (II Chron. xxiv.); of the 
misfortunes which punished the sins of " bad kings " 
— e.g., the invasions in the reign of Ahaz {ib. xxviii.) ; 
and of the repentance which resulted in the long 
reign of Manasseh {ib. xxxiii.); besides numerous 
genealogies and statistics. Chronicles has numerous 
other alterations tending, like the additions and 
omissions, to show that the " good kings " observed 
the law of Closes, and were righteous and prosperous 
(compare ib. viii. 2 and I Kings ix. 10, 11 ; see also 

(b) Literary Connection. It might seem natural to 
identify the main source of Chronicles with Samuel- 
Kings, or witli " The Book of the Chronicles of the 
Kings of Israel " and " The Book of the Chronicles 
of the Kings of Judah," frequently referred to in 
Kings. But the principal source can not have been 
Kings, because " The Book of the Kings " is some- 
times said to contain material not in Kings — e.g., the 
wars of Jotham (II Chron. xxvii. 7); neither can it 
have been the " Chronicles " cited in Kings, because 
it is styled " ^lidrash " (A. V. , " story " ; R. V. , " com- 
me^itary "), which was a late form of Jewish litera- 
ture (II Chron. xiii. 22, xxiv. 27). This main 
source, "The Book of the Kings," is therefore com- 
monly supposed (see II. d) to have been a post- 
exilic work similar in style and spirit to Chronicles. 
The relation of this source to Kings is difficult to 
determine. It is clear that Chronicles contains mat- 
ter taken cither directly or indirectly from Kings, 
because it includes verses inserted by the editor of 
Kings (compare II Chron. xiv. 1, 2 and I Kings xv. 
8,11). Either Chronicles used Kings and "The Book 
of the Kings," both of which works used the older 
"Chronicles" (so Driver, "Introduction to the Lit- 
erature of the O. T." 6th ed., p. 532), or Chronicles 
used " The Book of the Kings," which had used both 
Kings and the oUler "Chronicles," or works based 
on them. 

(c) Tei't. It is not always possible to distinguish 
minor editorial changes from textual errors; Ijut, 
when the former have been eliminated, Chronicles 
presents an alternative text for the passages com- 
mon to it and Samuel-Kings. As in the case of two 
manuscripts, sometimes the one text, sometimes the 
other, is correct. For example, I Chron. xviii. 3 
has, wrongly, "Hadarezer," where II Sam. viii. 
3 has "Hadadezer " ; but conversely I Chron. xvii. 6 
has, rightly, "judges," where II Sam. vii. 7 has 
" tribes. " 

IV. Historical Value : (a) Omissions. Almost all 
these are explained by the chronicler's anxiety to 
edify his readers (compare Section III. a) ; and they 
in no way discredit the narratives omitted. 

(b) Contradictions. Where Chronicles contradicts 
Samuel-Kings preference must be given to the older 
work, except where the text of the latter is clearly 
corrupt. With the same exception, it may be as- 
sumed that sections of the primitive "Chronicles" 
are much more accurately preserved in Samuel-Kings 
than in Chronicles. 

(c) Additions. The passages which describe the 




Tenaple ritual and priesthood aud the observance of 
the Pentateuclial law before the Exile are a transla- 
tion of ancient history into the terms of the chron- 
icler's own experience. The prophetical admoni- 
tions and other speeches are the chronicler's 
exposition of the religious significance of past history 
according to a familiar convention of ancient litera- 
ture. Such material is most valuable: it gives 
unique information as to the Temple and the relig- 
ious ideas of the early Greek period. JNIost of the 
material included under G in Section II. d, above 
has apparently been borrowed from an older source, 
and may constitute an addition to present knowl- 
edge of pre-exilic Israelitish history. The religious 
and other interests of the chronicler and his main 
source do not seem to account for the origin of the 
genealogies, statistics, accounts of buildings, etc., 
in C. 

Tlie character of another set of additions is not so 
clear; viz., Abijah's victory (II Chron. xiii.), Ze- 
rah's invasion {ib. xiv., xv.), and Manasseh's captiv- 
ity {ib. xxxiii.). However little the chronicler may 
have cared about writing scientific history, the fact 
that he narrates an incident not mentioned elsewhere 
docs not prove it to be imaginary. Kings is frag- 
mentary; and its editors had views as to edification 
different from those of the chronicler (see Jubges), 
which might lead them to omit what their successor 
would restore. Driver and others hold that Chron- 
icles is connected with early sources by another 
line than that through Kings (note also C, Section 
II. d). Hence the silence of Kings is not con- 
clusive against these additions. Nevertheless, such 
narratives, in the present state of knowledge, rest on 
the unsupported testimony of a very late and uncrit- 
ical authority. Much turns on internal evidence, 
which has been very variously interpreted. Some 
recognize a historical basis for these narratives (W. 
E. Barnes, in "Cambridge Bible," pp. xxx. et seq.; 
A. H. Sayce, "The Pligher Criticism and the Ver- 
dict of the Monuments," p. 465); others regard them 
as wholly uuhistorical (see " Chronicles, Books of," 
in "Encyc. Bibl."). As to Cin-onicles in general. 
Professor Sayce writes {I.e. p. 404): "The consistent 
exaggeration of numbers on the part of the chronic- 
ler shows us that from a historical point of view his 
unsupported statements must be received with cau- 
tion. But they do not justify the accusations of de- 
liberate fraud and ' fiction ' which liave been brought 
against him. What they prove is that he did not 
possess that sense of historical exactitude which we 
now demand from the historian." 

BiBLiOttRAPiiY : R. Kittel, T7ic J?oote nf Chrnnidea in He- 
brew, In S. B. O. T. ed. Haupt. 1895; W. H. Bennett, llie 
timkx of Oironiclea, in The Expositor's nihlc, 1894; F. 
Brown. Chroniclc.% I. and II., In Hastings, Diet. Bible, 1898; 
S. R. Driver, Chronicles, Books of. In Cheyne and Black, 
Enoic. Bibl. 1899. 
E. G. H. W. H. B. 

CHRONOGRAM (from the Greek xpovnc = 
"time," and }y«i////a = "writing "): A sentence or 
verse certain letters of which express a date, while 
the sentence itself alludes to or is descriptive of 
the event to which the date belongs. The words 
"clironograph," "chronicon," "chronostichon," 
"efcostiehon," and "eteamcnchemerodistichon " are 
all synonyms for "chronogram": but the latter is 

now almost exclusively used. In general, the Latin 
literature of the Middle Ages is the richest in 
chronograms; but they are also found in German, 
Dutch, Belgian, and Hungarian. In English and 
French but few are found, and in Italian hardly 
any. Chronograms are especially popular in the 
East, there being several books in Persian on the 
art of constructing a "ta'rikh," the Persian equiva- 
lent for " chronogram " (see Rodgers, " Tarikhs, " in 
"Jour. Royal Asiatic Soc." 1898, pp. 715-739). It 
is not improbable that the chronogram originated in 
the East, where such poetic juggling is common. 
The great popularity of chronograms among the 
Jews, and the extent to which they have been culti- 
vated, may be explained by the fact that they are a 
variety of Gematria, which latter was highly re- 
garded b}^ the Jews and much practised by them. 

The earliest chronogram in Jewish literature is 
one found in a Hebrew poem of the year 1205 by Al- 
Harizi (ed. Kaminka, p. 412; compare Rapoport, in 
"Kerem Hemed," vii. 252), while the earliest Latin 
chronogram is dated five years later (compare 
Hilton, " Chronograms," iii. 4). According to Firko- 
wich, Hebrew chronograms date back to 582 (com- 
pare the epitaphs in his work " Abne Zikkaron," p. 
10) ; but the inscriptions cited by him are probably 
forgeries. In the thirteenth century chronograms 
are found in the epitaphs of German Jews (Lewy- 
sohn, "Nafshot Zaddikim," No. 14, of the year 1261; 
No. 16, of tlie year 1275). 

It is evident, therefore, that for a period of five 
hundred years chronograms occurred in the epitaphs 
of European Jews. Thus the dates 
In of the epitaphs of the family of Asher 

Epitaphs, b. Jehiel in the first half of the four- 
teenth century are indicated by chron- 
ograms (Almanzi, "Abne Zikkaron," pp. 4, 6, 9); 
and among sixty-eight Frankfort epitaphs of that 
century four chronograms have been preserved (Hor- 
owitz, "Inschriften . . . zu Frankfurt-am-Main," 
Nos. 8, 29, 36, 68). The German Jews seem to have 
possessed little skill in the composition of chrono- 
grams, there being only about twenty-five (and these 
very simple) in a total of some 6,000 inscriptions. 
In Bohemia and Poland, chronograms in epitaphs 
occur more frequently, and are often very clever; 
for example, the epitaph of the physician Menahem 
b. Asher Mazzerato, who died at Prague in 1680, 
reads as follows: fi^bnh 1JJ?1° D3n -\^' p•'•^^f ^'k 
nnOID KSn Dn:6 -I""in6 (Lieben, "Gal 'Ed," p. 36); 
and the numerical value of the marked initial letters 
therein amounts to 440; i.e., 5440, the Jewish year in 
wliich Menahem died. The year of death of the as- 
sociate rabbi of Prague, Zalman, who perished in 
the great fire of 1689 (=5449 Jewish era), is indicated 
by the Avords '^ nxj^ X^'° i^kh. (*^- ^°- ^^)- 

While the epitaphs, in addition to the chrono- 
grams, in many cases directly mention the dates, 
many manuscripts, and an even greater number of 
printed books, are dated simply by means of chron- 
ograms; authors, copyists, and ty- 
In Books, pographers rivaling one another in 
hiding the dates in intricate chrono- 
grams, most difficult to decipher. Hence, many data 
of Jewish bibliography still remain to be determined. 



or at least rectified. Down to recent times tlie 
custom of indicating dates by means of chronograms 
was so prevalent in Jewish literature that but few 
books are dated by numerals only. In the earliest 
printed books the chronograms consist of one or two 
words only : the Soncino edition of the Talmud, for 
instance, has for its date the earliest printed chrono- 
gram, X"103 ("Gemara") = 244 (1484 c.e.). Words 
like 1JJ-I (" rejoice ye ! "), nnCK' (" joy ")- nj"l3 (" with 
rejoicing") were especially used for this purpose, as 
they express happiness. Later on, entire verses of 
the Bible, or sentences from other books, having 
some reference to the contents or title of the book, or 
to the name of the author, publisher, printer, etc., 
were used. In longer sentences, in which some 
of the letters were not utilized ip the chronogram, 
those that counted were marked by dots, lines, or 
•different type, or were distinguished in other wa5's. 
Innumerable errors have been made by bibliog- 
raphers because the distinguishing marks were miss- 
ing or blotted, or had been omitted. To this source 
of confusion must be added the varying methods of 
indicating the " thousand " of the Jewish era. The 
Italian, Oriental, and earlier Amsterdam editions 
frequently designate the thousand as ^'2^5 (— t^-^zh 
Snj. "the major era"). The German and Polish 
editions omit the thousand, considering only p s^ 
<= )1t3p tilD^. " the minor era ") ; but as neither the 
former nor the latter is employed throughout the 
respective editions, many errors arise. The follow- 
ing chronogram, which Samuel Schottcn adds to his 
work " Kos ha-Yeshu'ot " (Frankfort-on-the-Main, 
1711), shows how artificial and verbose chronograms 
may be: " Let him who wishes to know the year of 
the Creation pour the contents out of the cup [i.e., 
count the word "kos." D13. with defective spelling 
03 — 80] and seek aid [n}})::^'' = 391 ; together 471] 
in the sixth millennium." Tlie days of the month 
and week are indicated in the same way. 

The chronograms on the works and documents of 
persons who were followers of Shabbethaism, and 
who in this manner indicated their belief, are most 
interesting. Thus, Samuel b. David ha-Levi's well- 
known work, " Nahalat Shib'ah " (Amsterdam, 1667), 
has the date t<2 IM ]2 n"'K'0 ("Messiah, son of 
David, is come ! ") on the title-page ; and the com- 
munity of Holleschau, in Moravia, similarl}'- en- 
graved in the epitaph of its beloved rabbi, Sliab- 
betliai b. Mei'r lia-Kohen, the words n^EJ'IO N3 DVn 
n^lKji) ("Messiah is come to-day for a redemp- 
tion " ; compare Weisse, in " Kokebe Yizhak," i. 77). 
Many important years in Jewish history are indi 
cated by their respective chronograms ; e.g., the year 
1492 by mro ("scatterer " = 252, after Jer. xxi. 10, 
which says that God scattered Israel). This was 
the year when the Jews were expelled from Spain 
{Abravanel's Introduction to his Commentary on 

Neo-Hebraic poetry, which laid especial stress on 
the formal side of verse, also cultivated chrono- 
grams. A number of Hebrew poems 
In Poetry, were produced in the first half of the 
nineteenth century, in which the let- 
ters of each verse have the same numerical value, 
being generally the year in which it was written. 

A New-Year's poem in this style, written in the 
year 579 (=1819), is found in Shalom Cohen's "Ketab 
Yosher " (ed. Warsaw, p. 146). Two years later Jacob 
Eichenbaum wrote a poem in honor of a friend, each 
line of which had the numerical value of 581 ("Kol 
Zimrah," ed. Leipsic, pp. 50-53). While this poem 
is really a work of art, in spite of the artifice em- 
ployed, Eichenbaum's imitators have in their trans- 
lations merely produced rimes with certain numeri- 
cal values. Gottlober (in " Ha-Kokabim, " i. 31) wrote 
an excellent satire on these rimesters, each line of his 
poem having the numerical value of 618 ( = 1858). 
The first two verses of the poem are as follows: 

nans na n'pzthn oy 

But even poets like I. L. Gordon and A. B. Lew- 
ensohn have a great weakness for the D^ps!? ("minor 
eras"), though employing them onlj- in the super- 
scrip.tions to their poems. The modern school of 
Hebrew poets has given up these artifices, the 
" minor eras " being now chiefly employed for New- 
Year congratulations, especially by the poor of 
Palestine, who frequently distribute printed New- 
Year cards, the wish consisting of a verse whose 
numerical value is equal to the year. 
Bibliography: James Hilton, Chronograms, 1. 542-54.5, ii. 
, 593-6(X) ; Steinschneider, Jildische Typoaraphie, In Erscli 

and Gruber, Enci/c. xxvili. 27-28; Zunz, Z. G. pp. 214 etseq. 

G. L. G. 

CHRONOLOGY * (I.) : The science that treats of 
the computation and adjustment of time or periods 
of time, and of the record and arrangement of events 
in the order of time. The chronology of Jewish 
literature may be divided into two periods: (1) that 
of the Biblical books ; and (2) tliat of post-Biblical 

Division of Time in the Biblical Books: 
From the earliest periods the day was divided into 
night and morning. Genesis records the division 
into two parts of what is now termed the " tropical 
or solar day." It is probable that the Israelites di- 
vided the day into twelve "dihora>," or twenty-four 
hours; but in the Hebrew texts no trace thereof is 
found. The earliest mention of the hour (" sha'ah ") 
is in the Aramaic texts of Daniel (iii. 6, 15). In 
documents of the Greek epoch, as also in the As- 
s}'rian texts, references occur to "night-watches" 
("ashmurah"), by which the night was divided into 
three parts (Ps. xc. 4; Lam. ii. 19). As regards in- 
struments for measuring time, II Kings (xx. 11) and 
Isaiah (xxxviii. 8) give some vague information con- 
cerning the gnomon of King Ahaz, and the degrees 
marked on his sun-dial (see Dial). 

The week, with the attribution of each day to one 
of the seven planets, is one of the most ancient insti- 
tutions of the Babylonians. This nation commenced 
the hebdomadal period with the sun, followed by 
the moon, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus, and Sat- 
urn. Every planet in succession presided over 
twenty-four hours, but not in the order assumed for 
their spheres, which was as follows; the sun, Venus, 
Mercury, the moon, Saturn, Jupiter, Mars. The 

* The foundations of Biblical chronology being still a matter 
of discussion, it is deemed desirable to present the divergent 
views in separate articles. 




initial hour of the first day was consecrated to the 
sun; the twenty-fifth, or the initial hour of the sec- 
ond day, to the moon ; the forty-ninth to Mars ; the 
seventy-third to Mercury; the ninety-seventh to 
Jupiter ; the one hundred and twenty -first to Venus ; 
and the one hundred and forty-fifth to Saturn. 

It has been claimed that this arrangement is of 
more modern invention; but indications of its exist- 
ence are found in the earliest texts. The Mosaic ac- 
counts of Creation, of course, ignore the assignment 
of the week-days to divers stars ; but, independently 
of all astral influence, the seventh day was insti- 
tuted as a sacred day, quite distinct in character 
from the seventh day of the lunar synodic month, 
which was regarded as a holy day by the Chaldeans. 

From the Mosaic times down the synodical month 
in the Jewish calendar was calculated, as in the 
Babylonian, from one new moon to the next. This 
is proved by the well-known passage in Ex. xii. 2. 
Here no Egyptian influence may be assumed. But 
the system of thirty-day moafhs, also, seems to 
have been recognized by the Jewish calendar. 

The Jewish year was solar-lunar. In the early 
Biblical statements no indication whatever is found 
of an intercalary month. Still it is safely assumed 
that the difference of ten or eleven hours between 
the twelve synodical months and the tropical year 
was equalized bj^ the insertion of an embolismic 
moutli ; and in tlie cuneiform Sumerian texts express 
mention is made of this intercalation as far back as 
tlie fifth millennium B.C. It is very probable that 
the equivalence of 19 tropical years and 235 synod- 
ical months was known in the most remote times; 
but a regular intercalary system was not introduced 
before Greek influence asserted itself — that is, not 
before 367 B.C. In Chaldea the embolismic months 
were inserted merely for astrological reasons: the 
methods employed later by the Jewish authorities 
(see Calendar) to adjust astronomical irregularities 
can not be held to have been in vogue among the 

Post-Biblical Times : The modern Jewish cal- 
endar is adapted to tiie Greek computation exclu- 
sively. TheTalmudic tractate Rosh ha-Shanah (ch. 
i.) indicates that four ways for commencing the year 
were known and observed. The day was divided 
into' twenty-four hours, and each hour into 1,080 
"halakim." The passage in Rosh ha-Shanah gives, 
almost exactly, the lengtii of the average synodical 
montli as 29 days, 6 hours, and 793 halakim (44 min- 
utes, 3J- seconds), which is only f second too long; 
the real duration being 29 days, 6 hours, 44 minutes, 
2.H9 seconds. This estimate is of Greek origin, like 
tlie Metonic embolismic cycle of the years 3, 6, 8, 
11, 14, 17, 19 of the nineteen-year Metonic period. 
The new Jewish calendar seems to have been inau- 
gurated in 363 (Tishri), and Rabbi Hiliel apparently 
modified it by introducing some innovations; but it 
is not known exactly what they were. Some hints 
in Talmudic texts, which can not be dwelt upon 
here, "seem to indicate that the " forbidden days " — 
that is, days of the week on which Rosh ha-Siianah 
(New-Year) could not fall — were introduced at that 
time. The Talmud speaks of Shabu'ot falling on a 
Saturday, whicli can not liappen now. The first of 
Tishri can not fall on Sunday, Wednesday, or Friday 
IV.— 5 

CnN); nor can the first of Nisan be on Monday, 
Wednesday, or Friday ()12). These forbidden days 
cause a great complication of the calendar. As 
a starting-point for calculation, the first of Tishri 
in the year 1 is indicated by the symbol Tini, sig- 
nifying Monday (2 or second day of week), 5' (n) 
hours, 204 (m) halakim, corresponding to Oct. 7 in 
the Julian, or Sept. 7 in the Gregorian, calendar of 
the year 3761-3760 b.c. (6240 of the modern com- 
putation, which adds 10,000 years to the common 
era). This is the astronomical day 347,999. The 
cycles (" mahzor ") count from that epoch. In order 
to ascertain the year of the cycle, the number is 
divided by 19, the remainder giving the year of 
the cycle; for example: 5661 (1900-1901)^-19 = 297 
+ 18; i.e., the year 5661 is the eighteenth year of 
the 298th cycle. 

The idea of an era beginning with and counted 
from an historical event is an ingenious invention of 
the Greeks, who represented by an impersonal fact 
computations referring to a person. The first pub- 
lic application of it was the Seleucid era, dating 
from Oct., 312 (or, at Babylon, from April 2, 311) 
B.C. ; and this era was accepted by the 
Eras. Jews, who maintained it generally 
down to the eleventh century ; in 
Egypt, however, it survived into the sixteenth cen- 
tury, when Rabbi David ibn Abi Zimra brought 
about its disuse, while in South Arabia it was used, 
along with the "aera mundi," even as late as the 
nineteenth century. For the Temple and the da- 
ting of private records there existed the era from 
the Exodus. Not only is the existence of this era 
a mathematical conclusion based on the 200 dates 
in Kings, but it is also definitely indicated in 
I Kings vi. 1, where the beginning of the construc- 
tion of Solomon's Temple is assigned to the year 480 
of the Exodus era. The Hebrew context is of such 
characteristic precision that no one can seriously 
pretend this to be an intentional combination of 
12 times 40 years. Why this number and not another ? 
It would be no less absurd to claim that the 480 
years of the Roman republic (510-30 B.C.) or the equal 
duration of the Parthian realm (256 B.C. -225 c.e.) 
had been assumed only in order to have the product 
of 12 X 40, or 60 X 8. The question to be decided 
is whether the date then obtained for the Exodus — 
viz., 1492 B.C. — is the real one; for whetlieror not the 
chroniclers of this period were mistaken as to the 
epoch or the era is quite a different matter for 
examination. Most of the eras in use assume a con- 
ventional starting date wliich is not accurately that 
of the event from wliich the name is derived. The 
Dionysian era of the birth of Jesus, perhaps the 
Mohammedan one of the Hegira, or flight of the 
prophet from Mecca to Medina, the Jewish one of 
the Creation, besides some 150 other modes of start- 
ing a chronological series, are illustrations of this 
common practise. 

The months in the era employed by the Biblical 
chronographers were counted from Nisan, the first 
month, to Adar, the twelfth, or We-Adar, the thir- 
teenth. On the other hand, it is found that Biblical 
texts in giving the years of the kings commence 
with the dates of their accession to the throne, just 
as the kings of England and the popes determine 




liieir regnal years. Thus in II Chron. xxix. 3 the 
reference to the first day of the first month in year 
1 of Hezekiah is not to the day of his accession, but 
to the first of Nisan of the first year of his reign ; 
tliat is, according to the modern computation, March 
or April, 726 B.C. If the date of 1493 for the Exo- 
dus is correct, the starting date for the annals is 767 
B.C. By this system it is possible to assign with 
certainty the destruction of the First Temple to Sun- 
day, Aug. 27 (Julian), 587 B.C. (9-113; astronomical 
day 1,507,261); that is, the 9th of Ab of the year 
906 of the era of the Exodus. 

The Biblical figures are given in the ;ith year; 
that is, from the accession to the throne down to the 
event there had elapsed n — 1 year plus a fraction of 
a year, which fraction is expressed by a Greek let- 
ter. For instance, Uzziali reigned fifty-two years; 
in his fifty-second year Pekah of" Israel was king; 
and Uzziah died in the second year of Pekah. This 
example, among many similar ones, shows mathe- 
matically that the beginning of the royal years can 
not be the same. The problem may be stated as 

Uzziah reigned before Pekah 51 -f a 

Uzziah reigned simultaneously with 
Pekah.... 1 + /3 

Total length of Uzziah's reign 52 -j- (a -j- (3) years 

where the sum of the fractions a and /3 does not amount to one- 

All the Biblical calculations start from a different 
date, the date of accession; and the agreement of 
all these figures proves that the original date must 
have been changed to conform with the fixed har- 
monizing sclieme of the annalist, the synchronous 
tables of the kings' reigns. 

Jewish chronology includes: (1) the non -chrono- 
logical, mythical numbers of Genesis ; and (2) the 
real chronology, from the Exodus to the end of the 
Jewish dominion (1492 B.C. to 70 of the common 

The Non-Chronological, Mythical Numbers 
of Genesis : The figures of Genesis, handed down 
in their original form by the Hebrew texts followed 
by the Vulgate, are the results of a fictitious reduc- 
tion of the enormous numbers put forth by the 
Chaldeans, the Egyptians, and the Hindus. The 
Jews and Greeks were not willing to admit that the 
world had been created long before their appearance 
in history. The original figures of one of the sys- 
tems named were reduced to a certain scale. Only 
one of the Chaldean systems, preserved by the frag- 
ments of Berosus, is known. It is probable that his 
figures are those of the Babylonian school ; while 
those of Sippara and Orchoe had possibly other units 
of time to express the same original arithmetical 

The Creation : One of the Chaldean schools as- 
sumed seven periods, each of 240,000 years; that is, 
1,680,000 years. Each period of 10,000 years is meas- 
ured by an hour of the seven days which comprise 
Creation in Genesis (168:^7x24). 

From the Creation to the Deluge : The Chaldeans 
admitted the eternity of the world without any be- 
ginning ; but the existing astronomical bodies had 
a commencement. For the time from the creation 

of these to the great cataclysm, or the Deluge, they 
assumed a sexagesimal unit, the number of the sec- 
onds of the day : 60 X 60 X 24, or 86,400 units. The 
unit of the Babylonian school was 60 months, or 5 
years; that is, 482,000 years. The Hindus fix the 
unit at 5,000 years, or 432,000,000. The Jews re- 
duced this to 86,400 weeks, or 1,656 years; that is, 
72 periods of 23 years each. The 23 years give just 
8,400 days, or 1,200 weeks; the unit of 72 periods 
being divided into three imequal parts, containing 
respectively 20, 18 (which is one-fourth of 72), and 
34 periods of 1,200 weeks or 23 years each. The 
number 23 is found in the number resulting from 
adding the years elapsing between the births of 
father and son in the three groups given in Gen. v. ; 
namely : 

(1) Adam, Seth, Enos, Cainan, and Jared: 130 + 105 -f- 90 -f 70 

+ 65 = 460 = 20 X 2:^, or 20 X 1,200 = 24,000 weeks. 

(2) Mahalaleel, Enoch, Methuselah: 162-1-65+187 = 414 = 

23 X 18 (the fourth of the period, as in the Chaldean) = 
1,200 X 18 = 21,6(K) weeks. 

(3) Lamech : 182 + 6(X) = 782 = 23 X 34 = 40,800 weeks. 

The corresponding Babylonian figures relating ta 
the ten antediluvian kings are: 

The first three together 93,600 years = 18,720 lustra 

The following two together, 108,000 " =21,600 " 
The remaining five (?) 230,400 " =46,080 " 

432,000 " =86,400 " 

' The Bible has 86,400 weeks 

The Chaldean texts have 86,400 lustra 

The three periods correspond to legends now alto- 
gether lost, as the chronological tables in Genesis 

The postdiluvian times down to the end of Genesis 
include : 

From the Deluge to the birth of Abraham — 292 years 
From the birth of Abraham to the end of 
Genesis 361 " 

These 292 and 361 years are the reduction to one- 
sixtieth of the Berosian figures, which give: 

For the first two kings 5,100 years 

For the 86 following 34,080 " 

These 39,180 years are composed of 12 Sothic 
periods of 1,460 years, and of twelve lunar periods 
(Assyrian, "tupkot nannar") of 1,805 years. After 
1,805 years the eclipses recur in the same order; 
and this cycle was known to the Chaldeans, not 
by calculation, but by actual observations and 
registrations of eclipses during centuries and mil- 

The Babylonian figures are controlled by the sex- 
agesimal notation of sosses (" shushi "= avamc) of 60, 
ners (" neru " = v?jpog) of 600, and sars (" shar " = adpoc} 
of 3, 600 years. There are thus : 

12 Sothic periods of 1,460 years = 17,520 years, or 292 sosses 
12 lunar " " 1,805 " = 21,660 " " 361 " 

The Biblical number of 292 years, quoted by Jose- 
phus (" Ant." i. 6, § 5) comprises the nine generations, 
from Arphaxad to Terah, the father of Abraham ; 
namely : 


) -I- 34 -h 30 + 32 + 29 -h 30 -f- 70 = 292 years. 





In order to obtain the necessary 292, Terah must 
have reached liis seventieth year before begetting 

From the birth of Abraham to that of Isaac. . . 100 years 

From the birth of Isaac to that of Jacob 60 " 

From the birth of Jacob to that of Joseph 91 " 

Lifetime of Joseph, end of Genesis 110 " 

In order to secure the total of 361 years which the 
system required, Joseph must be given neither more 
nor less than 110 years. 

Besides this computation of generations, there 
existed another, originally quite independent there- 
of, enumerating only the years of life of each ances- 
tor. These numbers referring to the length of life 
might have been derived fi'om Babylonian state- 
ments ; but the almost complete destruction of cunei- 
form historical documents has removed all tradition 
of this kind. It must be remarked that the prime 
number 23 is also found in the sums of this series, 
a phenomenon which is probably to be explaimed by 
assuming that some analogous fact existed in the 
Chaldean mythology. 

The Biblical sums are as follows : 

From Adam to Cainan 3,657 = 23 X 159 years 

From Mahalaleelto Shem 5,520 = 23X240 " 

From Arphaxad to Jacob 2,898 = 23 X 126 '^ 

13,075 = 23 X 525 " 

It is, of course, very strange that these 12,075 j'ears 
should be equal to 525x1,200 weeks, or 630,000 
weeks; that is, tlie result of 70, 90, and 100. It 
would correspond to a Babylonian epoch of 3,150, - 
000 years. 

These two different traditions liave been combined 
by the redactors of the Biblical text, in order to ex- 
plain the now legends of the antediluvian and 
postdiluvian times of the Jewish people. An exact 
scrutiny of the figures as tliey are found in the 
present form of the text provides the basis for very 
singular and awkward results, of which Biblical 
tradition compels acceptance, and which have dur- 
ing many centuries caused numerous falsifications 
and discussions. 

Chkonology of Genesis, 
antediluvian period, 86,400 weeks. 

First part, 24,000 weeks. 

Year of 

Year of 


Adam bora 
Enos " 



Cainan born 
Mahalaleel born 
Jared born 

Second part, 31,600 weeks, one-quarter of the whole. 

Year of 

Year of 


Jared born 
Enoch " 


Methuselah born 

Third part, 40,800 weeks. All die except Noah and Shem. 

Year of 

Year of 




Lamech bora 


Mahalaleel dies 


Adam dies 


Jared dies 


Enoch translated 


Shem born 


Seth dies 


Lamech dies 


Noah born 


Methuselah dies 


Enos dies 

The Deluge 


Cainan " 

Postdiluvian Period, 653 

Reduced to 653 

First part, from the Deluge to the birth of Abraham. 
No one dies. 

Year of the 

Arphaxad born 



Peleg " 


Year of the 

Serug born 
Nahor " 
Terah " 
Abraham born 

Second part, from the birth of Abraham to the end of Genesis, 
361 sosses, reduced to 361 years. All die. 

Year of the 

Year of the 




Abraham bora 


Jacob born 


Peleg dies 


Abraham dies 


Nahor " 




Noah " (!) 


Shem dies (!) 


The calling of 


Eber " 



Joseph born 


Reu dies 


Isaac dies 


Isaac born 


Arrival of Jacob 


Serug dies 

in Egypt 


Terah " 


Jacob dies 


Arphaxad dies 


Joseph " 

These figures had been known for centuries. 
Shem survived Abraham; therefore legends pretend 
that Melchizedek was really Shem and had handed 
down tlie antediluvian traditions. The antediluvian 
times produced a great many traditions that have 
been altogether lost. In the first fortunate period 
nobody died; in tlie second, death may have been 
threatened; in the third, all men perished, and the 
aged Metlmselah died in the actual year of the 

The combination of the two systems has produced 
considerable bewilderment among subsequent trans- 
lators and exegetes. The LXX., to avoid awkward 
chronological results, hit upon the expedient of 
falsifying the real figures, by adding to each of 
the post-Semitic personages 100 years. Instead of 
2 they have 102 ; for 35 they substituted 135 ; and 
so on. 

When this chronology of cycles was invented, it is 
idle to discuss. It is highly possible that it arose 
during the time of the First Temple; and there is no 
reason for bringing its origin down to the post- 
exilian epoch. Israel and Judah had at this period 
a systematized chronology ; and there had existed, 
beginning with the seventeenth century B.C., a close 
connection between Palestine and Chaldea. 




Real Chronology : 1. From the Exodus to the 
Detraction of the First Temple {1492 to 587 B. C). 

The first part, the four centuries between the 
Exodus and David (1492-1047), can not be fixed 
with certainty. The duration of the several judges' 
reigns is involved in doubt, and arguments can not 
be advanced with the slightest hope of success; for 
the needed documents are wanting. With David 
commences a sound and really historical chronology. 
The two hundred chronological dates handed down 
by the books of Samuel, Kings, and Chronicles are, 
with one or two exceptions {e.g., the twelfth year of 
Ahaz, instead of the thirteenth year; see II Kings 
xvii. 1), of remarkable consistency. In a few cases, 
again, the figures are rightly given, but are by the 
present text attributed to some other event, owing 
to the transposition of the fragments of records 
saved from destruction at the fall of the First Tem- 
ple. For example: the fourteenth year of Heze- 
kiahis not the year of the expedition of Sennacherib, 
but that of the sickness of Hezekiah and of the em- 
bassy of Merodach-baladan, King of Babylon. The 
twenty -seventh year of Jeroboam II., King of Israel 
(II Kings XV. 1), is mentioned as the first year of 
Uzziah, in flagrant contradiction to all the statements 
of the previous chapter, which makes it correspond 
with the fifteenth or sixteenth year. 

Intentional mutilation of the text and suppression 
of all notice of the temporary suspension of the inde- 
pendence of the kingdom of Israel by the Syrians are 
the real cause of the larger number (15 or 16) given 
in ch. xiv. : the end of that chapter, and Isa. vii. 3, 
which can not be understood otherwise, indicate 
clearly that for eleven years Jeroboam II. had been 
expelled from Samaria by the Syrians. The subse- 
quent passages have been ruthlessly altered, in order 
to obviate the slightest mention of this cessation of 
Israel's realm. A similar mutilation has been prac- 
tised at the end of ch. xv., where the interruption 
of Pekah's reign for nine years, and his supersession 
by Menahem II. mentioned in the Tiglath-pileser 
texts, are passed over in perfect silence. 

The statements are always to be analyzed in the 
only possible mathematical manner; i.e., by the for- 
mula that the nt\\ year signifies n — 1 years and a 
fraction of a year after the event. 

For the absolute fixation we have the solar eclipse 
of the eponym "Isid-seti-igbi," June 13, 809 B.C., 91 
years before which occurred the battle of Karkor, 
during Ahab's lifetime, and 78 years before which 
Jehu sent his tribute to Shalmaneser III. of Nin- 

The eponymic tablets and the Babylonian chroni- 
cle fix the date of the downfall of Samaria as Jan., 
721 B.C. 

The two eclipses of the year 7 of Cambyses (523- 
522 B.C.) fix the date of Nebuchadnezzar's accession 
as May-June, 605 B.C., and the date of the delivery 
of Jehoiachin by Evil-merodach, son of Nebuchad- 
nezzar, as the 27th (II Kings xxv. 27) or 25th (Jer. 
Hi. 31) of Adar, either Sunday, Feb. 29, or Tuesday, 
March 2, 561 B.C. 

These starting-points admit of the establishment 
of the chronology with certainty in the following 
manner — the only one possible — without alterations 
of the text in the historical documents : 

Kings of Judah. 

David 1047-1017 

Solomon 1017-978 

Rehoboam 978-960 

Abijam (Abljah) .."... 960-958 

Asa 958-917 

Jehoshaphat, alone. . . 917-895 
Jehoshaphat and Jo- 
ram 895-892 

Joram alone 892-888 

Ahaziah 888-887 

Athaliah (Queen).... 887-881 

Joash 881-840 

Destruction of the Temple, Sunday, Aug. 27, 587 B.C. 

Kings of Israel. 


. 840-811 

Uzziah or Azariah . . 

.. 811-758 


.. 758-742 


. 742-727 


.. 727-698 


. 698-642 

.. 642-640 


. 640-609 


.. -609 


.. 609-598 




.. 598-587 

Jeroboam 1 977- 

Nadab 9.56- 


Elah 932-931 

Zimri (seven days) -931 

Omri with Tibni 931-937 

Omri, alone 927-920 

Ahab 920-900 





Domination of Syria.. 

Jeroboam II., second 

Zachariah (six months) 

Shallum (one month) . 

Menahem I 


Pekah, first reign 

Menahem II.. under 
the Assyrian Tig- 

Pekah, second reign.. 



Jeroboam II., flrst 

reign 825-799 

Destruction of Samaria, Jan., 721 B.C. 

• The great chronologists of the seventeenth century 
have long pointed out the apparent discrepancy be- 
tween the statements of the duration ot the reigns 
of Jeroboam II. and Pekah and the time resulting 
from the synchronisms. But there is no error. In- 
deed, between the commencement and the end of the 
reign of Jeroboam II. fifty-two years elapsed; but 
during eleven of these he was superseded, and his de 
facto occupation of the throne counts only forty -one 
years, as the Biblical text affirms. Similarly Pekah 
reigned only twenty years in Samaria, although 
twenty-nine intervened between his accession and 
his death. 

2. From the Destruction of the First Temple to that of 
the Second under Titus {587 B. C. to 70 of tfie Common 

The important events and dates are as follows : 


587-168 Loss of Jewish independence. 

538 Decree of Cyrus, King of Babylon, signed Oct., 539, al- 
lowing the Jews to return to Palestine. 

473 Institution of the Feast of Purim under Xerxes (Ahas- 
uerus) ; troubles in Palestine caused by the enemies 
of the Jews. 

398 Ezra, under Artaxerxes Mnemon. 

385 Nehemiah's second organization. Government of the 
high priest. 

332 Alexander subdues Palestine. 

312 Establishment of the Syrian power. 

170 Antiochus IV. (Epiphanes) plunders Jerusalem. The 
Jews lose their independence, 168 B.C. to 6 c.e. 

168 Mattathias the Hasmonean or Maccabean. 
58 Herod supersedes the Hasmoneans. 
4 Early in April, death of Herod, and division of Pales- 
tine into four independent provinces. 


6 Judea a province of Rome. 

69 Revolt of the Jews. 

70 Sunday, Aug. 5, destruction of the Second Temple. 

Bibliography: Jules Oppert, Salomon et Ses Succei^eurs, 
1877; idem. Noli Me Tangere, in Proceedings of Soc. of 
Biblical Archeology, Dec, 1897. 

E. G. H. J. O. 




(II.) Biblical : In this article there will be brief- 
ly given (1) the methods used for dating events and 
periods in the Old Testament; (2) the scientific 
data upon which the most reliable chronological sys- 
tem has been founded ; and (3) the most valuable 
results in the fixing of important dates. 

1. Methods of Dating: Two main stages may 
be distinguished in the attempts made by Bible 
writers of the various periods to indicate the times 
of occurrence of events. The first is that in which 
the narrator chooses any one out of a number of 
well-known events as a time-mark ; and the second 
is that in which an authoritative system is assumed 
as already prevailing. 

Unsystematic Usages : Reference is made to : (a) a 
memorable phenomenon of nature; thus Amos (i. 1) 
dates from an earthquake (compare Zech. xiv. 5); 

(b) a great national movement; thus, the establish- 
ment of the Hyksos dynasty in Egypt is marked by 
the building of the city of Zoan (Num. xiii. 22) ; 

(c) a decisive military movement, as the expedition 
of Sargon of Assyria against Ashdod (Isa. xx. 1); 

(d) the death of a king of the writer's country, as 
of Uzziah or of Ahab (Isa. vi. 1, xiv. 28). 

A Conventional System : Such devices as the above- 
named could have only local vogue and value. 
Familiarity with the busiues.slike methods of outside 
communities, especially in the days of the later 
kings and during the Exile, led to the adoption of a 
methodical scheme for the dating of events. The 
decisive epoch was the period between Isaiah and 
Jeremiah, when the Judahites were 

Jeremiah completely under Assyrian domina- 
and tion. Dates are attached to several 

Ezekiel. individual prophecies of Jeremiah ; 
and the statements are, for tlie most 
part, of contemporary origin (Jer. xxvii. et seq.). 
The point of departure in the reckoning is the be- 
ginning of the reign of the then King of Judah, 
sometimes with the addition of the regnal year of 
the great King of Babylon, Nebuchadnezzar {e.g., 
xxxii. 1). A little later Ezekiel's prophecies were 
regularly dated, as was natural to a writer living in 
Babylonia. In accordance with tlie same custom 
several of the prophetical books were furnished with 
headings indicating the limits of the professional 
careers of the authors. But these were added by 
later editors. 

More systematic and extensive are the chronolog- 
ical data of the books of Kings and Chronicles, 
where, throughout the history of the divided king- 
doms, are found not only the lengths of the reigns of 
the several rulers, but the dates of their accessions, 
in two separate series of synchronisms. Thus it is 
said : " In the twentieth year of Jeroboam king of 
Israel began Asa to reign over Judah. . . . Forty 
and one years reigned he in Jerusalem " (I Kings x v. 
9, 10). Many of the numbers given, especially tlie 
synchronisms, are erroneous, as is proved by the fact 
that no attempt to harmonize the two 

Jeroboam series has been successful [see, how- 

and Asa. ever, Ciihonology (I.)]. The sum of 

the years of the kings of Israel from 

the schism to the Exile is 242; while that of the 

years of the kings of Judah for the same period is 

260. Startling inconsistencies are also found where 

the several synchronisms for the same king arc 
worked out. Thus, for the accession of Ahaz of 
Judah one has to choose between 727, 
The 720, and 715 B.C., according as one set 

Dates of data or another is followed. Infer- 
Assigned ential evidence points conclusively to 
to Ahaz. the fact that all of these numbers were 
inserted, as a separate part of the nar- 
rative, in the editorial period that followed the loss 
of Jerusalem. It is equally certain that the syn- 
chronisms were a matter of independent calculation. 
But there is good reason to believe that if the regnal 
years were not found in surviving royal annals, 
they were at least preserved by a fairly reliable 
tradition supported in part by documentary testi- 
mony. By the help of Assyrian data they may be 
used with a fair degree of accuracy. 

One step backward beyond the division of the 
kingdom, Solomon, David, and Saul 
From the are each credited with a reign of forty 
Exodus to years. This suggests a conjectural 
Solomon, systematization. The hypothesis is 
strengthened hy the frequent occur- 
rence of the number forty in numerations made for 
still earlier personages and events. Indeed, the 
summation of the years between the Exodus and 
the beginning of Solomon's Temple, found in 
I Kings vi. 1, has been plausibly conjectured to be 
made up of twelve generations, each of forty years. 
The number 480 thus given is, however, too large by 
one-half; since the Exodus cannot have occurred 
much before 1200 B.C., and the Temple was built 
about 960 B.C. 

For the chronology of the long period before 
Moses there are no sure data, since the numbers of 
the Masoretic text differ widely from those variously 
given by the Septuagint, the Saniari- 
The tan Pentateuch, and the Book of Jubi- 

Earliest lees (first centur3' c.e.). In the Maso- 
Period. retic data there are, moieover, several 
artificial schemes of systematization. 
For the details of these any good modern commen- 
tary on Genesis or special treatise on Bible chronol- 
ogy may be consulted. 

2. Scientific Data : All chronological accuracy 
depends upcm the fulfilment of two conditions. 
To ascertain or verify the date of any event there 
must be a fixed point of departure, from which 
or to which the event in question is to be reckoned. 
Again, the data from which the time of the event 
is inferred must be adjusted to a connected system 
of time-reckoning reliable throughout. In other 
words, some ancient authority, referring to an es- 
tablished scheme or system, must have made a nota- 
tion of the event itself or of something synchronous 
with it. 

The Babylonians, and their kindred and disciples, 
the Assyrians, were the only people of Oriental an- 
tiquity who duly kept such a required 
Babylonian system of time-notation. It is to them 
Methods that the current divisions of time gen- 
of Numera- erally, as well as the beginnings of 
tion. mathematics and astronomy, are due. 

They had already in their earliest re- 
corded history the sense of number and computa- 
tion. The Hebrew writers were still working with 




roiiud numbers and employing primitive and un- 
certain eras tliousands of years after the Baby- 
lonians had begun to keep their sacred and public 
records by separate and successive years and to pre- 
serve the results for later reference or tabulation. 

Naturally, most is gained for Biblical chronology 
from the synchronisms with contemporary Assyrian 
or Babylonian history. Of special importance are 
those available for the period of the kings of Israel 
and Judah, when the relations witli Assyria were 
close and continuous, and at the same time the Bib- 
lical data are most abundant. There 
Helpful are three main sources of information 
Cuneiform in the inscriptions. One is the royal 
Records, annals, in which events are often de- 
scribed as occurring in a given year of 
the king's reign, or in the year of office of a given 
eponym. The second is the lists of such eponyms 
as were chosen successively from among Assyrian 
rulers of different grades to mark their respective 
years, which were accordingly called by tlieir names. 
These lists are preserved in more than one form ; and 
by combining them it is possible to make up a com- 
plete series for the period 893-666 u.c, as well as 
for shorter intervals both before and after. Their 
accuracy has been confirmed by every possible 
check. Not only liistorical events, but business 
documents also, were dated by the years of the 
proper eponyms. The third aid of this kind con- 
sists of lists of kings in the order of their succession, 
with the lengths of their several reigns, as well as 
brief summaries of important events, usually re- 
ferred to by modern scliolars as "chronicles." 

An instance of the ai)plication of Assyrian data 
to Old Testament chronological problems may be 
given here. Shalmanoser II., Avho reigned 860-825 
B.C., describes frequent expeditions to Syria and 
Palestine, and mentions by name Aliab and Jehu of 
Israel. He relates that in the year of 
Applica- his reign which is found to correspond 
tion of to 842 B.C., he received tribute from 
Assyrian Jehu. Presumably this was at the 
Data. accession of Jehu, who would be 
anxious to secure support for his new 
pretensions; but this is only a conjecture. He 
mentions, also, that in 854 he fought a great battle 
against a league of Avestern rulers, among whom 
were Ahab of Israel and Ben-hadad of Damascus. 
The history of Aliab, as given in the Bible, indicates 
that there was only one occasion on which Ahab 
and Ben-hadad could have made such a league with 
each other; namely, in the brief period between the 
peace of Aphek (I Kings xx. 34) and the death of 
Ahab in the third year thereafter {ih. xxii. 2 et seq.). 
The middle year of this interval suggests itself as 
the date of tli£ league, 854 b.c. Ahab, therefore, 
must have died in 853 u.c. According to the narra- 
tive in Kings, Jehu came to the throne in the twelfth 
year thereafter; that is to say, in 842. Using with 
necessary caution the Biblical numbers, one may now 
reckon backward and forward from these dates and 
obtain a fairly correct chronology of the whole per- 
iod from the schism to the close of the Exile. 

3. Results : The following are some of the 
most important dates which have been ascertained 
from combinations and inferences made upon the 

Division of the kingdom. 

Omri made King of Israel. 
Samaria founded. 

Peace with Damascus. 

Death of Ahab. 

Jehu made Ijing and pays 
tribute to Assyria. 

Damascus taken by the 

Amos prophesies. 

Isaiah prophesies. Death 
of King Uzziah. North- 
ern Israel tributary to 
Tiglath-pileser III. 

Judah under Ahaz pays 
homage to Assyria. 

]irinciples set forth above. Others had already been 
learned by the aid of Greek writers, especially 

B.C. B.C. 

93i Division of the kingdom. 733 Damascus and Samaria 

taken by Tiglath-pile- 
ser. Part of Israel 
723-21 Fall of Samaria. De- 
portation of people 
by Sargon of Assyria, 
who acceded in Jan., 

567 Nebuchadnezzar in- 
vades Egypt. 

539 In July, Babylon taken 
by Gobryas the Mede, 
general of Cyrus. In 
October, Cyrus him- 
self enters the city. 

Bibliooraphy: Ideler, Lehrbuch der Chronrilogie, 1831; 
Brandes, Ahhandluiigen zur Gesch. des Orients, 1874; 
Schrader, K. G. F. 1878; idem, K. A. T. 2ded., 1883; Well- 
hausen, in Jahrhuch fUr Deutsche Theologie, 1875; W. R. 
Smith, T7ie Prophets of Israel, and Their Place in Hirforj/, 
1882, p. 413; Kamphausen, Chronolnqie der Hehriiiiichen 
Koniitc, 18s:!; Mahler, liihliache Chronolnyie und Zeitrech- 
niiiKi (In- lfiln;i(i;]HH7; C. Niebuhr, Die Chronologic der 
Geacli. Z.v/o, Ts, etc, ISIIH; e. L. Curtis, Chronolofin of the Old 
Testament, in Hastings. Diet. Bible; K. Marti, in Cheyneand 
Black, Emyc. Bihl. s.v. 
E. G. H. J. F. McC. 

Post-Biblical: The chronological system of 

the Jews was derived, like most of their science, from 
the Greeks. They used the "minyau shetarot" (era 
of contracts, really the Seleucidan era, dating from 
312 B.C.) till the Middle Ages, when the method of 
reckoning from the creation of the world was intro- 
duced — probably by the later geonim, as it was em- 
ployed by R. Sherira (987 c.e.). This era begins 
with the year corresponding to 3760 B.C. Maimonides 
on occasions used no less than three eras, as in the 
]\[islmeh Torah (Shemittah, x. 4): "In the year 1107 
of the destruction of the Temple, 1487 of the Seleu- 
cidan era, 4936 of the Creation." For a short time 
the era of the Hasmoneans, dating from the autumn 
of 143 B.C. (see I Mace. xiii. 41-42), was in use. 
See Era. 

The dates recorded according to these various eras 
are based in Jewish chronology on certain estimated 
intervals between important events in post-Biblical 
Jewish history. These intervals are given in ' Ab. Za- 
rali 9a, 10a (probably derived from Seder '01am Kab- 
bah, xxix.), which counts 34 years from the Second 
Temple to Alexander; 180 for the Greek empire; 
103 from the beginning of the Hasmonean dynasty 
under John Hyrcanus (135 B.C.) to Herod; 103 from 
Herod to the destruction of the Temple ; making in 
all 420 years. According to this reckoning, the era 
of contracts is placed six years after that of Alex- 
ander, the interval between whose appearance in 
Palestine and the destruction of the Second Temple 
is much less than in reality. The date of the acces- 
sion of Herod is placed two years too late ; and that 
of the destruction of the Temple is fixed at 68, which 
is, of course, two years too earl)^ Loeb ("Revue 
Etudes Juives," xix. 202-205) has ingeniously ex- 
plained these discrepancies as due to a desire on 
the part of R. Jose, the author of tlie Seder '01am 
Rabbah, to make them agree with the prediction of 
Dan. ix. 24 et seq., that seventy weeks (of years), or 
490 years, would elapse between the Return from 




the Exile and the destruction of the Second Temple. 
As the Exile was assumed to last seventy j'ears, in 
accordance with Jeremiah, this left 420 years from 
the Return (537 B.C.) to the destruction of the Tem- 
ple (70 C.E.), a discrepancy of 187 years. This is 
got rid of in part by making the Persian domination 
last 34 in.stead of 204 years (537-383 B.C.). This 
was done in order to make the interval between the 
Exodus and the era of contracts exactly 1,000 years. 
Owing to these discrepancies, great confusion ex- 
ists in the annals of the Jewish chroniclers, who 
have generally tried to combine the dates recorded 
by tlieir predecessors with those of more recent 
events, using the era of creation almost exclusively 
(see I. Loeb, "Josef Haccohen et les 
Dates of Chroniqueurs Juifs," Paris, 1888, re- 
Jewish printed from "Revue Etudes Juives," 
Annalists, xv., xvi.); and it is dangerous to trust 
to their lists unless checked by con- 
temporary annals. In the subjoined chronological 
table the dates of the most prominent events of 
Jewish history have been derived from Henrietta 
Szold's "Tables of Jewish History" in the index 
volume (pp. 104 et seq.) of the American edition 
of Graetz's "History of the Jews." For events 
of lesser importance the sources are in almost 
every case the local annalists as utilized by the his- 
torians of the Jews in the respective countries. Par- 
ticular attention has been given to the successive 
stages of legislation, while only selections have been 
made from the many cases of autos da fe, blood 
accusations, expulsions, host-tragedies, and acts of 
emancipation, for all of which complete lists are 
given in separate articles under the respective head- 

In contradistinction to the usual custom, but few 
literary events have been included in the table, only 
tliose works which have affected the public opinion 
of the non-Jewish world having been regarded as of 
more direct historic importance. Tiie ruling princi- 
ple has been to confine the list to strictly historic 
events; i.e., to incidents affecting either directly or 
indirectly the relations of the Jews to the states in 
whose territories they have dwelt. Incidents affect- 
ing merely the internal concerns of the Jewish com- 
munities have not, as a rule, been included. 

A Jewish Chronology from the Destruction 
OP Jerusalem to the Year 1902. 


70. Jerusalem besieged and conquered by Titus ; the Temple 

73. Judea completely conquered; the " FIscus Judaicus" In- 
stituted by Vespasian. 
115. The Jews of Babylonia, Palestine, Egypt, Cyprus, Cyrene, 

and Libya rise against Trajan. 
118. The Jews of Palestine rise against Trajan and Hadrian ; 

" Wiirof Lucius Quietus." 
133. Ucliflliiin of Bar Kokba against Hadrian; restoration of 

tlic Jewish state. 
13.5. Fall of licthar; end of Bar Kokba 's rebellion. 
1(51. nevolntioii in Palestine against Antoninus Pius. 
280. Judah III., son of Ju<1ah II., patriarch, collects a tax from 

foreign coinmunfties. 
306. Council of Elvira forbids Christians to eat with Jews or 

to intermarry with them. 
32.'). First Nicc'ie Council separates the celebration of Easter 

from that of fhe Jewish Pa.ssover. 
339. Constanfins forbids, under penalty of death, marriage of 

a Jew with a Christian woman, and ciicumcision of 


361. Restoration of the Temple at Jerusalem undertaken under 

Julian the Apostate. 

362. Julian the Apostate abolishes the Jew tax. 
400. Moses, the false Messiah of Crete. 

415. Cyril, Bishop of Alexandria, drives the Jews from Alexan- 

418. (March 10) Jews excluded from all public ofilces and dig- 
nities in the Roman empire. 

425. Extinction of the patriarchate. 

455. Persecution of the Babylonian Jews under Yezdegerd IIL 

465. The Council of Vannes (Gaul) prohibits the clergy from 
taking part in Jewish banquets. 

471. Persecution of the Babylonian Jews under Firuz (Perozes) ; 
the exilarch Huna Mari and others suffer martyrdom. 

500 {circa). Abu-Kariba, Himyarite king, adopts Judaism, and 
converts his aimy and his people. 

511. Mar-Zutra IL, prince of the Captivity (exilarch), estab- 
lishes an independent Jewish state in Babylonia under 
the Persian king Kobad. 

516. (May 14, 15) Uprising against Jews of Clermont; syna- 

gogue destroyed. 

517. The Council of Epaon forbids Christians to take part in 

Jewish banquets. 

518. Persecution of the Jews by Kobad, King of Persia. 

532. Justinian I. decrees that the testimony of Jews shall be 
valid only in Jewish cases. 

537. Justinian declares Jews incapable of holding any ofHcial 


538. The Council of Orleans forbids Jews to appear on the 

street at Eastertide. 
589. Reccared, Visigothic King of Spain, completely isolates 

Jews from Christians. 
612. Sisebut, Visigothic king, forces the Jews to accept baptism 

or to emigrate. 
624. The Banu Kainuka'a, a Jewish-Arabic tribe, driven from 

Arabia by Mohammed, 
627. Emperor Heraclius forbids Jews to enter Jerusalem, and 

in other ways harasses the Palestinian Jews. 
629. Dagobert orders the Jews of the Frankish empire to ac- 
cept baptism or to emigrate. 
633. The Council of Toledo under Sisenand, Visigothic king, 

and Isidore of Seville, forces converts to Judaism back 

to Christianity. 
638. Chintila enacts that only professing Catholics shall reuiain 

in Visigothic Spain ; Jews emigrate. 

640. Omar, the second calif, banishes all Jews from Arabia; 

the " Pact of Omar " imposes restrictions upon Jews in 
the whole Mohammedan world. 

641. Bulan, khan of the Chazars, becomes a Jew. 

658. Beginning of the Gaonate; Mar-Isaac, head of the Sura 

Academy, takes the title "Gaon." 
694. (Nov.) All Jews in Spain and Gallic Provence declared 

slaves ; children under seven forcibly baptized. 

720. Omar II., Ommiad Calif of Damascus, reenacts the " Pact 

of Omar." 

721. Appearance of the false Messiah Serenus in Syria causes 

many Spanish Jews to emigrate to Palestine. 
701. The Karaite schism led by Anan ben David. 
797. Isaac sent by Charlemagne on an embassy to Harun al- 

814. "Capitula de Judeis " of Charlemagne and Ludwig decide 

that Jews should not have Church utensils in pledge. 
827 (circa). Eberard, "Magister Judaeorum" under Louis I. 
the Pious, king of the Franks, protects the Jews against 
Agobard, Bishop of Lyons. 
845. The Council of Meaux. under Amolo, Bishop of Lyons, en- 
acts anti-.Iewish decrees, renewing those of Constantino 
and Theodosius II. 
850. AI-Mutawakkil orders the "Peoples of the Book " to wear 

yellow kerchiefs. 
878. Ibrahim ihn Ahmad orders Jews of Sicily to wear a badge. 
982. (July 13) Kalonymus saves life of Otto II. after battle of 

1007. Persecution at Rouen by Robert the Devil. 
1013. (Nov.) Jews driven from Mayence by Emperor Henry II. 
1013. (Apr. 19) Massacre at Cordova by soldiers of Sulaiman ibn 

1021. Al-Hakim renews the " Pact of Omar" in Egypt. 
lOtiO. Banishment of the Jews from Granada. 

1078. Pope Gregory VII. (Hildebrand) promulgates canonical 

law against Jews holding office in Christendom. 

1079. Jews repulsed fmin Ireland. 

1085. l'ope(irci,'(iry VII. protests against Jews being placed by 

the King of Castile in authority over Christians. 
1090. " Fuero " (decree) of Alfonso VI. appoints duel as means 




of settling litigation between Christian and Jew. (Feb. 
19) Henry IV. grants to Judah ben Kalonymus and other 
Jews of Speyer protection to life and property. 

1096. First Crusade ; Jews massacred along the Rhine and else- 

1099. The Jews of Jerusalem burned in a synagogue by the 
Crusaders under Godfrey of Bouillon. 

1103. (Jan. 6) The " Constitutio Pacis " of the imperial court at 
Mayence assures the Jews of the " emperor's peace." 

1108. Massacre at Toledo. 

1117. Persecution at Rome ; appearance of a false Messiah at 

1120. Calixtus II. issues bull "Sicut Judaeis," the charter of the 
Roman Jews. 

1124. Ladislaus I. of Bohemia decrees that no Christian shall 
serve Jews. 

1144, Alleged martyrdom of St. William of Norwich (first case 
of blood accusation). 

1146. Second Crusade ; Jews massacred throughout France and 
Germany. Beginning of the Almohad persecution in 
northern Africa and southern Spain ; Jews flee, or pre- 
tend to accept Islam. 

1150. Statutes of Aries appoint a special Jewish oath. 

1156. Jews of Persia persecuted on account of pseudo-Messiah, 
David Alroy. 

1168. Latins and Greeks, Jews and Saracens, granted right of 
being judged by their own laws in Sicily. 

1171. Thirty-one Jews and Jewesses of Blois burned on the 

charge of having used human blood In the Passover. 

1172. Persecution of the Jews of Yemen. Messianic excite- 

1174. Sultan Nureddln Mahmud removes all Jews of Syria and 
Egypt from public offices. 

1178. Riot at Toledo, at which Fermosa, the Jewish mistress of 

Alfonso VIII., is killed. 

1179. The third Lateran Council passes decrees protecting the 

religious liberty of the Jews. (Aug.) Jews of Boppard 
and neighborhood slain because body of Christian 
woman is found on banks of Rhine. Jews expelled 
from Bohemia. 
1183. (April) Philip Augustus of France banishes the Jews from 
his hereditary provinces and takes one-third of their 

1189. Attack on the Jews of London at coronation of Richard I. 

1190. (May 17) Self-immolation of 150 Jews at York to avoid 


U94. " Ordinances of the Jewry " passed in England for regis- 
tering Jewish debts, thus preparing the way for the 
exchequer of Jews. 

1198. Jews permitted to return to France by Philip Augustus on 
payment of 15,000 livres in silver. 

1200. Bishop Conrad of Mayence issues a formula for an oath 
in German for Jews of Erfurt. 

1205. (July 15) Innocent III. writes to Archbishop of Sens and 
Bishop of Paris laying down the principle that Jews are 
bound to perpetual subjection because of the Crucifixion. 

1209. Council of Avignon issues restrictive measures against the 
Jews. (July 22) French Jews attacked and plundered ; 
200 murdered. 

1310. (Nov. 1 ) The Jews of England imprisoned by King John. 

1211. Many French and English rabbis emigrate to Palestine. 

1213. The Jews of Toledo killed by Crusaders under the Cis- 
tercian monk Arnold ; first persecution of Jews in 

1215. Magna Charta of England limits rights of the crown in 
Jewish debts to the principal. Fourth Lateran Council 
under Pope Innocent III., among many anti-Jewish 
measures, decrees the Jew badge. 

1221. Jews killed at Erfurt. 

1222. Golden Bull of Hungary refuses Jews the right to hold 

public office. Council of Oxford imposes restrictions on 
the English Jews. 

1223. (Nov. 8) Rabbinical Synod of Mayence regulates the pay- 

ment of the Jewish taxes. 
1227. Council of Narbonne reenacts the anti-Jewish decrees of 

the fourth Lateran Council. 
1230. (Dec.) "'Statutum de Judeis" in France by Louis IX. pro. 

hibits Jews from making contracts or leaving their 

lords' lands. 
1334. (Dec. 10) Jews of Fulda find a murdered Christian ; 361 

Jews killed in consequence. 
1236. Frederick II. takes Jews of Sicily under his protection as 

being his "servl camerae " (first use of this term). 
1240. (June 25) Disputation before Louis IX. of France between 

Nicholas Donin and the Jews represented by Jehiel of 

Paris, Moses of Coucy, Talmudist and itinerant preacher, 
and two others. 

1241. (May 24) Riot at Frankfort on account of a Jewish convert. 
Jewish Parliament summoned to Worcester, England. 

1244. Archduke Frederick II. the Valiant, of Austria, grants 
privileges to the Jews (" Privilegium Fredericianuin"). 
Twenty-four wagon-loads of Talmuds and other manu- 
scripts (1200) burned at Paris. 

1246. James I. of Aragon, in the Ordenamlento of Huesca, de- 
clares Jews to be "in commanda regis." Council of 
B^zlers forbids Jews to practise medicine. 

1254. (Dec.) Louis IX. expels Jews from France. 

1255. (July 31) St. Hugh of Lincoln disappears, and the Jews 

are accused of murdering him for ritual purposes. 

1259. Jahudan de Cavalleria becomes " bayle-general " and 
treasurer of Aragon. Provincial council of Fritzlar for 
province of Mayence repeats several of the canonical 
restrictions. Including the badge (first time in Ger- 

1261. Expulsion from Brabant, under will of Henry III., of all 
Jews except those living by trade. 

1263. Disputation at Barcelona between Pablo Christiani and 


1264. Massacres at London, Canterbury, Winchester, and Cam- 

bridge by the barons in revolt against Henry III. 

1265. (May 2) Persecution at Sunzig; 72 persons burned in 

1267. (May 13) Synod of Vienna, under Cardinal Guida, orders 

Jews to wear pointed hats. 
1370. (June 23) Persecution at Weissenburg. 

1273. (Nov. 4) Jews of Lerida obtain permission to substitute 

oath by the Ten Commandments for the oath "more 

1274. (July 7) Gregory X. issues bull against blood accusation. 

1275. Jews expelled from Marlborough, Gloucester, Worcester, 

and Cambridge, at request of the queen-mother. 
1380. Alfonso X. orders all Jews of Leon and Castile to be im- 
prisoned till they pay 12,000 maravedis, and 12,000 for 
every day of delay in payment. English Jews forced to 
attend sermons of Dominicans. 

1285. Blood accusation at Munich. 

1286. (June 28) Meir ben Baruch of Rothenburg (1220-93), 

chief rabbi of Germany, imprisoned when about to emi- 
grate. Sancho of Castile in Cortes of Palencia orders 
Jews to submit their cases to the ordinary alcaldes 
(abolition of legislative autonomy). (Nov. 30) Bull of 
Honorius IV. to archbishops of York and Canterbury 
against Talmud. 

1387. (May 2) All Jews in England thrown into prison. 

1290. (Nov. 1) Jews banished from England. 

1292. Ritual murder accusation and riot at Colmar. 

1294. (Aug. 7) Bolko I. of Silesia grants Jews "Privilegium 


1295. (June 33) Boniface VIII. enters Rome and spurns the 

Torah presented to him by Jewish deputation. 

1297. "Judenordnung" for Brandenburg. 

1298. Persecution of the Jews in Germany instigated by Rind- 

fleisch ; Mordecai ben Hillel a martyr. 
1301. Jews plundered and slain at Magdeburg. 
1303. Ordinance of Philip the Fair enacts that all trials between 

Christians and Jews be decided by regular courts. 
1306. First expulsion of the Jews from France under Philip the 

1315. (July 28) Jews recalled to France by Louis X. for twelve 

1320. The Pastoureaux persecutions in France ("gezerot ha- 

1331. The Leper persecution in France (" gezerot mezora'im "). 

(June 34) Second expulsion of the Jews from France. 

Five thousand slain in Dauphine on charge of well- 

1333. (Pentecost) Talmuds burned in Rome. 
1330. Alleged desecration of host at Giistrow. 

13:34. (Oct. 9) Casimir III. the Great, of Poland, grants Jews 
" Privilegium Fredericianum." 

1334. Host-tragedy at Constance. 

1337. (May) Armleder massacres at Ensisheim, Muhlhausen, 
Rufach, etc. 

1346. Blood accusation at Munich. 

1348. (Feb. 28) The Ordenamlento of Alcaza orders all usury to 
cease. (July 16) Karl IV. forbids Jews being sum- 
moned before the Vehmgericht. 

1348-49. Persecution of the Jews in central Europe on account 
of the Black Death. Pope Clement VI. Issues two 
bulls protecting them. 




1350. Alfonso IV. of Portugal enforces the badge (Qrst in the 

Peninsula) . 

1351. Cortes of Valladolid demands the abolition of the judicial 

autonomy of Spanish-Jewish communities. Jews burned 
at Konigsberg in Neumark. 
1353. Jews invited back to Worms on account of their usef ul- 













(Nov.) Samuel Abulafla dies under torture on the charge 
of peculation. Manessier de Vesoul obtains from King 
John a decree permitting Jews to dwell in France. 

Jews expelled by Louis the Great from Hungary ; many 
go to Wallachia. 

All Jews imprisoned and robbed in Austria. 

(Nov. 16) Riot at Paris; many Jews plundered, several 
killed, most fled. 

A synod at Mayence regulates the rabbinical marriage 

Jews expelled from Basel. 

(Apr. 18) The charge of insult to a priest carrying the sac- 
rament leads to the massacre of the Jews in Prague. 

(June 6) Spanish horrors begin ; Ferdinand Martinez in- 
cites the mob against the Jews of Seville ; anti-Jewish 
riots spread throughout CastUe and Aragon. 

(Nov. 3) Third and last expulsion of the Jews from 
France, under Charles VI. 

Persecution of the Jews of Prague at the instigation of the 
convert Pessach ; Lipmann of Miihlhausen among the 

(Oct. 25) Juan II. of CastUe withdraws civil jurisdiction 
from Jews. 

Jews expelled from Speyer. 

(Oct. 26) Jews attacked at Cracow. 

(Sept.) Meir Alguades slain on charge of host-desecra- 

Vincent Ferrer raises the populace against the Jews. 
Second general massacre of Jews in all the Spanish 

(Jan. 7) Religious disputation at Tortosa arranged by 
Pope Benedict XIII. between Geroniitio de Santa F6 and 
Vidal ben Benveniste ibn Labi and Joseph Albo. 

(May 11) Bull of Benedict XIII. against the Talmud and 
any Jewish book attacking Christianity. 

Charges of host-desecration lead to the putting to death of 
a number of Jews and to the expulsion of the remainder 
from Lower and Upper Austria. 

Jews expelled from Cologne. 

Jews expelled from Zurich. 

Rabbinical synod at Valladolid. Host-tragedy at Segovia. 
A synod at A Vila, under Abraham Benveniste Senior, 
provides for an educational system for Jewish Spain. 

The Council of Basel renews old and devises new canon- 
ical restrictions against Jews. Annihilation of the Jews 
of Majorca. 

Jews expelled from Speyer. 

Jews expelled from Mayence. 

Jews expelled from Augsburg. 

Casimir IV. of Poland grants special privileges to Jews. 

Ludwig X. of Bavaria throws all the Jews In forty towns 
into prison and confiscates their property. 

Nicholas de Cusa enforces the wearing of the Jew badge in 

(May 2) Forty-one Jews burned at Breslau, and Jews ex- 
pelled from Brunn and Olmiitz, through Caplstrano. 

Jews expelled from Erfurt. 

(March 5) Thestatesof Austriademand that no Jew be per- 
mitted to dwell there. Jews expelled from Savoy. 

(Apr. 12) Jews plundered and murdered by soldiers in 

F.ighteen Jews burned at Nuremberg. 

Jews expelled from Neisse by the gilds. Blood accusa- 
tion brought against Jews of Sepulveda. 

Jews plundered and slain at Posen. 

Jews expelled from bishopric of Mayence. 

Bemardinus of Feltre preaches against the Jews in Italy. 
The Jews charged with the murder of Simon of Trent 
for ritual purposes. Riots In Padua and elsewhere in 
Italy and Sicily. 

Blood accusation In Regensburg through the convert 

Jews plundered at Colmar and burned at Passau ; the rest 
expelled through bishop. 

Jews expelled from diocese of Bamberg on account of 
Simon of Trent affair. 

The Inquisition against the Maranos established in Seville 
and at other places in Castile. 

1483. Inquisition established in Aragon ; Thomas de Torque- 

mada, chief inquisitor. 

1484. Jews expelled from Aries. 

1486. (Feb*. 12) Auto da t6 at Toledo at which 740 were absolved. 
(Dec. 10) Another auto at same place ; 900 Jews "recon- 

1488. (Jan. 2.5) First auto at Barcelona. (May 24 and July 30) 
Autos da f(? at Toledo ; at former, 21 Jews burned, 400 
punished ; at latter, 76 burned. 

1490. (Dec.) Jews expelled from (ieneva. 

1492. (Aug. 3) Expulsion of the Jews from Spain. 

1494. Jews plundered in Naples. Blood accusation at Tyrnau. 

1495. Jews expelled from Florence, but readmitted after a few 

months on account of their utility ; Jews expelled from 

1496. Expulsion of Jews from Styria. Manoel of Portugal or- 

ders the Jews to accept baptism or leave the country. 
1498. The exiles settled in Navarre banished. Jews expelled 
from Nuremberg and Ulm. 

1501. (July) Fifty-four Jews burned at Seville. 

1502. Appearance of the pseudo-Messiah Asher Liimmlein. 

1503. Pfefferkorn denounces Reuchlin. (March 22) Jews per- 

mitted to return to Lithuania. (Dec. 27) Judaizing fol- 
lowers of Zechariah of Kiev burned at Moscow. 

1505. Jews expelled from Orange. All slain at Budweis on a 

child-murder accusation. 

1506. Jews settle in Pinsk and secure synagogues and cemetery. 

Massacre of 4,000 Maranos in Lisbon. 

1508. (July 15) Royal decree issued expelling Jews from Portu- 

1510. Burning of Jewish books at Frankfort. Thirty-eight Jews 
burned in Berlin for host-desecration and child-murder 
(Gratz, ix. 94). 

1516. (March) Venice sets apart a special quarter for a ghetto 
(first use of the term). 

1.524. The Jews of Cairo threatened with destruction by Ahmad 
Shaitan, viceroy of Egypt. Jews return to Genoa. 

1529. (May 21) Thirty Jews burned at Posing on blood accusation. 

Solomon Molko (Diogo Pires, 1501-33) begins his Mes- 
sianic agitation. 

1530. (Aug. 13) Joselof Rosheim obtains extension of Alsatian 

privileges from Charles V. 

1531. Clement VII. issues a bull establishing the Portuguese In- 

quisition for Maranos. 

1541. Jews expelled from Naples. 

1542. Jews expelled from Bohemia because of flres in Prague 

and other towns. 

1543. Luther publishes his attack on the Jews. 

1548. (July 10) Eighteen hundred Maranos released from the 

prisons of the Inquisition in Portugal. 
15.50. (April 3) Jews banished from Genoa. 
1.551. Jews expelled from Bavaria and Wurttemberg. 
1.5,54. (June 21) Rabbinical synod at Ferrara. 
15i55. Paul IV. issues the bull " Cum Nimis Absurdum." Jews 

expelled from the Palatinate. 
1556. Twenty-four Jews of Ancona hanged and burned by order 

of Paul IV. 

1567. Don Joseph Nassi appointed ruler of Naxos and eleven 

other islands of the Grecian archipelago. (June 15) 
Jews expelled from Genoese territory. 

1568. Isaac Luria Levi (1.534-72), cabalist, pretends to be the 

Messiah, son of Joseph. 

1569. (Feb. 26) Bull of Pius V., " Hebraeorum Gens," expels 

Jews from Papal States except Rome, Bologna, and An- 

1570. Solomon Ashkenazi sent as an envoy to Venice by Sultan 

Selim II. 
1573. (Jan. 38) 'ihe Jew Lippold executed at Berlin ; all Jews 

expelled from Brandenburg. 
1,576. Stephen Bathori allows the Jews of Poland to carry on 

trade without restrictions. 
1.582. Expulsion from Silesia. 
1586 {circa). The Jews of Poland establish the Council of 

Four Lands ; Mordecai Jafe probably its first president. 
1592. (Aug. 17) Papal edict forbids Jews to admit Christians 

into synagogues, etc. 
1.593. Clement VIII. expels the Jews from all the Papal States 

except Rome and Ancona. The first Marano settlement 

in Holland made at Amsterdam under Jacob Tirado. 
1596. Persecution of the Persian Jews by Shah Abbas the Great. 
1.598. Bet Jacob synagogue consecrated at Amsterdam. 

1613. Portuguese Jews granted right of residence in Hamburg. 

1614. (Sept. 2) Vincent Fettmilch's attack upon the Jews of 


1615. Jews of Worms banished. 




1616. Jews return to Frankfort and Worms. 

1617. (Jan. 3) " Neue Stattigkeit " for Frankfort makes right of 

domicil for Jews perpetual. 
1639. (June 26) Lippman Ueller forced to leave his post as rabbi 

In Prague. 
1632. (April 30) Proselyte Nicolas Antoine burned at Geneva. 

(July 4) Auto da fe at Madrid. 
1639. Dutch West India Company grants Jews of Guiana full 

religious liberty. 
1643. Six hundred Jews of Amsterdam with Isaac Aboab as 

hakam settle at Pernambuco. 
1646. The Jews in Brazil side with the Dutch in their war with 

the Portuguese. 
1648. The beginning of the Cossack persecutions of the Jews in 

Poland under Chmielnicki. 
1652. Two leagues along the coast of rura(;ao granted to David 

Nassi for a Jewish colony. 

1654. (July 8) Twenty-four Jews land at New Amsterdam from 


1655. (Oct.) Menasseh ben Israel goes to London to obtain from 

Cromwell the readmission of Jews into England. 
1657. (Feb. 4) Resettlement Day ; Oliver Cromwell grants Car- 
vajal right of residence for Jews in England. 

1659. (Feb. 26) Jews expelled from all the Papal States except 

Rome and Ancona. 

1660. Jews expelled from Kiev by Alexis. 

1665. Shabbethai Zebi (1026-1676) publicly accepted as the Mes- 
siah at Smyrna. 

1667. (Feb. 14) Jews run races at the Roman carnival for the 
last time. 

1670. Jews banished from Vienna and Lower Austria by Emperor 

Leopold I. Synod of Lithuanian rabbis and deputies set- 
tle spheres of jurisdiction in relation to central kahals. 

1671. Frederick William, the Great Elector, grants a privilege 

for twenty years to fifty families driven from Austria. 
1678. Appearance of the pseudo-Messiah Mordecai Mashiah of 

1680. (June 30) Auto da fe at Madrid. 
1682. (May 10) Auto da f^ at Lisbon. 

1686. Jews the victims of the Imperialist soldiery at the recap- 
ture of Buda from Turks. 
1690. Ninety Jews from Curacjao settle at Newport, R. I. 
1695. Jews forbidden to enter Sweden by Charles IX. 
1700. The house of Oppenheimer in Vienna attacked by a mob. 

Eisenmenger attempts to publish his "Entdecktes Ju- 

1703. Jonas Aaron settles in Philadelphia. 
1710. The " Judenordnung " of Hamburg determines the social 

condition of the Jews of that city. 
1716. (July 24-25) Serious uprising against the Jews at storming 

of Posen. 
1727. (April 26) Jews expelled from Russia and the Ukraine by 

Catharine. (Nov. 15) Act passed by General Assembly 

of New York permitting Jews to omit "on the faith of a 

Christian " from oath of abjuration. 
1733. (Sept. 2) " Edittosopra gli Ebrei " of Clement III. renews 

all restrictions against Jews of Rome. 
1733. (July) Forty Jews from Lisbon arrive at Savannah, Ga. 
1738. (Feb. 4) Joseph Siiss Oppenheimer executed at Vienna. 
1740. (Feb. 3) Charles the Bourbon, King of Naples and of the 

two Sicilies, invites the Jews back for fifty years. (July 

11) Jews expelled from Little Russia by Czarina Anne. 

Act passed by English Parliament naturalizing Jews 

settled in the American colonies. 
1742. (Dec. 2) Jews expelled from Great Russia by Czarina 

1744. (Dec. 18) Expulsion of Jews from Bohemia and Moravia. 

1747. Bull of Benedict XIV. decides that a Jewish child baptized, 

even against cammical law, must be brought up under 
Christian influences. 

1748. Jews permitted to remain in Bohemia on payment of a 

" Judensteuer " of 216,000 florins. 
1750. (April 17) Frederick the Great issues a "Generalprivi- 
legium " for the Prussian Jews. 

1753. Act passed by English Parliament permitting Jews to be 

naturalized. "No Jews, no wooden shoes" riots in 

1754. Act granting naturalization to English Jews repealed. 

1756. Blood accusation in Jampol, Poland. 

1757. Jacob Frank becomes leader of the Shabbethaians. Bishop 

of Kamenitz-Podolsk orders Talmuds to be burned. 
1761. Persecution of Jews in Yemen. 
1767. (June 20) Cossacks slay thousands of Jews at Homel. 
1773. Jews settle in Stockholm, Karlskrona, and Gothenburg, 

by favor of Gustavus III. 










(Oct. 17) Senatorial decree of Russia grants freedom of 
settlement and other rights to baptized Jews. 

Joseph II. of Austria abolishes the Jewish poll-tax, and 
grants civil liberties to the Jews. 

Joseph II. issues his Toleration Edict. 

Frederick William II. removes the "LeibzoH" in Prussia. 

The French National Assembly grants citizenship to the 
Sephardic Jews of Bordeaux. New constitution for 
Jews of Silesia ; a few receive general privileges, etc. 

The French National Assembly grants full civil rights to 
the Jews. 

Jews of Holland declared by the National Assembly to be 
full citizens of the Batavian Republic. 

(Aug. 1) Two Jews, Bromet and De Lemon, elected mem- 
bers of the second National Assembly of Holland. 

" Leibzoll " removed in Nassau. 

Israel Jacobson and Wolff Breidenbach agitate the aboli- 
tion of the poll-tax for Jews in Germany. 

(Dec. 9) "Enactment concerning the Jews "passed by 
Alexander I. of Russia. 

The Great Sanhedrin convened by Napoleon ; Joseph David 
Sinzheim president. 

(Jan. 27) Jerome Napoleon issues decree giving full civic 
rights to Jews of Westphalia. (Dec. 11) Napoleon at 
Madrid issues decree dividing the French empire into 
Jewish consistories. 

Law of Baden forms Jews into special religious commu- 
nity with all privileges. 

The Jews of Hamburg emancipated. 

The Jews of Prussia emancipated. 

(Feb. 18) The Jews of Mecklenburg emancipated. 

(June 8) " Bundesakte " passed at the Congress of Vienna 
decrees maintenance of status quo in the political condi- 
tion of the Jews. 

First Reform Temple in Hamburg opened. 

(Aug.) The beginning of the "Hep, hep!" persecutions. 
Formation of the Society for the Culture and Science of 
the Jews, by Zunz, Gans, and Moser. 

Jews admitted again at Lisbon. 

Jews expelled from St. Petersburg through influence of 

Jews obtain full civic rights in the state of Maryland, 
U. S. A. Decree Issued in Russia enrolling Jews for 
military service. 

Louis Philippe orders salaries of rabbis to be paid by the 

(Oct. 29) Jews of Kur-Hessen granted full emancipation. 

(April 13) General Jewish regulations issued in Russia. 
Edict of Nicholas I. founding agricultural colonies in 


I>aw refusing Jews the right to bear Christian names re- 
newed in Prussia. 

Sultan 'Abd al-Majid grants citizenship to Turkish Jews. 

(Feb. 5) Damascus blood accusation. (Nov. 6) Firman is- 
sued by sultan against blood accusation. 

(May 2'>) Louis Philippe issues regulations for the internal 
organization of French Jews. (June) Rabbinical con- 
ference at Brunswick. 

(April) Ukiise issued ordering Russian and Polish Jews to 
adopt ordinary costume. 

Emancipation Year: most of the countries of central 
Europe grant full civic and political rights to Jews— in 
the majority of cases, repealed the next year. (May 19- 
20) Riots in Presburg. 

(July 3) Baron Lionel de Rothschild, previously returned 
as M.P. for city of London, not allowed to take seat. 

(Sept. 3) Violent anti-Jewish riots at Stockholm. 

(Feb. 18) " Hatti-Humayun " issued, granting full civic 
rights to Turkish Jews. 

(June 24) Edgar Mortara in Ancona forcibly taken from 
his family by I'.ishop of Bologna on plea that he had 
been baptized when an infant by a Roman Catholic 
servant. The oath "on the true faith of a Christian " 
abolished in England ; Jewish disabilities removed. 

Alliance Israelite Uhiverselle founded. 

(July) Emancipation of Swiss Jews. 

Rumanian constitution makes Rumanian Jews " aliens." 

(Dec.) Emancipation of Hungarian Jews. 

Jews permitted to return to Spain. The law of the North 
German Federation of July 3 decrees that no state shall 
retain restrictions on the ground of religious belief. 

(March) Thirteen hundred and sixty Jews expelled from 
districts of Falciu and Vaslui, Rumania. 

Anglo-Jewish Association founded. 

Union of American Hebrew Congregations established. 




1876. (July 28) E. Lasker procures the passing of the " Austritt- 
gesetz," permitting Jews to change their congregation. 

187". Rabbinical Seminary, Budapest, inaugurated. 

1878. (July 13) The Berlin Congress inserts clause 4-t, that dis- 
tinction of religion shall not be a bar to civil and polit- 
ical rights in Rumania. 

1880. (Nov. 20-23) Debate in Prussian Diet on Kantorowicz in- 


1881. Atrocities against Jews in South Russia. (April 25) Anti- 

Semitic league in Germany presents petition with 255,000 
signatures to Bismarck. (April 27) Riot at Argenau. 

1882. (April 7) Disappearance of Esther Solymosi causes a trial 

on blood accusation at Tlsza-Eszlar. (May 3) "May 
Laws " issued by General Ignatief confining the Jews 
in the Pale of Settlement to the towns. 

1884. (March 7) Rumanian law prohibiting hawking puts 5,000 

Jewish families out of employment. (July 9) Lord 
Rothschild takes his seat as first Jewish peer in the 
British House of Lords. 

1885. Pittsburg Conference of American Rabbis establishes a 

platform for Reform Judaism. 

1886. Drumont publishes " La France Juive." 

1887. (Feb. 28) Rumanian law excluding Jews from public 

service and from tobacco trade and from employment 
in retail trade. 

1889. (May 12) Rumanian law limiting number of Jewish fac- 

tory hands to one-third. 

1890. (Dec. 10) Guildhall meeting against persecution of Russian 

Jews by May Laws. 

1891. (June 29) Blood accusation at Xanten. 

1892. Jewish Colonization Association founded by Baron de 


1893. (Jan. 14) Rumanian law prohibiting Jews from being em- 

ployed in public medical department. 
1895. Capt. Alfred Dreyfus condemned and degraded as a spy 
and deported to Devil's Isle, Cayenne. 

1897. (Aug. 29-31) First Zionist Congress at Basel. 

1898. (Oct.) Eleven thousand two hundred Jewish children re- 

fused admission to public schools in Rumania. 

1899. (March 31) Rumanian law excluding Jews from agricul- 

tural and professional schools. (Sept. 2) Dreyfus con- 
demned a second time, but " pardoned " on Sept. 19. 

1900. (Aug. 13-16) Fourth Zionist Congress at London. (Sept. 

8) Israelsky, accused of ritual murder at Konitz, ac- 

1901. (Dec.) Rumanian law prohibiting Jews from holding sa- 

loons or stores in rural districts. 

1902. (March) Rumanian law prohibiting employment of Jew- 

ish working men. 

Bibliography : I. Loeb, Jof>ef Haccohen et les Chroni- 
queurs Juifs, pp. 79, 86; S. Cassel, Jiidcn, in Ersch and 
Gruber, Encyc. section ii., part 27, pp. 32-33 ; Stern, Jildische 
Zeitrechrmna, ib.; S. Poznanski, in MniiatsKclirift, xliv. 
508; H. EUenberger, Die Li-hUni uml Viiftilgimgen der 
Juden. Budapest, 1882; E. H. Lindo, ^1 JcwMi Calendar, 
pp. iaT-134, London, 1838; H. Schlesinger, Chronologisches 
Handlmch ziir Gcsr/i. der Juden, Berlin, 1872; Kohler, 
Chronoloijii, \n American Jeuv' Annual, 1884-85. 
G. ■ J. 

known us St. Chrysostom) : Patriurch of Constan- 
tinople, one of the most celebrated of the Church 
Fathers, and the most eminent orator of the early 
Christian i)eriod; l)orn in 347 at Antioch; died Sept. 
14,407, near Comuna, inPontus. Chrysostcmi orig- 
inally devoted himself to the law, but soon felt 
dissatisfied with this vocation, ami at the age of 
twenty-three was made a deacon. About fifteen years 
later (386) he advanced to the rank of pi'esbyter, and 
in 308 was api)ointed by the emperor Bishop of Con- 
stantinople. Havingattackedthe empress Eudoxia 
in his sermons, he was banished (408), but was re- 
called soon after, upon the unanimous demand of 
his congregation. He repeated his attacks upon the 
empress, and was again banished in 404, fiist to 
Nica'a, then to Cucusus in the desert of tlie Taurus, 
and finally to Pityos on the Black Sea; but he died 
while on the way to the last-named place. 

The name "Chrysostomus" ("golden -mouthed" ; 

Xi'vaix; = " gold," and oTofta =z " moutii ") is a title of 
honor conferred on this Church father only. It was 
first used by Isidore of Seville (636), and is significant 
of the importance of the man, whose sermons, of 
which one thousand have been preserved, are among 
the very best products of Christian rhetoric. As a 
teacher of dogmatics and exegesis Chrysostom is not 
of so much importance, although nmch space in his 
works is devoted to these two branches. Among 
his sermons, the " Orationes VIII. Ad versus Judaios " 
(ed. Migne, i. 843-944) deserve special notice, inas- 
much as they mark a turning-point in anti-Jewish 
polemics. While up to that time the Church as- 
pired merely to attack the dogmas of Judaism, and 
did that in a manner intended only for the learned, 
with Chrysostom there began the endeavor, which 
eventually brought so much suffering upon the 
Jews, to prejudice the whole of Christendom against 
the latter, and to erect hitherto unknown barriers 
between Jews and Christians. 

It was the existing friendly intercourse between 
Jews and Christians which impelled Chrysostom to 
his furious attacks upon the former. 
Attack on Religious motives were not lacking, for 
Jews. many Christians were in the habit of 
celebrating the Feast of the Blowing 
of the Shofar, or New-Year, the Day of Atonement, 
and the Feast of Tabernacles ("Adversus Judseos," 
i. ; ed. Migne, i. 848). " AVhat forgiveness can we 
expect," he exclaimed, "when we run to their sjn- 
agogues, merely following an impulse or a habit, and 
call their physicians and conjurers to our houses? " 
(ib. viii.). In another place Chrysostom says: "I 
invoke heaven and earth as witnesses against you 
if any one of you should go to attend the Feast 
of the Blowing of the Trumpets, or participate 
in the fasts, or the observance of the Sabbath, or 
observe an important or unimportant rite of the 
Jews, and I will be innocent of your blood " {ib. i. 8; 
ed. Migne, i. 855). Not only had Chrysostom to com- 
bat the pro-Jewish inclinations of the Antiochians 
in religious matters, but the Jews were held in so 
much respect at that time, that Christians preferred 
to bring their lawsuits before Jewish judges, because 
the form of the Jewish oath seemed to them more 
impressive and binding than their own (ib. i. 3; ed. 
Migne, i. 847). 

Chrysostom further argues at length in his writings 
that Judaism has been overcome and displaced by 
Christianity. He attempts to prove this by showing 
that the Jewish religion can not ex- 
Arguments ist without a temple and sacrifice and 

Ag-ainst a religious center in Jerusalem, and 

Judaism, that none of the later religious institu- 
tions can fill the place of the ancient 
ones. Chrysostom derides the Patriarchs, who, he 
declares, were no priests, but gave themselves the 
appearance of such, and merely played their parts 
like actors. He adds: "The holy Ark, which the 
Jews now have in their synagogues, aiipears to be 
no better than any wooden box offered for sale in 
the market " {ib. vi. 7 ; ed. Migne, i. 614). 

But he is not satisfied with the derision of all 
things sacred to the Jews. He tries to convince his 
hearers that it is the duty of all Christians to hate 
the Jews {ib. vi. 7; ed. Migne, i. 854), and declares 

Church Councils 



it a sin for Cliristiaus to treat them with respect. 
In spite of his hatred of the Jews and Judaism, 
Chrysostom — as, indeed, the whole Antiochian 
school in their Bible exegesis— shows a dependence 
\ipon the Haggadah, which at the time predominated 
among the Palestinian Jews. A few parallels with 
the Haggadists have been given by Weiss, but they 
could be easily increased ; and even in instances not 
directly taken from the Haggadah, its influence can 
be noticed in the writings of Chrysostom. 

Bibliography : The best edition of Chrysostom's works is by 
Montfaucon, 13 vols., in Patrnhmicc Curms Completus, ed. 
MiKne, Greek series, Paris, 1718-38; Bohringer, Die Kirche 
ChriMi und Ihre Zeugen, ix.; Bush, Life and Times of 
Chrysostomus, 1875; Lutz, ChmsostomusunddieBerWimtes- 
ten Redner, 1859; Cassel, in Ersch and Gruber, Encuc. 
xxvii.; Gratz, Geseh. der Juden, iv. 356-357 ; Perles, C/irj/.s- 
nstnmus and the Jews, in Ben Chananja, iil. 569-571 ; 
Weiss, Dor, iii. 128-129. 

K. L. G. 

CHUDNOV : Town in the government of Vol- 
hynia, Russia. A Jewish community existed here 
before the uprising of the Cossacks in 1648. In 1898 
the town had nearly 8,000 inhabitants. Among 
them there were about 3,500 Jews, Avho were princi- 
pally engaged in handicrafts and commercial pur- 
suits. The former employed 1,252 Jews, of whom 475 
owned their shops, 498 were wage-workers, and 279 
were apprentices. The principal trades followed by 
the Jews are tailoring and shoemaking, the former, 
in 1898, employing 475 men, and the latter 350. The 
journeymen numbered 55. 

The educational institutions include a Talmud 
Torah with 30 pupils, a private school for male 
pupils, one for female pupils, and 30 hadarim with 
an attendance of about 300. 

Bibliography : B. Katz, Le-Korot ha-Yehudim, Berlin, 1899, 
pp. 39, 41. 
n. R. S. J. 

CHUETAS (" Pork-Eaters") or INDIVIDUOS 

DELACALLE (•' Ghetto People ") : Names given 
to the descendants of the secret Jews in Majorca, 
who at heart were still faithful to Judaism, hut who, 
in order to induce the belief that they were good 
Christians, publicly ate pork ("chuya," diminutive 
"chueta"); the second term, "Ghetto People," is 
self-explanatory. Their fate was similar to that of the 
Cagots of the Pyrenees, who are still held in abhor- 
rence by the natives of that region. People were 
afraid to approach them ; at church they sat apart ; 
and even in the cemetery their bodies were isolated. 
When the tribunal of the Inquisition was established 
in Majorca in 1488, it granted a general amnesty to 
all Jews that solicited pardon for their apostasy, and 
it received back the repentant ones, to the num- 
ber of 680, on payment of a considerable fine. Be- 
ginning with 1509, however, several secret Jews 
were publicly burned before the Gate of Jesus at 
Palma; and in 1679, when a synagogue was discov- 
ered in an outlying house, several hundred of them 
were condemned by the tribunal to imprisonment 
for life, and their property was confiscated. 

To escape these continuous persecutions and ex- 
tortions, a number of Chuetas, reputed to be the 
wealthiest inhabitants of Palma, decided to leave 
the " Golden Island " in an English vessel which they 
had hired for the purpose; and they had set sail, 
when unfavorable winds compelled them to return to 

the harbor of Palma. After having been imprisoned 
for five years, these unfortunates were, in 1691, con- 
demned by the Inquisition to the confiscation of 
their property, and more than fifty of them were 
garroted and then burned at the stake. Among the 
latter were Raphael Vails, "an excellent rabbi"; 
Raphael Benito Terongi, his most faithful pupil; 
and Catalina Terongi, a sister of the latter. These 
hero-martyrs were commemorated by Majorcan 
troubadours, whose verses ai'e still sung by the 
women of the island while at their work. The In- 
quisition did its utmost to fan the prejudice of the 
people against the outlawed. Their portraits were 
placed in the Dominican monastery ; and in 1755 a 
list was published in which were mentioned the 
names and rank of all those condemned to death or 
to confiscatiou of property from 1645 to 1691. 

Not until the publication of the royal decree, Dec. 
16, 1782, was an amelioration effected in the condi- 
tion of these people, who were thenceforward per- 
mitted to reside in any street in the city of Palma 
and in any part of the island, and were no longer to 
be called Jews, Hebrews, or Chuetas, under penalty 
of the galleys or imprisonment in the fortress. 
Three years later they were declared eligible to the 
army and the navy as well as to public offices. Not- 
withstanding, as late as 1857 there appeared a spe- 
cial book directed against them. It bore the title 
" La Sinagoga Balear. Historia de los Judios de ]\Ial- 
lorca," and the purpose of the author, Juan de la 
Puerta Vizcains, was, by means of it, to levy black- 
mail upon tliem. They, however, bought up all 
but three copies of the woik. The descendants of 
the Chuetas, who bear to-day the same names that 
their ancestors bore in the fourteenth century, now 
occupy a respected position in industry and agri- 
culture, as well as in the departments of science 
and politics. 

Bibliography: Kayserling, Gesch. der Juden in Spanien 
und Portugal, i. 178 et neq. ; M. Levin, Bin Besuch bei 
den " Leuteii der Gasse " in Palma, in BriiU's Jahrb. i. 132 
et seq. ; Rev. Et. Juives, Ixlv. 297 et seq. 
D. M. K. 

CHUFUT-KALE: Suburb of Bakhchiserai, a 
town in the government of Taurida, Russia. It is 
called by the Tatars " Kirk-er " (Place of Forty), and 
by the Karaites, to which sect the greater part of 
its inhabitants belong, "Sela' ha-Yehudim" (The 
Rock of the Jews). There are man.y legends con- 
cerning the place. According to one, it was called 
"Kirk-er" because the khans Mengli-Girei and 
Takhtamish, the founders of the city, brought with 
them forty Karaite families, and in their honor called 
it the "Place of Forty." 

Another legend, fostered by the Karaites to show 
the antiquity of their sect, says that Karaites were 
brought there from Persia at the time of the first 
Exile. The early settlers of the city exercised great 
influence upon their neighbors, the Chazars. The 
hakam Abraham Firkowitsch, who was very skilful 
in falsifying epitaphs and manuscripts, pretended 
to have unearthed at the cemetery of Chufut-Kale 
tombstones dating from the year 6 of the common 
era, and to have discovered the tomb of Sangari, 
which is still shown by the Karaites. According 
to Harkavy, however, no epitaph earlier than 1203 



Church Councils 

can be seen at the cemetery of Ciiufut-Kale, called 
" Vale of Jehoshapbat" ; and the tombs do not be- 
long to Karaites, but to the old Rabbinite settlers 
called " Krimchaki. " Cliuf ut-Kale, however, existed 
as early as the seventh century. Abu al-Fida men- 
tions it under the name "Kirk-er." 

The Karaite community possesses two syna- 
gogues; it has abet din consisting of three members, 
the hakam, the hazzan, and the beadle (shammash). 
A printing-office for Karaite works was established 
there in 1734. The first work published was the 
Karaite ritual, according to Aaron ben Joseph, the 
author of "Sefer ha-Mibhar." For history of sub- 
urb see Crimea ; Karaites. 

Bibliography : Semenov, i. 742 ; Regeaty, pp. 1023 ct seq.; 
Chwolson, Trudii Pyatavo, Archeologicheskavo Syezda v 
Tiflisye, pp. 95-iCO ; Beim, Pamyat o Chuf ut-Kale ; Beilin- 
son, Zebl la-Zaddik, refuting the legends related in the pre- 
ceding work": see" also Harkavy's letter, in Nedyelnagaya 
Khronika Voskhoda, 1895, No. 15. 

H. R. I. Br. 


of Curasao, Dutch West Indies; born at Amster- 
dam Jan. 28, 1810 ; died there Sept. 18, 1882. He 
received the various rabbinical degrees (that of 
" morenu " in 1846) at the celebrated bet ha-midrash 
Ets Haim. In 1848 he was awarded the royal gold 
medal for the best 
sermon in the Dutch 
language. When the 
Sephardic synagogue 
of Amsterdam pro- 
posed to elect him 
preacher in the ver- 
nacular, it met with 
strenuous opposition, 
Ladlno being the only 
language, except He- 
brew, used In the 
synagogue. When in 
1852 Chumaceiro was 
elected first ab bet din, 
he succeeded in over- 
coming the opposition 
to Dutch, and soon es- 
Aiuiin Mendes Chumaceiro. tablislicd a reputation 

as one of the foremost 
pulpit orators in Holland. In 1852 he edited the 
first Dutch Jewish weekly, " Het Israelietisch Week- 
blad." In the same year he was elected head of 
the bet lia-midrash Ets Haim. 

Delegated by the parnasim of his congregation 
in 1854 to receive the future King Pedro V. of Por- 
tugal, he conducted the royal visitor and his suite to 
the bet hainidrash, where the king, noticing the 
names of the donors to that institution inscribed on 
tlie walls, made the significant remark: "Me faz 
paref;er que estoy em mea propia terra do Portugal " 
(It seems as though I were in my own laud of Por- 
tugal). When Pedro V. ascended the throne in 
1856, he removed the civil disabilities of the Jews. 

On account of his liberal-conservative views 
Clnimaceiro was strongly opposed by the ultra- 
Orthodox party, and he therefore accepted in 1855 
from King William III. the appointment of chief 
rabbi of the colony of Curasao. At the solicita- 
tion of the special ambassador, O. van Rees, who 

was sent by the king to adjust the claims of the 
persecuted Dutch Jews of Coro, Venezuela, he suc- 
ceeded in settling the complicated disputes to the 
entire satisfaction of the contending parlies. 

Chumaceiro visited his birthplace in 1861, when 
the office of hakam was tendered to him, whicii he 
declined, receiving on that occasion a costly testi- 
monial from the Sephardic synagogue. He obtained 
his discharge as hakam of Cura9ao in 1869, and 
received a liberal pension from the king for "the 
numerous and faithful services rendered to his 

Chumaceiro had four sons : 

1 . Abraham Mendes Chumaceiro : Attorney 
at law ; born at Amsterdam Nov. 16, 1841 ; died at 
Curasao, Dutch West Indies, Aug. 19, 1902. He 
moved to Cura9ao, in 1856, studied law, and was 
admitted to the bar in 1872. He soon acquired 
great prominence in his profession. Among his 
literary works are " Is Curasao te Koop? " and " Het 
Kiesrecht in de Kolonie Curapao." 

2. Benjamin Mendes Chumaceiro: Hazzan; 
born in Amsterdam in 1871. He received a minis- 
terial training at the bet ha-midrash Ets Haim of 
Amsterdam. In 1892 he was elected assistant hazzan 
of the Portuguese synagogue at The Hague ; and in 
1895 hazzan of that of Hamburg. 

3. Jacob Mendes Chumaceiro : Dayyan and 
editor; born at Amsterdam March 11, "1838; died 
Feb. 8, 1900. Besides being dayyan of the Sephar- 
dic synagogue, and acting hakam for the Portu- 
guese Jews of North and South Holland, he was 
inspector of the Jewish schools of Amsterdam, head 
and librarian of the bet ha-midrash Ets Haim, and 
editor of " Het Israelietisch Wcekblad. " 

4. Joseph Hayyim Mendes Chumaceiro : 
Rabbi and editor ; born in Amsterdam July 3, 1844 ; 
studied for the ministry under his father at Cura- 
sao. From 1867 to 1874 he was rabbi of Beth-El 
congregation, Charleston, S. C. ; from 1874 to 1880, 
of Nefashot Yehudali, New Orleans, La. ; from 1884 
to 1887, of Beth-El Emeth, Philadclpliia, Pa. ; from 
1889 to 1891, of Mikwe Yisrael, Curagao; from 1892 
to 1898, of Children of Israel, Augusta, Ga. ; and 
was recalled as rabbi to Curagao in 1898. During 
part (1879-83) of his residence at New Orleans he 
was also editor of "The Jewish South," a weekly 

Besides many sermons and discourses, he pub- 
lished "The Evidences of Free-Masonry from An- 
cient Hebrev/ Records," 1900, which reached a third 
edition; "La Revelacion," the first Jewish catechism 
in Spanish; and "Verdediging is geen Aanval," a 
correspondence between a Christian divine and a 
Jewish rabbi on Jesus as the Messiah. 
Bibliography : Afscheidspredikatie, Voorwoord door David 
Henriquez de Castro, 1866; J. Voorsanger, in American Is- 
raelite, Oct., 1882. 
A. J. H. M. C. 

CHURCH CO"UNCILS : Synods of' the Roman 
Catholic Church, possessing legislative power in 
matters pertaining to doctrine and discipline. The 
Apostles' synod at Jerusalem (Acts xv.) is regarded 
as the oldest example of such an assembly. Besides 
the general (ecumenical) councils, of which the 
Catholic Church recognizes twenty, there are na- 

Church Councils 



tional and provincial councils and diocesan synods. 
The decisions of these lesser synods were naturally 
authoritative only within their own particular dis- 
tricts; but as they were sometimes recognized by 
other provincial synods, or even by a general coun- 
cil, they acquired a more or less general validity. 
Many of the Cliurch councils have concerned them- 
selves with the Jews, with tlie object of removing 
Judaizing institutions and teachings from among 
Christians, destroying any influence which Jews 
miglit exercise upon Christians, preventing, on the 
one hand, the return to Judaism of baptized Jews, 
and devising, on the other, means to convert Jews 
to Christianity. It is characteristic of the de- 
cisions of these councils in respect to the Jews that 
up to the end of the Middle Ages they became ever 
harsher and more liostile, a few fsolated instances 
only of benevolent resolutions standing on record. 
Many of the Church decrees, however, were en- 
forced only after they had been several times con- 
firmed ; while some of them were never enforced at all. 
The Jews are mentioned for the first time in the 
resolutions of the synod at Elvira, at the beginning 
of the fourth century, immediately 
Spanish after the persecutions under Diode- 
Synods, tian. The synod opposed the custom 
existing among Christians of having 
the fruits of their fields blessed by Jews, and for- 
bade all familiar intercourse, especially eating, with 
Jews (canons 49, 50). The spirit of intolerance, 
arising almost before the persecution of the Chris- 
tians themselves liad ended, remained characteristic 
of the Spanish Church. When the Arian creed was 
exchanged for the Catholic by the third Toledo 
Synod lield under Reccared in 582, resolutions hos- 
tile to the Jews were passed. The synod forbade in- 
termarriage with Jews, and claimed the children of 
mixed marriages for Christianity. It disqualified 
Jews from holding any public office in which they 
would have power to punish Christians, and forbade 
them to keep slaves for their own use (canon 14). 
Still more severe are the decrees of the fourth Synod 
of Toledo, in 63B (canons 57-66), directed more espe- 
cially against the pretended Christianity of those 
converted by force under Sisebut. Though it was 
decreed that in the future no Jew should be bap- 
tized by force, who were once baptized were 
obliged to remain Christians. Whoever protected 
the Jews was threatened with excommunication. 
The sixth Synod of Toledo, in 638, confirmed King 
Chintila's decree providing for the expulsion of the 
Jews, and demanded that every future king on his 
accession should take an oath to observe faithfully 
the laws concerning the Jews. The twelfth Synod 
of Toledo, in 681, went furthest, and adopted in its 
resolutions (canon 90) King Erwig's laws in reference 
to Jews ("Leges Visigothorum," xii. 3): celebration 
of the Sabbath and of feast-days, observance of 
dietary laws, work on Sunday, defense of their re- 
ligion, and even emigration were forbidden. One 
generation later Spain was under Moorish dominion. 
More comprehensive were the measures adopted 
by the councils outside of Spain. Before 450 they 
confined themselves to the prohibition of familiar 
intercourse with Jews; of the celebration of their 
feast-days, especially the Passover ; of resting from 

labor on their Sabbath; of entrance into their syna- 
gogues, etc. The General Council of Chalcedon 
(451) went a step further, though only as a result of 
previous resolutions, in forbidding intermarriage — 
at first only in the case of the children 
Other of lectors or precentors (canon 14). 
Synods. The .synods of Orleans (in 533 and 538) 
and the above-mentioned Spanish syn- 
ods forbade marriages between Jews and Chris- 
tians altogether, and this legislation was repeated 
by the Synod of Rome in 743. As the Jews them- 
selves were opposed to such marriage, there was no 
difficulty in the enforcement of these decrees. Only 
in countries where Christianity had not yet gained 
entire mastery was there a repetition of these mar- 
riage prohibitions, as in Hungary (1092) and in 
Spain (1239). The Quinisext Synod of Constanti- 
nople, in 692, and a number of later synods forbade 
Christians to receive treatment from Jewish physi- 
cians. In spite of this interdiction (repeated sev- 
eral times, at Avignon as late as 1594), even popes 
often employed Jews as court physicians. 

After the Synod of Orleans, in 538, the councils 
turned their attention to the Christian slaves in the 
service of Jews, at first merely prescribing the pro- 
tection of the slaves' persons and religious belief, 
but later prohibiting absolutely the possession of 
Christian slaves. Together with this decree, which 
only repeated a law in the Theodosian Code, came 
laws forbidding Jews to have free Christians in their 
employ. By a general decree of the third Lateran 
Council of 1179 (canon 26), Christians were strictly 
forbidden to act as servants to Jews, with so little 
elfect, however, that nearly all later Church councils 
had to renew the interdict ; for instance, the Synod of 
Milan in 1565 (canon 14). Jews of all lands were in 
great fear of the third Lateran Council (" Shebet Ye- 
hudah," ed. Wiener, p. 112). Their fears, however, 
proved groundless ; for, aside from the decree in re- 
spect to the employment of Christian 
Third Lat- servants, especially of nurses and mid- 
eran Coun- wives — a decree due to the fear of the 
oil, 1179. common people's apostasy to Judaism 
—the following are the important de- 
cisions of the council: (1) Christians must not live 
together with Jews (a repetition of an old decree); 
(2) new synagogues must not be built ; old ones may 
be repaired only when dilapidated, but on no ac- 
count may they be beautified ; (3) the testimony of 
Christians against Jews must be admitted, since 
Jews are accepted as witnesses against Christians ; 
(4) neophytes must be protected against the fanati- 
cism of the Jews, and Jews are forbidden to disin- 
herit baptized persons (compare "Codex Theodo- 
sian.," xvi. 8, 28). A characteristic clause states 
that Jews may be protected only for reasons of 
common humanity. 

The fourth Lateran Council, in 1215, was of crucial 
importance. Its resolutions inaugurated a new era 
of ecclesiastical legislation in regard to the Jews, and 
reduced them virtually to the grade of pariahs. In 
the south of France an assembly of Jewish notables, 
which was held at the demand of Isaac Benveniste, 
sent a delegation to Rome to try to avert the impend- 
ing evil. The last four resolutions or canons which 
the council adopted were concerned with the Jews. 



Church Councils 

Cauou 67 adopts measures agaiust usury b}- the Jews. 
A synod at Avignon had anticipated the Lateran 
Council in this respect, and it was imitated by other 
councils of the thirteenth century. At the same time 
very strict regulations were made against Lombard 
usurers, who, according to Matthew of Paris, were 
much worse than the Jews. For houses and landed 
property Jews were obliged to give a 
Fourth tithe to the Church, and besides each 
Lateran Jewish family had to pay at Easter a 
Council, tax of six denarii. Canon 68 ordains a 
1215. special dress for Jews and Saracens, 
ostensibly "to prevent sexual inter- 
course, which has occasionally occurred by mistake, " 
but in reality to make a sharp distinction between 
Jews and Christians. The Jewish badge and hat 
exposed the Jews to scorn and ridicule, and their 
complete abasement dates from this time. Later 
councils, even up to comparatively modern times, 
have renewed these regulations, fixing the form and 
color of the Jewish badge in various countries, or 
forbidding the Jews to wear certain costumes (see 
Badge ; Head, Covering of). 

Because many Jews were said to parade in their 
best clothes during Holy Week (in which the Feast of 
the Passover usually falls) on purpose to mock the 
Christians, the Jews were not thenceforth allowed 
to leave their houses at all during those days. This 
Draconian decree, however, supported by similar 
decrees of French and Spanish synods of the sixth 
century, was not without its advantages for the Jews, 
as many subsequent synods (for instance, at Nar- 
bonne, 1227; Beziers, 1246) were obliged expressly to 
protect the Jews against ill treatment during Holy 
Week. Other synods of the thirteenth century 
forbade Jews to eat meat on Christian fast-days 
(Avignon, 1209), or to carry it across the street 
(Vienna, 1267). The synods of Narbonne (1227), 
Beziers (1246), Albi (1255), and Anse (1300) forbade 
altogether tlie sale of meat by Jews. Canon 69, 
which declares Jews disqualified from holding public 
offices, only incorporated in ecclesiastical law a de- 
cree of the Holy Christian Empire. As has been 
mentioned, the synods of Toledo, and the French 
councils also, had debarred Jews from the office of 
judge, andfromany office in which they would pos- 
sess the right to punish Christians. The fourth 
Lateran Council simply extended this statute over 
the wliole Roman Catholic world, referring to the 
synods of Toledo in support of its decision. Canon 
70 takes measures to prevent converted Jews from 
returning to their former belief. 

The concluding act of the fourth Lateran Coun- 
cil—the Crusades decree— compelled Jewish cred- 
itors to renounce all claim to interest on debts, and 
facilitated in other ways the movements of the Cru- 
saders. Similar ordinances were adopted by the 
first Council of Lyons (1245). The decisions of the 
Synod of Vienna, in 1267, were practically the same 
as those of the fourth Lateran Coun- 
Vienna cil, but were more severe in some 
Synod of points. For example, Jews were for- 
1267. bidden to frequent Christian inns or 
baths; they were ordered to stay at 
home with closed doors and windows when the host 
■was carried past, etc. Nevertheless, these decrees 

did not succeed in making entirely unbearable tlie 
position of the Jews in Austria (see Bilrwald, in 
" Jalirbuch fur Israeliten," 1859). The same may be 
said of the decrees of the Hungarian Council at 
Ofen, in 1279 (Gratz, "Geschichte," vii. 139 et serj.). 

The later coiuicils went a step further in restrict- 
ing and humiliating the Jews by limiting their free- 
dom in the choice of dwelling-places. The Synod of 
Bourges, 1276, ordained that Jews should live only 
in cities or large towns, in order that the simi)le 
coimtry folk might not be led astray. Similarly the 
Synod of Ravenna, 1311, ordained that Jews should 
be allowed to live only in cities that had syna- 
gogues. The Synod of Bologna, 1317, forbade rent- 
ing or selling houses to Jews, and the Synod of 
Salamanca, 1335, forbade Jews to live near a church- 
j'ard or in houses belonging to the Church. Fi- 
nally, the Spanish Council of Paleucia, 1388, under 
the presidency of Pedro de Luna, demanded sepa- 
rate quarters for Jews and Saracens, a demand after- 
ward renewed by many Church councils. 

The compulsory conversion of Jews was often 
forbidden by the councils (for instance, Toledo, 
633 ; Prague, 1349). Toward the end of the Middle 
Ages the General Council of Basel, in 
Council of its nineteenth sitting (1434), adopted a 
Basel. new method of moral suasion by com- 
pelling the Jews to listen periodically 
to sermons for their conversion, a decision renewed, 
for instance, by the Synod of Milan in 1565. 

A last attack on the scanty freedom of the Jews 
was brought about directly by the art of printing. 
The committee on index of the General Council of 
Trent (1563) decided to refer to the pope the ques- 
tion of placing the Talmud on the list of forbidden 
books; and although the Italian Jews succeeded 
with bribes in preventing the absolute prohibition 
of the work, it was permitted to be printed only on 
condition that the title " Talmud " and all passages 
supposed to be hostile to Christianity be omitted 
(Mortara, in"Hebr. Bibl." 1862, pp. 74, 96; see Cen- 
soKSHiP OP Hebrew Books). 

The General Vatican Council of 1869-70 did not 
concern itself at all about the Jews 

Vatican beyond inviting them, on the sugges- 

Council, tion of the convert Leman, to attend 

1869-70. the council (Friedberg, "Sammlung 
der Aktenstucke zum Ersten Vati- 
kanischen Concil." pp. 65 et seq.). 

Regarding a supposed synod in Rome in 314-324, 
directed agaiust the Jews (Jaffe, "Regesta Pontif. 
Roman."), nothing is known. Untrustworthy also 
is the report that a synod, summoned at Toulouse 
in 883 by the Prankish king Carloman, on the com- 
plaint brought by Jews of their ill treatment, or- 
dained the corporal chastisement of a Jew before the 
church door on Christmas Day, Good Friday, and 
Ascension Day, and that the degradation was in- 
creased by compelling the Jew to acknowledge his 
punishment as just (Mansi, "Concilia," xvii. 565). 

Bibliography : Hardouin, Conciliorum CoUectio, Paris, 1715; 
Mansi. fiacrorum ConcMfyrum Nova et Amplissima Col- 
lectio, Florence, 1759-^8; Uefele, ConciliengeKchichte, Frei- 
burg, 1890-93 ; Blnterim, Pragmatische Geschichte der Deut- 
schen National-, Prnvinzial-und VorzUglichsten DiOzesaii- 
concilien ; Abrahams, Jewish lAfe in the Middle Ages, In- 

T^'-'- H. V. 

Church Fathers 



CHURCH FATHERS : The early teachers and 
defenders of Christianity. The most important of 
the fathers lived and worked in a period when Chris- 
tianity still had many points of contact with Ju- 
daism, and they found that the latter was a splendid 
support in the contest against paganism, although 
it had to be combated in the development of 
Christian doctrine. So the Fathers of the Church 
are seen at one time holding to a Jewish conception 
of the universe and making use of Jewish argu- 
ments, at another rejecting a part of such teaching 
and formulating a new one. In the contest of 
Christianity against paganism the Church Fathers 
employ the language of the Hellenistic literature 
as found in Philo, Josephus, the Apocrypha, and 
the Sibylline Books, all of which draw upon the 
Prophets of the Old Testament. Thus, practi- 
cally, only the polemic features in the activity of 
the Church Fathers directed against Judaism can 
be considered as new and original. But in order 
towage successful war against pagan- 
Their ism, they, as well as Christians in gen- 
Impor- eral, had to acquaint themselves with 
tance to the religious documents of Judaism; 
Judaism, and this was possible only if they en- 
tered into personal relations with the 
Jews: through these personal relations the Church 
Fathers become of signal importance to Judaism. 
The contemporaries and, in part, the coworkers of 
those men who are known from the Talnuid and the 
Midrash as the depositaries of the Jewish doctrine, 
were the instructors who transmitted this doctrine 
to the Church Fathers also. Hence such a mass of 
haggadic material is found in the work of the fa- 
thers as to constitute an important part of Jewish 
theological lore. This article is primarily concerned 
with their interpretation of th(i te.xts of the Bible 
and of the Apocrypha, which differs in essential 
points from those of th(! Jews. 

Personal Relations with Jews : After the 
Bar Kokba war against the Romans, Ariston of Pella, 
a converted Jew, wrote, as is generally accepted, 
a dialogue in which the Christian Jason and the 
Jew Papiscus are made the speakers, and in which 
the nature of Jesus is discussed {'Idaovog ual IJa- 
wiffKov avriTioyia Trepl XpicTov). This dialogue, al- 
ready mentioned by Celsus, may be wholly imag- 
inary and without historical basis. But the famous 
dialogue of Justin Martyr witli the Jew Tryphon, 
which took place at Ephesus (Eusebius, " Historia 
Ecclesiastica," iv. 18) at the time of the Bar Kokba 
war, is strictly historical, as certain details show ; for 
Instance, the statement that on the first day no 
strangers were present, while on the second day 
some Jews of Ephesus accompanied Tryphon and 
took part in the discussion (Justin, "Dialogus cum 
Tryphcne, "ex viii. ),a certain Mnaseas being expressly 
mentioned {ib. Ixxxv.). The Jewish auditors are 
not only able to follow the intricate 
Justin discussion intelligently, but their de- 
Martyr, meanor also is seemly ; Tryphon espe- 
cially proves himself a true disciple 
of Greek philosophy, and his scholarship Is freely 
acknowledged by Justin {ib. Ixxx.). At the close 
of the debate, Jew and Christian confess that they 
have learned much from each other, and part with 

expressions of mutual good-will {ib. at the end). 
Justin was born and reared in proximity to Jews; 
for he calls himself a Samaritan {ib. cxx.), meaning 
thereby probably not that he professed the religion 
of the Samaritans, but that he came from Samaria. 
Of the relations of Clement of Alexandria to Ju- 
daism nothing positive is known. During the per- 
secutions of the Christians of Alexandria, in 202 or 
203, Clement sought refuge for a short time in Syria 
(Eusebius, I.e. vi. 11). Here he may have learned 
much at first hand from the Jews. He knew a little 
Hebrew, also some Jewish traditions; both of which 
facts point to personal relations with Jews. 

Clement's contemporary, Origen, probably also 
born in Alexandria about 185, may possibly have 
been on his mother's side of Jewish descent, if one 
may judge from the fact that while his father is 
mentioned as Leonides, the name of his mother is 
passed over in silence. A Jewish mother could 
readily have taught her son the Hebrew language, 
so that they might sing the Psalms together (Jerome, 
"Epistola xxxix. ad Paulam"). [Both his father 
and his mother were, however, Christian in faith. — t. ] 
In liis capacity of presbyter at Ca^sarea in Pales- 
tine, Origen must have come into frequent contact 
with learned Jews, as indeed appears from his wri- 
tings. He mentions again and again his "magister 
Hebrajus" (6 'Efipaloc in the Greek fragment), on 
whose authority he gives several hag- 
Clement gadot (" De Principiis," i. 3, 4 ; iv. 26). 
and His dependence on the Jews is sufR- 

Origen. ciently emphasized by Jerome (" Ad- 
versus Rufinum," I. xiii.) in the pas- 
sage wherein Clement and Eusebius are named 
among those who did not disdain to learn from Jews. 
Origen often mentions the views of Jews, meaning 
thereby not the teaching of certain individuals, but 
the method of exegesis prevalent among the Jews of 
his time. The Jews with whom he maintained per- 
sonal intercourse were men of distinguished scien- 
tific attainments. The one Jew whom he mentions 
by name was no less a personage than Hillel, the 
patriarch's son, or "Jullos," as Origen calls him 
(Gratz, "Monatsschrift,"1881, xxx. 43detseq.). His 
other Jewish acquaintances either were closely re- 
lated to the patriarch's family, or occupied high 
positions on account of their erudition. Gratz 
("Gesch. der Juden," 3d ed., iv. 231) thinks indeed 
that some passages in Origen's writings are directed 
against the contemporary amora of Palestine, 
Simla'i. Origen seems, moreover, to have had inter- 
course with Hoshaya of Ca^sarea (Bacher, " Agada 
der Palastinensischen Amoraer," i. 92). 

Eusebius, the celebrated Church historian, also 
learned from the Jews, as has already been men- 
tioned, and was under the influence of Jewish tradi- 
tion. In Ca?sarea, where he lived, he met many 
Jews, with whom he had discussions. Nevertheless 
he uses the word " Jew " as a term of reproach, calling 
his opponent, Marcellus, "a Jew " (" De Ecclesiastica 
Theologia," ii. 2, 3). He likewise thinks it a dis- 
grace to be one of the " circumcised " {ng tuv ek 
TTepiTofi^c, " Demonstratio Evangelica," i. 6). This 
last expression is also u.sed regularly by Ephraem 
Syrus to designate Jews (XinJ X''yt3, "Opera Sy- 
riaca," ii. 469). Ephraem distances all his ecclesias- 



Church Fathers 

tical predecessors in his hatred of the Jews, displa}'- 

ing a bitterness that is explicable only on the ground 

that he at one time had personal rela- 

Eusebius, tions with them, and had formed an 

Ephraem adverse opinion of them. Epiphanius, 
Syrus, too, shows his dependence on the 

Epipha- Jews, especially in the book, perhaps 
nius. wrongly ascribed to him, "De Pro- 
phetarum Vitis " ; which contains, be- 
sides many extraneous inventions, numerous Jewish 
traditions of the lives of the Prophets. In this it 
was followed by a Syrian work ("The Book of the 
Bee," published in " Anecdota Oxoniensia," Semitic 
series, i., part 2). 

Jerome surpasses all other Church Fathers in his 
erudition as well as in his importance for Judaism. 
It must be emphasized, in spite of Christian asser- 
tions to the contrary {e.g., B. Baue, " Vorlesungen," 
ii. 36), that he learned much not only from baptized 
but also from loyal Jews. He sought his informa- 
tion in many quarters, especially among the edu- 
cated Jews (Preface to Hosea ; compare "Epistola 
Ixxiii. ad Evangelum"). Hence he always cites 
the opinions of several Jews (" quidam Hebryeorum "), 
not that of one Jew; and these Jewish 

Jerome. friends of his accompany him on his 
journeys (Preface to I Chronicles), 
though he has one particular guide (" circumducens," 
Preface to Nahum). Of only three of his Jewisli 
teachers is anything known. A Jew from Lydda, 
whom Jerome calls "Lj'ddreus," explained to him 
the Book of Job, translating it into Greek, and ex- 
pounding it in Latin. Although he lias much to say 
in praise of this man, Jerome will not admit that he 
learned much from him (Preface to Job), designa- 
ting liim often as one who merely read the Scriptures 
to him ("Onomastica Sacra," xc. 12; commentary 
on Eccles. iv. 14, v. 3). But from this Lyddau 
Jerome acquired not only the material for his philo- 
logical notes, but also the Hebrew pronimciation 
that gives him a unique importance for Old Testa- 
ment criticism (Siegfried, in Stade's "Zeitschrift," 
1884, p. 34; Krauss, in "Magyar Zsido Szemle," 
1900, vii. 513). 

Jerome was more attached to his second teacher, 
Bar Hanina, who, however, can not be identical 
with K. Hama b. Hanina, as Rahmer insists (com- 
pare Weiss, in" Bet-Talmud," i. 131, note 3); nor can 
he possibly be identilied until his Midrashim, quoted 
by Jerome, have been compared with the known say- 
ings of the authors of the Talmud and the Midrash. 
This Bar Hanina must have been an eminent teacher 
of the Law, for Jerome spent much time and money 
before he could S(;cure him as teacher. Since Jerome 
would not visit his teacher by day, for fear of the 
Jews, he went to Bar Hanina by night ("Epistola 
Ixxxiv. adPammachium et Oceanum"). Bar Hanina 
came from Tiberias, as is sliown by the Hebrew tra- 
ditions communicated by him to Jerome ; for one par- 
ticular prophecy was held to ajiply to Tiberias (Je- 
rome, "Quajstiones Hebraica; in Genesin," xlix. 21). 

Jerome's tiiird teacher, whom lie required espe- 
cially for tlie Aramaic portions of the Bible, knew 
both Hebrew and Aramaic, and was considered by 
the Jewisii scribes as a "Chaldaeus" (Preface to 
Tobit; compare "Epistola xviii. ad Damasum"). 
TV— fi 

Jerome lived about forty years in Palestine, ap- 
parently studying all the time under Jews (commen- 
tary on Nahum ii. 1: "aquibus non modico tempore 
eruditus "). His enemies severely censured him for 
his intercourse with the Jews, but he was proud 
of it. He asks how it co\dd be held to impugn his 
faith in the Church, that he informs his readers in 
how many ways the Jews construe a single error. 
(" AdversusEufinum,"booki.). "Why should I not 
be permitted to inform the Latins of what I have 
learned from the Hebrews. ... It is most useful to 
cross the threshold of the masters, and to learn the 
art directly from the artists" (ib.). 

Jerome's contemporary, the great teacher Augus- 
tine, did not fare so well in Africa. When he ques- 
tioned the Jews on Biblical matters, they often either 
did not answer at all, or, at least from the standpoint 
of the Church Fathers, " lied " (Jerome, " Epistola exit, 
ad Augustinum"), meaning probably that they gave 
an answer different from what the Christians desired 
("Epistola civ. Augustini ad Hieronymum"). An al- 
leged letter from Jerome, probably forged by Rufi- 
nus, was sent to the Christian communities in Africa, 
in which Jerome professed to admit that, misled by 
the Jews, he had translated erroneously ("Ad versus 
Rufinum," book iii., ii. 554, cd. Vallarsi). It morti- 
fied Jerome that his translation of the Bible, the 
Vulgate, so famous later on, should be i^assed over 
in silence by all the Jews, and that there was no one 
who knew enough Hebrew to appreciate the merits 
of the new translation ("Epistola 
Augustine, cxii. ad Augustinum"). He even be- 
lieved that all the Jews of Africa had 
conspired to oppose him, as actually happened in 
one place. In a certain African town — so Augustine 
wrote to Jerome (Jerome's works, " Epistola civ. 
Augustini ad Hieronymum ")— the new translation 
was read in the church, by order of the bishop. 
When they came to the passage in Jonah con- 
taining the word " kikayon " (iv. 6), which differed 
from the interpretation hitherto accepted, such 
a tumult arose that the bishop had to ask the Jews 
for a verification, and they declared, to the great 
annoyance of both Jerome and Augustine, that 
Jerome's rendering did not agree with the He 
brew, or Greek, or (old) Latin codices. The bishop 
had to strike it out as "a lie," being in danger 
of losing his congregation. Before this, Tertul- 
lian of Carthage (165-245) had spoken of the im- 
pertinence and derision shown by a Jew ("Apo- 
logia," xvi. ; "Ad Nationes," i. 11; compare Ass- 


Among the Greek Church Fathers, Basil the Great 
hardly knew Hebrew (H. Weiss, " Die Grossen Kap- 
padocier Exegeten, " p. 32, Braunsberg, 1872) ; yet 
his ability to distinguish between Amos, the prophet, 
and Amoz, the father of Isaiah (whose names are 
written -alike in the Septnagint), as well as other 
similar facts, points to his having received oral 
instruction from Jews [or from some one who knew 
Hebrew.— T.]. Gregory of Nyssa {c. 331-396). who 
did not recognize the rending of the garments on 
the occasion of a death as being a Jewish custom 
{■KEpl Tov j3iov Tfjr MaKaplac MaKplv?/^, in Oehler, " Bib- 
liothek der Kirchenvjiter," i. 188), does not seem to 
have known much about Judaism. The same may 

Church Fathers 



be said of the other Church Fathers who lived in 
Europe ; that is, in sections sparsely settled by Jews. 
Ireuaeus, for instance, who suifered as a martyr in 
202 in Lyons, knew nothing of Judaism outside of 
the Scriptures, although he was reared in Asia 
Minor. In the paschal controversy he 

Ch.rys- advocated separation from Judaism. 

ostom, But the Greek fathers John Chrysos- 

Cyril, and tom and Cyril of Alexandria (see Bv- 

Ambrose. zantine Empire) potently affected 

the fate of the Jewish people, as did 

Bishop Ambrose of Milan (e. 340-397). 

The Syrian Church, on the whole, was even in the 
fourth century dependent upon Jewish traditions 
(Wellhausen, in Bleek's "Einleitung in das Alte 
Testament," 4th ed.. p. 001). This appears espe- 
cially in the "Homilies "of Aphraates (c. 337-345). 
He complains (Hom. xix.) that the monks are led 
astray and ensnared by the Jewish arguments; he 
himself had a disputation with one " who is called 
1 wise man among the Jews." Aphraates, who, 
under the m me " Mar- Jacob, " Avas abbot of the 
monastery of Mar Mattai, and a bishop, gives such 
a number of Jewish traditions as to place him, in 
this regard, beside Ephraem Syrus (see Aphkaates). 

The Haggadah : The Church Fathers adopted 
from the Jews a mass of interpolations, interpreta- 
tions, and illustrative anecdotes, which may best be 
designated by the well-known term "Haggadah," 
but which they themselves called variously. Gold- 
fahn has counted in Justin Martyr (" Dialogus cum 
Tryphone ") twenty-six Hebrew traditions and 
six polemico-apologetic Haggadot. Among these 
may be mentioned: the eating by the three angels 
who appeared to Abraham; the Messiah's conceal- 
ment and anointment by Elijah; the violent death 
of Isaiah (a Haggadah found already in the oldest 
apocrypha, and in nearly all the earlier fathers); Mel- 
chizedek's identity with Shem (compare especially 
Epiphanius, "Adversus Hiereses," xxxv., and the 
Syriac " Cave of Treasures," translated by Bezold, 
p. 36). 

Clement calls the Jewish haggadists "mystoe" 
(fivarai, " persons initiated "), a term that w^as prob- 
ably current in Alexandria ; for the writings of all 
the Church Fathers agree in regarding Jewish tradi- 
tion as a kind of esoteric doctrine understood only 
by the initiated. Clement is acquainted with the 
old Haggadah to Ex. ii. 14, according to which 
Moses killed the Egyptian by merely 
Clement pronouncing the name of God. Moses is 
and called also " Joiakim " and " Melch " by 

Origen. tlie mystw (" Stromata," ed. Migne, viii. 
897), and " Melchiel " in Pseudo-Philo, 
" Antiq. Bibl." ("Jewish Quarterly Review," x. 228; 
compare x. 726). A relation between Clement and 
the Seder '01am Rabba is shown by the fact that 
both give the same figure, sixty years, as the period 
of the prophet Elisha's activity {ib. v. 138). 

Origen derives still more from the Haggadot. For 
instance : the Garden of Eden is the center of the 
world ("Selecta in Genesin," ii. 8; compare 'Erub. 
19a; Zion is so called in Enoch, xxvi. 1, 2; and Jubi- 
lees, viii.); division of the Red Sea into twelve parts 
(homily to Ex. v. 5; see also Eusebius, commen- 
tary on Ps. Ixxvii. 13, and Epiphanius, in the notes 

to "Adversus Hjereses," pp. 262 et seq.; compare 

Mekilta on Ex. xiv. 16, and other Jewish sources 

["Jewish Quarterly Review," v. 151], 

Origen's and Kimhi on Ps. cxxxvi.); repent- 
Debt to the ance of the sons of Korah (commen- 
Haggadah. tary on the Epistle to the Romans 
x. 7; compare Midrash on Ps. xlv. 4); 
Israel's strength lies in prayer (homily on Num. 
xiii. 5; compare Sifre, Num. 157); Phineas and Eli- 
jah are identical (com. on John vi. 7; Jerome 
adopts the same opinion from the Apocrypha [v. 813, 
ed. Vallarsi; compare Yalk., Num. 772, but the ear- 
liest sources are lacking]); Daniel, Hananiah, Mi- 
chael, and Azariah are eunuchs (commentary on Matt. 
XV. 5; compare homily on Ezek. iv. 8; cateua on 
Ezek. xiv. 5; Jerome, "Adversus Joviu," book i., 
XXV.; com. on Dan. i. 3; Epiphanius, "De Vitis 
Prophetarum," ed. Migne, xliv. 424; further Sanh. 
93b; Gen. R. xcix.); Moses is the author of eleven 
Psalms ("Selecta" to Ps. xii., ed. Migne, p. 1055; so 
also Jerome ["Adversus Rutinum," xiii.; compare 
Pesik., ed. Buber, p. 198a]); wild beasts are the in- 
struments of divine punishment, as in II Kings xvii. 
2 (homily on Ezek. iv. 7, xiv. 4; compare Mislmah 
Ta'anit iii. 6; Shab. 83a). 

Eusebius recognizes Jewish tradition as an au- 
thority almost equal to the Scriptures, and calls it 
aypfKpog Trap/uhai^; i.e., "unwritten tradition" ("His- 
toria Ecclesiastica, " iv. 22). Its depositaries he terms 
"deuterotas" {devrepuTal, "Prajparatio Evangelica," 
xi. 5), and he characterizes them aptly as men of an 
uncommon strength of intellect, whose faculties have 
been trained to penetrate to the very 
Eusebius. heart of Scripture. The Hebrews, he 
says, call them StvTepurai (i.e., "tan- 
naim"), because they expound Holy Writ {ib. xii. 1). 
" Deuterosis " {(^evrtpuaic, " mishnah") is commonly 
used by the ecclesiastical writers for the Jewish 
tradition, and is also found in Justinian's novellae. 

Eusebius makes a distinction between esoteric and 
exoteric exegesis; the Haggadot he often classes 
with the exoteric interpretation, contrarj' to Clement 
and others, who see therein a secret doctrine. 
Among his Haggadot may be mentioned the follow- 
ing: Abraham observed the precepts of the Torah 
before it had been revealed (" Demonstratio Evan- 
gelica," i. 6; compare Yoma28b); King Hezekiah's 
sin in omitting a hymn of praise to God after Sen- 
nacherib's defeat (commentary on Isa. xxxix. 1; 
Jerome, ad loc, quotes the same tradition; compare 
Sanh. 94a; Cant. R. iv. 8; Lam. R. iv. 15); Mero- 
dach-baladan's relations to Hezekiah (com. on Isa. 
xxxix. 1 ; the same Haggadah is given in Ephraem 
Syrus' commentary on II Kings xx. 10 [" Opera Sy- 
riaca,"i. 562], as in one of Jacob of Edessa's scho- 
lia ; compare Sanh. 96a). The traitor Shebna was a 
high priest (compare Lev. R. v.), treacherous (com- 
pare Sanh. 26a) and sensual (ib.), as Eusebius asserts 
in the name of 6 ''Eppalog (com. on Isa. xii. 10, 11; 
Jerome makes the same statement ad he. ). The pas- 
sage Zech. xi. 8 received very early the following 
Christological interpretation: After the advent of 
Jesus, the three powerful estates, kings, priests, 
and prophets, disappeared from Israel (" Demonstra- 
tio Evangelica," x. 1). Jerome, on Zech. xi. 8, 
quotes it only to reject it, preferring the Jewish 



Church Fathers 

exegesis, wliicli applies the text to Moses, Aaron, and 
Miriam; but he does not credit it to the Jews; com- 
pare also Pseudo-Philo (" Jewish Quarterly Review, " 
X. 321), and Mekilta xvi. 35; Seder '01am Rabba 
X. ; Ta'anit 9a. Something similar is found in Aph- 
raates on Num. xx. 1. 

Aphraates gives the above as a self-evident exe- 
gesis without mentioning its Jewish origin. He 
does the same with his numerous other Haggadot, 
which were doubtless derived from the 
Acceptance Jews. Ephraem Syrus likewise gives 
by Church l"s Haggadot in the name of scliol- 
Fathers of ars (N"iSD p pt^*JK), expounders 
Haggadot. (xjipci'SD p NE^JN), etc., but never 
in the name of Jews. The Haggadot, 
however, were so generally accepted, that their 
Jewish origin gradually came to be forgotten. 
Ephraem Syrus, for instance, says, on Gen. xi. 29, 
that Sarah was called " Iscah " on account of her 
beauty; but this Haggadah is already found in 
Seder '01am R. ii. His explanation of Gen. xxxvi. 
24 is similar to that found in Onkelosand the Samar- 
itan Version. On II Kings iv. he has the same Hag- 
gadah about Obadiah's wife that is found in the 
Targum Yerushalmi and in part in Ex. R. xxxi. 
These and similar passages prove Ephraem's knowl- 
edge of Hebrew — a knowledge which many investi- 
gators have unju.stly disputed. 

But the one most conversant with Jewish tradi- 
tions, and their greatest admirer, is Jerome. His 
"Qusestiones Hebraica) in Genesin" form an almost 
uninterrupted series of such traditions ; and he quotes 
them frequently in his other writings also. They 
are mostly historical episodes as additions to Bible 
history, which he calls cither " traditiones " or fre- 
quently "fabula;." These Haggadot were not only 
imparted to him orally by his Jewish teachers, but, 
remarkably enough, he also read Midrashic works 
himself. He sa}^s, for example, on Jer. xxix. 21 : 
"Nee legitur in synagogis eorum " ; on Zech. iv. 2: 
"Haec ab Hebrajis dicta reperimus." Yet he speaks 
of these traditions as if the}' were a secret doctrine, 
"arcanai eruditionis Hebraica; ct magistrorum syna- 
gogue recondita di.sciplina " (Zech. vi. 
Jerome's 9). He is also the only Church Father 
Wide who is acquainted with the technical 
Knowledge terms of the Hebrew tradition; for 
of Hebrew instance: " hoc Scriptura nunc dicit" 
Tradition. (niJlDn ~lDXK^ HT) ; "hoc est quod dici- 
tur" (nTl^n Xin Xin); "non debemus 
legere," or "non legi potest " Clpn pH)- He knows 
and applies the method of "notarikon " or "gema- 
tria" (on Nahum iii. 8, on Haggai i. 1). This tech- 
nical knowledge has so far been noted only in Bar- 
nabas' writings. 

The haggadic elements in Jerome are so numerous 
that they would fill volumes ; some of the more note- 
worthy ones may be mentioned here. On Eccles. iv. 
13 lie quotes a lost Midrash of R. Akiba, Avhich has 
come down only anonymously (compare Eccl. R. iv. 
13; Abot de-R. Nathan, version ii., ch. 4: Midr. P.s. 
ix. 5) and in secondary sources. He is entirely 
unsupported, liowever, in his view that Elihu (in 
Job) and Balaam are identical ("Quaest. Hebr. in 
Gen."xxii. 21). 

On Ezek. xlv. 13, 14 Jerome quotes a halakic Mid- 
rash which treats of the heave-olTering (compare 
Yer. Terumot vi. 1, 42d). Eplphanius also knew 
this ; the Pharisees are said to have offered TpiaKon- 
rddeg te ical Trevrr/KovTade^ (Hilgenfeld, "Judenthum 
und Juden-Christenthum," p. 73, Leipsic, 1886). On 
Zech. xi. 13 he has a curious Haggadah on tlie num- 
ber of the afHrmative and negative precepts; a closer 
investigation shows that he lias preserved this Hag- 
gadah more correctly than it is found in Jewish 
sources ("Jewish Quarterly Review," vi. 258; Jacob 
Bernays, " Abhandlungen," i. 252). 

The Church Fathers who lived after Jerome knew 
less and less about Judaism, so that the history 
of the later periods is no longer of any interest in 
this connection. 

Polemics: The dialogue between Justin and the 
Jew Tryphon is remarkable for the politeness with 
which Jews and Christians speak of one another; 
later on, however, examples are not wanting of pas- 
sionate and bitter language used by Christians and 
Jews in their disputations. Origen complains of 
the stubbornness of the Jews (Homily x., on Jer. 
viii.), and accuses them of no longer possessing 
sound knowledge {I.e. iii.). Ephraem Syrus assumes 
a very insulting tone toward the Jews; he calls them 
by opprobrious names, and sees in them the worth- 
less vineyard that bears no good fruit. Like Euse- 
bius, who used the misfortunes of the Jews for 
polemic purposes (com. on Ps. Iviii. 7-12), Ephraem 
sees in their wretched condition the visitation of God 
(on Gen. xlix. 8); because the Jews "betrayed 
Christ," they were driven from their country and 
condemned to perpetual wandering (on II Kings ii., 
toward the end). After Jerome has enumerated 
all the countries whither the Jews had been dis- 
persed, he exclaims: "Hajc est, Judtee, tuarum 
longitudo et latitudo terrarum " ("Epistola cxxix. 
ad Dardanum "). 

What especially angered the Christians was the 
fact that the Jews persisted in their Messianic hopes. 
In his sermon against the Jews Ephraem says: "Be- 
hold! this people fancies that it will return; after 
iiaving provoked God by all its ways, it awaits 
and expects a time when it shall be comforted." 
Ephraem, as well as Justin and Origen, mentions that 
at this period Judaism was receiving numerous ac- 
cessions from the ranks of paganism, a phenomenon 
ascribed by the Church Fathers to the machinations 
of Satan. 

Jerome, on the other hand, speaks with great elo- 
quence of the Messianic hopes of the Jews. Many 
Messianic passages of the Bible were applied by the 
latter to the emperor Julian, others to the distant 
future, differences which resulted in interminable 
polemics. The Church Fathers looked upon the 
Jews as demons, upon their synagogues as houses 
of Satan; Rufinus mockingly styles Bar Hanina, 
Jerome's Jewish teacher, "Barabbas," and Jerome 
himself a rabbi. The one word " circumcisio " was 
used to condemn the whole of Judaism; the Jews, 
they said, took everything carnally (au/mTtKiJc), the 
Christians took all things spiritually (TTvevfiartKug). 

The writings of Jerome vividly portray the char- 
acter of the polemics of that period. The Christian 
who should undertake to dispute with the Jews had 

Church Fathers 



to be learned iu doctrine (Preface to Psalms). But 
these disputations must be held lest the Jews should 
consider the Christians ignorant (on Isa. vii. 14). 
The proceedings were very lively. Reference is 
made, even if only figuratively, to the planting of 
the feet against each other, to the 
Dis- pulling of the rope, etc. {I.e.). It is 

putations incredible that the Jcavs were so fran- 
Between tic as to "scream with unbridled 
Jews and tongues, foaming at the mouth, and 
Christians, hoarse of voice " (on the Epistle to 
Titus, iii. 9). Nor is it probable that 
the Jews "regretted when the}^ had no opportunity 
to slander and vilify the Christians" (Preface to 
Joshua), although the Jews of that age show no 
diffidence in sustaining tiicir part in these discus- 
sions. They were accused of avoiding questions 
that arose on the more difficult passages of the Bible 
(on Isa. xliv. G), which proved simply that tiicy 
wanted to avoid disputations altogether. But the 
Jews had allies in their opinions; for pagans and 
Christian sectaries agreed with them on many points, 
drawing upon themselves the polemics of the 
Church Fathers. 

Of the numerous polemical works directed against 
the Jews, only a few can be mentioned liero. Of Cle- 
ment's work, "Canon of the Church, or Against the 
Judaizers " {K.avuv 'EiiK/ir/aiaariKog fj Ilpof tovq 'lovdal- 
C,ovraq; Eusebius, " Historia Ecclesiastica," vi. 13), 
only a few fragments liave been preserved. Ori- 
gen's famous work, " Contra Celsum," is directed no 
less against the Jews than against the pagans, since 
Celsus had brought forward many Jewish doctrines. 
Eusebius' " Demonstratio Evangelica " was avow- 
edl}' a direct attack on the Jews (see 
Avowed i. 1, 11). Aphraates' Homily xix. is 
Attacks on largely directed against the Jews, and 
Jews. Homilies xi., xiii., xv. denounce cir- 
cumcision, the Sabbath, and the dis- 
crimination between clean and unclean food, "of 
which they are proud. " 

A little work of Novatian, formerly ascribed to 
Tertullian ("Epistola de Cibis Judaicis," Leipsic, 
1898, ed. G. Landgraf and C. Weyman, . reprinted 
from "Archiv fur Lateinische Lexicographic und 
Grammatik," xi.), is also directed against the Jewish 
dietarj^ laws. Isidore of Seville has copied this work 
almost verbatim in his " Qua>stiones in Leviticum," 
ix. Presumably also by Novatian, and thus of the 
fourth century, is the treatise " Adversus Judaeos," 
often ascribed to Cyprian ; this is, however, some- 
what conciliatory in tone (Landgraf, in "Archiv," 
xi. 1897). In Tertullian 's works there is also found 
a treatise, "Adversus Judteos," similar in many 
ways to Cyprian's " Testimonia, " both having drawn 
upon the older work, "Altercatio Siraonis Judsei 
et Theophili Christiani " (P. Corssen, Berlin, 1890) ; 
in the " Altercatio " the Jew is converted. 

After Julian's death Ephraem composed four 
hymns: against Emperor Julian the Apostate, 
against heresies, and against the Jews (in " S. Ephra- 
emi Syri Carmina Nisibena," ed. Bickell, Latin 
transl., Leipsic, 1866; and Overbeck, "S. Ephraemi 
Syri Aliorumque Opera Selecta," Syriac text, Ox- 
ford. 1865). Connected with these in time as well as 
in subject are the six sermons of John Chrysos- 

tom against the Jews ("Homilies," i.). In these he 
bitterly complains of the Christians for still cling- 
ing to .lewish customs, a circumstance mentioned 
by other Church Fathers as well. Jerome gives stri- 
king examples in his commentaries on Matt, xxiii. 
5 and on Ezek. xxxiii., and more characteristic still 
are the following words of his: "The Jewish laws 
appear to the ignorant and the common people as 
the very ideals of wisdom and human reason " (" Epis- 
tola cxxi. ad Algasiam"). This attitude of the 
multitude was of course earnestly combated by the 
Church Fathers; thus an anonymous work mentioned 
by Photius ("Myriobibliou," ed. Migne, p. 390) is 
directed against the Jews and against those who, 
like the Jews, celebrated Easter on the 14th of 
Nisau. Epiphanius' celebrated work "Adversus 
Htereses," as also his "Ancoratus," treats of the 
Jewish faith; regarding it only as a third religious 
system, to be reckoned alongside of Scythisra and 
Hellenism, w^liile the only divine revelation is Chris- 
tianity. The founder of Christian dogmatics, Au- 
gustine, in defiance of all dogmatic principles of 
classification, groups Jews, heathens, and Arians in 
one class ("Concio ad Catechumenos"). 

The i)oints animadverted upon by the Church 
Fatliers are manifold ; they include such fundamen- 
tal laws as those of the Sabbath, concerning the 
transfer of which to Sunday Justin already treats 
("Dialogue," ch. 34) — a cliange whiclx was op- 
posed by Origen (compare Diestel, "Geschichte des 
Alten Testaments," p. 37), and which Origen (com- 
mentary on Rom. vi. 2) and Jerome ("Epistola cxxi. 
ad Algasiam") seek to prove to be impossible of 
observance ("Griitz Jubelschrift," p. 191). Circum- 
cision, which is also violently assailed by Origen 
(.see Diestel, "Gesch. des Alten Testaments," p. 37), 
the dietary laws, and many minor matters, such, 
for instance, as the washing of the hands, are 
made in turn to serve as subjects of polemical 
writing (Origen, commentary on Matt. xi. 8). In- 
deed, the Church Fathers even in the fourth cen- 
tury afford more information concerning the ob- 
servance of the Levitical laws of purity than the 
rabbinical sources, Neubiirger (in "Monatsschrift," 
1873, p. 433) to the contrary notwithstanding. 

Jerome says ("Epistola cix. ad Riparium ") that 
the Samaritans and the Jews considered not only the 
bodies of the dead as unclean, but also the utensils 
in the house containing a Probably in con- 
sequence of the Levitical laws of purification the 
Jews, as well as the Samaritans and heretics, avoided 
contact with the Christians, a fact of which Jerome 
bitterly but most unjustly complains (on Isa. Ixv. 
4). Equally preposterous is it when 
Baseless Justin accuses the Jews, even their 
Charges rabbis and sages, of immorality (" Dia- 
Against logus cum Tryphone," cxxxiv., cxli.). 
the Jews. A characteristic polemical sentence of 
Tertullian may well be added in this 
connection: "We have everything in common, ex- 
cept our women; j'ou have community only in that 
respect" (see Hefele, "Beitrage zur Kirchengesch." 
i. 16, Tubingen, 1864). 

Perhaps more plausible, though often discussed 
and denied in more recent times, is the charge of 
the Church Fathers Justin, Origen, Epiphanius, and 



Church Fathers 

Jerome that the Jews revile and curse Jesus— that is, 
Christianity — three times a day in their prayers 
("Jewish Quarterly Review," v. 130, ix. 515; com- 
pare Wulfer, "Adnot. Theriaca Judaica," p. 305; 
Krauss, "Das Leben Jesu," p. 254, Berlin, 1902). 

Dogmatic questions, of course, were the subject 
of controversy — never-ending questions on the abro- 
gation of the Mosaic law, the person of the Messiah, 
etc. Yet there was some agreement between Chris- 
tians and Jews in such matters as Antichrist (see 
Irenaeus, passim; Hippolytus, "De Antichristo " ; 
compare "Revue Etudes Juives," xxxviii. 28, and 
Bousset, "Der Antichrist," Gottingen, 1895), chil- 
iasm (Ephraem Syrus on II Kings iv. 35; compare 
Sanh.97a; 'Ab. Zarab 9a; and other Churcli Fathers), 
angelology, the Resurrection, etc. 

Tlie ability of the Jews to cope successfully with 
the Christians in these controversies is due to the 
fact that they were well versed in all the questions 
under discussion. Jerome assumes tliat in Scrip- 
tural questions every Jew is able to give satisfac- 
tory replies (Preface to Samuel ). The 
Skill Jews, moreover, were acquainted not 
of Jews in only with the original text, but also 
Con- with the Septuagiut, the Apocrypha, 

troversy. Aquila's version, and in general with 
all works relating to Holy Writ. No 
sooner had ApoUinai-is Laodicinus' writings ap- 
peared than the Jews read and discussed them 
(Jerome on Eccl. v. 17). 

Especially noteworthy is the fact that the Jews 
were as well vensed in the New Testament as in the 
Old, being able to explain difBculties therein that 
puzzled even the officially appointed Christian 
teachers {idem on Isa. xi. 1). Ephraem Syrus asserts, 
curiously enough (Sermon xxv., in Zingerle, "Bib- 
liothek der Kirehenviiter," ii. 271), that the Jews 
admitted that John the Baptist really had appeared. 
Origen relates a Jewish tradition concerning Judas 
Iscariot(on Matt., Com. ser., § 78). Jerome is there- 
fore to be believed when he says that the Jews were 
often in a position to applaud their own champions 
(on Ezek. xxxiii. 83), which they did in a sensa- 
tional way {lb. xxxiv. 3). Chrysostom also taxes 
the Jews with their theatrical manner (" Opera," ed. 
Montfaucon, i. 656), and before him the just and 
cautious Justin says the same thing ("Dialogus cum 
Tryphone," cxxii.). 

The Old Testament and tlie Apocryph.a: 
The main object of the Christian endeavor was to 
wrest the Old Testament from the Jews and to make 
of it a Christian weapon. Therefore, as Jerome 
says (on Micali vii. 9), the Jews were hoping that in 
the Messianic times tlic Law and the Prophets would 
be taken away from the Christians and given to the 
Jews exclusively (compare the polemic passage in 
Ex. R. xlvii.). To accomplish their purpose the 
Christians made use of the allegorical exegesis as 
developed by Philo and other Jewish Hellenists. 
The literal meaning, says Origen, is good enough 
only for the Jews, in order that nothing may be 
applied to Jesus. Only Isidor of Pelusium had 
sense enough to warn against applying the whole 
of the Old Testament to Jesus, lest the Jews and 
pagans find cause for ridicule (Epistles, i., ep. cvi. ; 
ii., ep. cxcv.). Nevertheless the whole Christian 

Church fell into this exaggeration ; and into what 
absurdities they were led is shown by the following 
examples: Sarah and llagar, already explained alle- 
gorically by Paul (Gal. iv. 24), are, according to 

Clement ("Stromata," i. 5), wisdom 
Christians and the world. The two women who 
and the appeared before Solomon symbolize 
Jewish the Synagogue and the Church; to 
Hellenists, the former belongs the dead child; to 
» the latter, the living one. that is, the 

Jewish faith is dead ; the Christian faith is living 
(Ephraem Syrus on I Kings iii. 6). These might 
pass ; but it becomes mere childishness when David 
is made to signify old and worn-out Israel, but 
Abishag Jesus (on I Kings i. 1). Equally unnatural 
is the assertion of Fulgentius in his " Epistola Syno- 
dica" (in Hefele, "Conciliengesch." 2d ed., ii. 699), 
that Esau represents the " tigurapopuli Judaeorum," 
and Jacob the people destin(!d to be saved. The 
Jews made things much more easy by looking upon 
themselves as Jacob, and upon the Christians as 
Esau or Edom. At disi)utations the Christians knew 
in advance how the Jews would interpret certain 
passages. " If we ask the Jews who that daughter 
is [Ps. xlv.], I do not doubt that the}' will answer: 
the synagogue" (Jerome, "Epistola xlii. ad Prin- 
cipiam"). The Jews therefore not only opposed 
the Christian exegesis with the literal sense, but also 
had ready allegorical interpretations of their own. 

Only Tertullian and Irenaeus were rational enough 
to follow the simple literal meaning. The so-called 
school of Autioch, whose most eminent representa- 
tives were Theodore of Mopsuestia and Theodoret, 
also taught a wholly rational exegesis; although 
the disciples of this school, such as Cosmas Indico- 
pleustes, used the allegorical and typical methods 
extensively (Barjean, "L'Ecole Exegetique d'Anti- 
oche," Paris, 1898). Still, it can not be denied that 
other Church Fathers, and above all Jerome, did ex- 
cellent work in simple exegesis. 

Good exegesis depends upon a good text, and this 
the Christians did not possess ; for the copies of the 

Bible circulating among them were 

Corrupted corrupt in a number of passages. At 

Texts of the a certain disputation between Jews 

Bible. and Christians, the former, naturally 

enough, referred to these mistakes, 
and mocked their opponents for allowing such ob- 
vious blunders. Jewish arguments of that kind are 
often quoted by Justin, Origen, Jerome, and other 
fathers. In order to free the Church from the just 
reproaches of the Jews on this score, Origen under- 
took his gigantic work, the Hexapla (Epiphanius, 
"De Ponderibus et Mensuris," ii.), in Avhich he fre- 
quently restores the Jewish reading (e.;j., homily 
on Num. xvi. 4; Com. on Rom., books ii., xiii. ; 
compare Rufinus, " Apologia s. Invectiv. in Hierony- 
mum, " book v. , chap. iv. ). Justin is honest enough 
to reject a manifest Christological gloss, the notori- 
ous OTTO Tov fuXov, which was said to be the reading 
in Ps. xcvi. (xcv. 10), interpolated in the Greek ver- 
sion ("the Lord reigned from the wood"). Aside 
from Justin (" Dial, cum Tryphone," Ixxiii.), this in- 
terpolation is found only in the Latin fathers— Ter- 
tullian, Ambrose, Augustine, Leo, and Gregory the 
Great — who indulge in much nonsense concerning 

Church Fathers 



the words "a ligno." Augustine ("De Civitate 
Del," xvi. 3) had a text in Gen. x. 2 in which not 
seven but eight sons of Japheth were mentioned, a 
reading that is found in none of the known texts. 
Hence the Jews rejected all translations, recognizing 
at most Aquila's "secunda editio," because this was 
correct {Kara aKpijSeiav; Jerome on Ezek. iv. 15). 
Jerome is the only Church Father who, as against 
the Septuagint, constantly refers to the '• Hebraica 
Veritas." At great cost he had a Bible copied for 
himself by his Jewish friend ("' Adversus Rufinimi," 
book ii.), who borrowed for him, although with " pia 
fraus," the copies belonging to the sj^nagogue (" Epis- 
tola xxxvi. ad Damasuni"). Nevertheless, even 
Jerome accuses the Jews of tampering with the text 
of the Bible (Mai. ii. 2); and thereafter the accusa- 
tion constantly recurs. 

The Christians fared no better with the Apocry- 
pha, which they rated altogether too high, although 
these at times offended good taste. Origen fared 
badly at the hands of the Jews with his apocryphon 
Susanna ("Epistolaad Africanumde Historia Susan- 
na;," v.) nor was Jerome's obscene legend to Jer. 
xxix. 21 — a legend which is evidently connected with 
this apocryphon (see N. Brlill's "Jahrbiicher," iii. 
2), favorably received b^^ the Jews. Jerome (on Matt, 
xxvii. 9) claims to have received an apocryphon on 
Jeremiah from a Jewish Nazarite, and to have found 
in a Hebrew book ("Epistola xxxvi. ad Damasum," 
"in quodam Hebriico volumine") a historj- of La- 
mech; but his Jewish teacher speaks contemptuously 
of the additions to Daniel, as having been written 
by some Greek (Preface to Daniel). See Bible 

The importance of the Church Fathers for Jewish 
learning, already recognized by David Kimhi and 
Azariah dei Rossi, becomes evident, if one considers 
that many sentences of Talmud and Midrash can 
be brought into the right perspective only by the 
light of the exegesis and the polemics of these Chris- 
tian writers. Therefore modern Jewish learning 
turns, although not 3'et with sufficient eagerness, to 
the investigation of the works of the Church Fathers. 
Bibliography: M. Rahmer, Die Hehriiisclien Traditionen 
in den Wei-ken des Hteronymns, i.: Qumi^twnes in Genesin, 
Breslau, 1861; idem, Die Hebrilischen Traditionen indem 
Bihelcommodar des Hieronymos, in Ben Chananja, 1864, 
vil. ; iflem. Die Hrhruischen Traditionen des Hieronymos, 
In Frankcl's Motiats^chrift, 1865, 1866, 1867, 1868 ; in the Griitz 
JubcJ^ciiriit, ISST; in iV/o)iaf.ssc?iri/f, 1897, pp. 63.5-639, 691- 
693; 1898, pp. llti; S. Krauss, Die Jtiden in den Werken des 
Heilige}> Hierojii/mo.s, in Maqijdr Zsido Szemle, vii., 1890; 
Gratz, HoiHiadische Elemente hei den Kirclienrdtern, in 
Moyiatsschrift, ia54. iii.; Goldfahn, Justin Martyr H.'d die 
A(min, ib. 1873, xxvii., and reprinted; Genson, Die Com- 
mriitaricii dcx Ki>lnaein Sumsim Ihrem VerluUtniss zur 
Jiidixchoi K rci/ Breslau, 1868; Grunwald, Das VerhOlt- 
tiiss (lev Kirclicnrdter zur Talmudischen tind Midrasch- 
isdieiiLiteratur. in Konigsberger's MonatsbJmter, and re- 
printed, Juug-Bunzlau, 1891; S. tank, Dis Haggadischen Ele- 
mente in den Homilien des Aphraates, des Persisehen 
Preisen,Vienna, 1891; S. Krauss, The Jews in the Works of 
the Church Fathers, in Jewish Quarter! i/ Review, 1892, v.l23- 
157; 1893, vi. 83-99, 22,5-361. A very thorough investigation Is 
the treatise of L. Ginzberg, Die Hagaada hei den Kirchen- 
vatern und in der Aiiokryphischen Litteratxir, in Mo- 
natsschrift, 1898, xlii. et seq., and reprinted, Berlin, 1900 ; 
idem, Die Haggada bei den Kirchenvutern, vol. 1., Am- 
sterdam, 1899. 

T. S. Kr. 

Israel .soldier and police officer; born 1822; died at 
Puna Nov. 2, 1867. He enlisted in the Third Reg- 
iment of the Bombay Native Light Infantry, in 

which he served in the Punjab army in the years 
1848-49, being present at the siege of Multan and 
the battle of Gujarat (1849), after which he obtained 
the Punjab medal with two bars, and was promoted 
to the rank of subahdar in 1853. In 1855 he was 
made native commandant of the Ahmednuggur 
police. During the ]\Iutiny he served against the 
rebel Bhils at the battles of Tursia, Donger, and 
Punchalla, and received the Order of Merit of the 
third class for his gallantry. He was subsequently 
appointed assistant superintendent of police at 
Puna (March 16, 1863), and died while serving in 
that capacity. He was held in such esteem that he 
was appointed chairman of the Puna municipality. 

BiBLioGRAPHT: H. Samuel, Sketch of the Beni-Israel, pp. 


rishathaim).— Biblical Data : A king of Mesopo- 
tamia, or, more specifically, of Aram-naharaim 
("Aram of the two rivers "), probably a kingdom in 
northern Mesopotamia (.see Aram). He was the first 
of the oppressors of Israel in the time of the judges. 
The tyrant, Avho held Israel in subjection for eight 
years after Joshua's death, was finally conquered by 
the Judahite judge Otiiniel, who freed Israel from 
his rule (Judges iii. 8 et neq.). 

Critical View : Critics (see Moore's commen- 
tary to Judges iii.) consider that the two state- 
ments: (1) that the land of Israel was conquered by 
an early Aramaic king, and (2) that the Israelites 
were freed by a Judahite hero, are contradictory. In 
all probability the ancient Judean clans had practi- 
cally no connection with Israel, and, in fact, would 
not aid the Israehtes in Deborah's insurrection (see 
Judges v.). Budde ("Richter und Samuel," p. 95) 
also denies the possibility of Israel having been 
helped by Othniel. He thinks that the later editor 
of Judges was a Judean who arranged the story so 
as to give his own tribe a representative among the 
judges. On the other hand, there is no reason to 
doubt the truth of the tradition that Arameans may 
at one time have held Israel in subjugation. 

The name " Chushan-rishathaim " appears nowhere 
outside of the Biblical record. It has not yet been 
found on the cuneiform monuments; and no satis- 
factory explanation of its derivation has been given. 

.1. JK. J. D. P. 

Russian Orientalist; born at Wilna Dec. 15, 1819. 
As he showed marked ability in the study of He- 
brew and Talmud, his parents, who were very re- 
ligious, destined him for the rabbinate, and placed 
him at the yeshibah of Rabbi Israel Giinzburg; but 
fate had decided that he should serve his race in a 
quite different sphere. Up to his eighteenth year 
he did not know any other language than He- 
brew; but in three years, without the aid of a 
teacher, he acquired a fair knowledge of German, 
French, and Russian. Chwolson in 1841 went to 
Breslau, and, after three years' preparation in the 
classical languages, entered, in 1844, the Breslau 
University, where he devoted himself to the Ori- ' 
ental languages, especially Arabic. There he studied 
until 1848 and in 1850 he received the degree of 
doctor of philosophy at the Leipsic University. On 



Church Fathers 

his return to his native country he settled at St. 
Petersburg, and in 1855, being highly appreciated 
in learned circles, and having embraced Christian- 
ity, he vvas appointed extraordinary professor of 
Oriental languages in the university. Three years 
later he received a similar appointment in the Duk- 
hovnaya Akademiya. In 1856 the Imperial Acad- 
emy issued, at its own expense, Chwolson's first 
work, which at once established the authority of its 
author in the field of Oriental research. It was a 
contribution to the history of religion, entitled " Die 
Ssabier und der Ssabismus," in two volumes. Three 
years later Chwolson published another important 
work entitled "Ueberdie Ueberreste der Altbaby- 
lonischen Literatur in Arabischen Uebersetzungen " 
(St. Petersburg, 1859 ; also in Russian under the title 
" Novootkrytie Pamyatniki," in "Russki Vyestnik," 
1859). This work made a great sensation among 
scholars by the importance of its discoveries and by 
Chwolson's brilliant combinations concerning the 
old Babylonian monuments. It was followed in 
1860 by "Ueber Tamniuz und die Menschenvereh- 
rung bei den Alten Babyloniern" {ib. 1860). 

His reputation being now firmly established, 
Chwolson devoted himself to his life-task ; namely, 
the defense of his former coreligion- 
His liife- ists. For blood accusation had been 
Work. brought against the Jews of Saratov in 
1857, and the government now sum- 
moned a commission of scholars to see whether 
any passages could be found in Jewish literature 
recommending the use of Christian blood for ritual 
purposes. Chwolson, who was appointed a mem- 
ber of the commission, wrote a report in which he 
fully demonstrated the groundlessness of the ac- 
cusations in general, and pointed out that in this 
particular case of Saratov the evidence given by 
the two principal witnesses was full of contradic- 
tions and absurdities. As the investigation extended 
over a period of nine years, Chwolson, fearing that 
meanwhile the Jews of Russia would suffer under 
this accusation, secured permission to publish his 
memoir. It accordingly appeared in 1861, in the 
" Biblioteka dlya Chteniya," under the title " O Nye- 
kotorykh Srednovyekovykh Obvineniyakh Protiv 

In 1877 Chwolson had the mortification of seeing 
a new blood accusation brought against Jews at 
Kutais, Transcaucasia. At the same time several 
Russian anti-Semitic writers undertook a campaign 
against the Talmud, repeating the old charge that 
it contained blasphemies against Jesus. 
His Defense Chwolson again took up the defense 
of the of the Jews, and republished his mem- 
Talmud, oir with many additions (St. Peters- 
burg, 1880). A German edition of this 
work appeared in the year 1901 under the title "Die 
guiigen der Juden," Frankfort-on-the-Main. In this 
edition Chwolson, before entering into a discussion 
of the blood question, expounds the history of the Tal- 
mud, and shows that the " Pharisees " condemned by 
Jesus in the Gospels were not the Rabbinites in gen- 
eral, since tlie latter were the advocates of progress at 
the period of Jesus in history : that he meant by the 
term rather a certain class of false Pharisees, who 


were condemned in rabbinical literature also; and 
that it was not the Pharisees, but thcSadducees, who 
were the enemies and persecutors of Jesus. He fur- 
ther demonstrates that, according to Talmudical law, 
Jews were bound to 
look upon the Chris- 
tians as their breth- 
ren, and that intoler- 
ance toward other 
religions was not a 
characteristic of the 
Talmudists. The as- 
sertions to the con- 
trary arc due partly 
to m i s c o n c e p t ion, 
partly to hatred. 

The deep-rooted 
belief that Jesus was 
crucified by the Jews 
being the principal 
cause of the preju- 
dice against them on 
the part of the 
Christians, Chwol- 
son, in a disserta- 
tion entitled " Pos- 

lyedniyaya Pask- ■ — ""^ 

halnaya Vecherya Isusa Christa i Denyevo Smerti," 
in "Christianskoe Chtenie," St. Petersburg, 1875 
(German translation, "Das LetztePassamalChristi," 
ih. 1892), shows the groundlessness of this belief. He 
points out that the proceedings of the trial and con- 
demnation of Jesus, as related in the Gospels, were 
in violation of the rabbinical laws, and consequently 
could not have been conducted by a Jewish tribunal. 

The Jewish race, as well as the Jewish religion, 
was defended by Chwolson. In a work entitled 
" Kharakteristika Semitskikh Narodov," in "Russki 
Vyestnik," 1872 (German ed., Berlin, 1872), he draws 
a parallel between the distinguish- 
Other ing characteristics of the Jew, the 

Works. representative of the Semitic race, and 
those of the Greek, the representative 
of the Aryan peoples, not always to the advantage 
of the latter. The pamphlet was translated into 
English under the title "The Semitic Nations," Cin- 
cinnati, 1874. 

Chwolson is also the author of the following works : 
" Statistische Nachrichten iiber die Orientalische 
Facultilt der Universitat zu St. Petersburg," Leip- 
sic, 1861; "Achtzehn Hebriiische Grabschriften aus 
derKrim," in the "Memoires" of the St. Petersburg 
Academy of Science, 1865 (Russian translation, "Vo- 
semnadtzat Nadgrobnykh Nadpisei iz Kryma," St. 
Petersburg, 1866); "Izvyestiya o Khazarakh," St. 
Petersburg, 1869 (notes on the Chazars, Burtars, 
Madjars, Slavs, and Russians from the Arabic of 
Ibn Dasta) ; " Novotkryty Pamyatnik Moavitskavo 
TzaryaMeshi," «6. 1870; " O Vliyanii Geografiches- 
kavo Polozheniya Palestiny na Sudbu Yevreiskavo 
Naroda," ib. 1875 (reprinted in "Sbornik Budush- 
chnosti,"ii. 1-4) ; " Vozmozhnyli vTurtziiReformy ?" 
ib. 1877 (on the Turkish reform); "Die Quiescentes 
He, Waw, imd lod in der Althebraischen Orthogra- 
phic," Leyden, 1878 (Russian trans, in "Christian- 
skoe Chtenie," St. Petersburg, 1881; English trausl. 



by T. K. Abbott, Dublin, 1890); " Upotreblyayut li 
Ye vrei Christianskuy u Krov ? " 2d ed. , St. Petersburg, 
1879; "OMnimoi Zamknutosti Yevrej^ev," eJ. 1880; 
"Corpus Inscriptionum Hebraicarum," ib. 1882 
Eussian translation, ib. 1884); " Predvaritelnaya 
Zamyetka o Naidcnnykli v Semiryechenskoi Oblasti 
Siriskikh Nadgrobnykh Nadpisyakh,"i6. 1886; "Sy- 
risclie Grabschriften aus Semirjetschie," ib. 1890, 
in "Memoires" of the St. Petersburg Academy; 
"Hat es Jemals Irgend Einen Grund Gegeben, deu 
Rusttag des Jtidischen Passahfestes als TlpuT-ri tuv 
'AH^ii/iiov zu Bezeichnen?" in "Zeitschrift filr Wis- 
senschaftliche Theologie," v. 38. Leipsic, 1896; 
" Staropecbatnyya Yevreiskiya Knigi," on the He- 
brew incunabula, St. Petersburg, 1897 (Hebrew 
transl., "Resliit Ma'ase ha-Def us, "'Warsaw, 1897). 
Mention may be made here of Chwolson's earlj^ 
contributions of Jewish biographies from Arabic 
sources, especially that of Maimonides by Al-Hifta, 
to the "Orient," 1840. 

Chwolson is an indefatigable collector of He- 
brew books, and his collection of Hebrew incunab- 
ula is one of the most valuable in existence. A 
catalogue of his Hebrew books was published by 
him under the title "Reshimat Sifre Yisrael," Wilna, 
1897. The Russian government conferred upon 
Chwolson the title of " Councilor of State " (" Wirk- 
licher Staatsrath "). 

The learned world in 1899 celebrated Chwolson's 
literary jubilee by presenting him with a collection 
of articles written in his honor by prominent Euro- 
pean scholars. This was published by Baron David 
Glinzburg under the title "Recueil des Travaux Re- 
diges en Memoire du Jubile Scientifique de M. Daniel 
Chwolson," Berlin, 1899. 

Bibliography: La Grande Encyclopedic, s.v.; Meyers Kon- 
versations-Lexikon, s.v. 
H. R. I. Br. 

statesman and orator; born 106; died 43 B.C. In 
59 he delivered in the Aurelian Forum at Rome 
a speech in behalf of Flaccus, in which he spoke 
disparagingly of the Jews ; this was perhaps not from 
conviction so much as in the interest of his client 
("Pro Flacco," xxviii.), though in Rhodes he had 
been the disciple in rhetoric of the anti-Jewish 
writer Apollonius Molon. Flaccus being ac- 
cused, among other things, of having appropriated 
while proconsul of Asia the moneys contributed for 
the Jewish Temple b}^ Jews under his jurisdiction, 
Cicero contended that there was an edict forbidding 
the exporting of gold from the Roman provinces — a 
plea that was evidently sophistical, since Judea atthat 
time was a part of the Roman empire. He further said, 
referring to the Jews : " Justice demands that that 
barbaric superstition should be opposed ; and it is 
to the interest of the state not to regard that Jew- 
ish mob which at times breaks out in open riots. 
... At one time, the Jewish people took up arms 
against the Romans ; but the gods showed how little 
thej'' cared for this people, suffering it to be con- 
quered and made tributary." In the Latin the phrase 
" and to be preserved" occurs after " made tribu- 
tary," but these words stultify the rest of the sen- 
tence, and seem to have been added later by a 

Jewish or Christian copyist (Bernays, in "Rhein- 
isches Museum," xii. 464). 

It would appear-, unless Cicero's words are merely 
a rhetorical flourish, that the Jews, who insisted 
on being present on an occasion that concerned 
them, surrounded the platform, and, supporting each 
other, became formidable through their numl)ers, 
" You know, " he said, addressing the plaintiff, " how 
large the mob is, how it holds together, and what it 
accomplished in its assemblies." It is not likely, 
however, that the Jewish mob accomplished any- 
thing in this case, for Flaccus was probably dis- 
charged (compare Pliny, "Historia Naturalis," 
xiii. 4). 

In the trial of Verres (70 B.C.) Plutarch reports 
that Cicero, in speaking of one of the accusers, 
Cecilius, who was suspected of a leaning toward 
Judaism, made the pun, "Quid Judaeo cum Verre?" 
(What has a Jew to do with a pig?). Finally, in a 
speecli delivered in the Senate, May, 56 B.C., and 
entitled "De Provinciis Consularibus," Cicero refers 
to the Jews and Syrians as "races born to be slaves," 
an expression not uncommon in the mouths of the 
Romans of his day. 

Bibliography : M. A. Levy, in Jahrb. Gesch. derJud. 11. 277; 
A. Berliner, Oesch. der Juden in Rom, 1. 11; Hlld, In Rev. 
Etudes Juives, viii. 1-37; Schurer, Gesch. 3d ed.. 111. 28 (con- 
taining also earlier bibliography); Griitz, Gesch. der Juden, 
4th ed., ill. 166; Reinach, Textes d'Auteurs Grecs et i?o- 
mains, pp. 150, 237. 
G. S. Kr.— G. 

CICIRUACCHIO. See Brunetti, Angelo. 


VAR (known as El Cid) : The conqueror of Valen- 
cia (1094) and popular hero of the Spanish nation. 
Lacking money to pay his knights, he negotiated 
through his nephew, Martin Antolinez, a loan of 
600 marks from two wealthy Jcavs of Burgos, Don 
Rachel and Don Vidas, and succeeded, despite all 
their precautions, in defrauding them. According 
to the "Cronica General de Castilla," the Cid had a 
Jewish page by the name of Gil, who later assumed 
his master's name, Diaz, and who is described as a 
rare example of fidelity. The " Cronica del Cid "— 
which is reputed to have had its source in an Arabic 
chronicle written by the Moorish Jew Ibn Alfango, 
one of theCid's officials— is in reality a careless com- 
pilation of older Arabic, Latin, and Spanish chron- 
icles, and is a much later work than the " Poema 
del Cid," which appeared about the middle of the 
twelfth century and bears no traces of Arabic origin 
or Oriental coloring. The first complete translation 
of this poem was prepared by O. L. B. Wolff, a Jew- 
isli convert to Christianity (Jena, 1850). 

Bibliography : Amador de los Rios, Historia . . . de los Ju^ 
dias de Espana y Portugal, i. 187 et scq.; Tv. Delltzseh, Zur 
Gesch. der JUdischen Poesie, p. 65; F. Wolf, Zur Gesch. 
der Spanischen und Portugiesisdioi Literatur, pp. 28 et 
G. M. K. 

CILICIA : Ancient province of southeastern Asia 
Minor, separated from Syria by the Taurus-Amanus 
range. In native Phenician inscriptions the name is 
given as "fpn or -\^2 (Lidzbarski, " Handbuch der 
Nordsemitischen Epigraphik," i. 274). Originally 
inhabited by Phenicians and Syrians (Herodotus, 
vii. 91), Cilicia was only gradually Hellenized from 




the time of Alexander the Great; and because of its 
pro.ximity to Syria it was often included in that 
country, to which it belonged politically. After the 
death of Alexander it became a Seleucid-Syrian 
province (I Mace. xi. 14; II Mace. iv. 36); it was 

afterward a part of Armenia ; and from 
Name and 63 B.C. it belonged to Rome. As a 
Situation. Roman province Ciliciawas known to 

the author of the Book of Judith ; al- 
though the Babylonian monarchy is referred to 
therein (Judith i. 7; ii. 21, 25). 

Josephus ("Ant." i. 6, § 1) asserts that the Qapaoc 
of the Bible (Gen. x. 4, "Tarshish ") is the old name 
for Cilicia. He expressly identifies Qdi>ang with Tapaor 
("Tarsus"), the renowned capital of Cilicia; but this 
is philologically impo.ssible. He also makes the 
prophet Jonah travel to Tarsus in Cilicia ("Ant." 
ix. 10, § 2), and mentions the country in several 
other connections. According to- Josephus, it was 
by way of Cilicia that Pompey (63 B.C.) returned 
from Judea to Rome with Aristobulusashis prisoner 
("B. J." i. 7, § 7). Herod with his sons embarked 
for Cilicia, landing at Eleusa, where he met Arche- 
laus, King of Cappadocia ("Ant." xvi. 4, § 6; "B. 
J." i. 23, § 4). At times Celenderis in Cilicia, a city 
otherwise imknown, is referred to ("Ant." xvii. 5, 
§ 1; "B. J." i. 31, §3). Alexander, a great- great- 
grandson of Herod, became king of an island of 
Cilicia by the favor of Vespasian ("Ant." xviii. 5, 
§ 4). The infamous Berenice, after her husband's 
death, married Polemon, King of Cilicia ("Ant." xx. 
7, § 3). Antiochus, King of Commagene, who at 
first joined the Romans against the Jews, fled to 
Tarsus in Cilicia, where he was taken prisoner by 
Paetus ("B. J." vii. 7, §t^ 2, 3). Mopsuestia, too, a 
Cilician city which afterward became celebrated 
through its Biblical exegesis, is referred to by Jose- 
phus ("Ant." xiii. 13, §4). Cilicians were among 
the mercenaries of Alexander Janna'us (ib. § 5; 
"B. J." i. 4, § 3) and those of Hekod. 

In the Talmud the country is referred to as "Kili- 
kah " after the Greek name. The cities of Tarsus, 
Taurus Amanus, and Zephyrion are mentioned ; but it 

is not certain that the Cilician Zephyr- 

In the Tal- ion is intended. The Syrians (Payne 

mud. Smith, "Thesaurus Syriacus,"p. 360^) 

also mentioned Tarsus aud Zephyrus 
among the important cities of Cilicia; but "Anion 
Kilikios "(Targ. Yer. Num. xxxiv. 8) is the name of a 
place in Moab (compare Josephus, "Ant." xiii. 5, §4). 
That Jews were dwelling in Cilicia is known from 
Philo ("Legatio ad Caium," p. 36). At the time of 
the Apostles many Cilician Jews lived in Jerusalem 
(Acts vi. 9); among tiiem Paul {ib. ix. 11, xxi. 39. 
xxii. 3), whose birthplace was Tarsus, the capital of 
Cilicia. Nahum, the son of Rabbi Simai, preached 
in Tarsus (Pesik. R. 15; ed. Friedinann, p. 78b); so 
that there nuist have been a congregation and a syn- 
agogue there. Some explain the "synagogue of tlie 
Tarsiyim " as meaning " people of Tarsus. " In Jaffa 
a Greek epitaph of a J(!W, "son of of Tarsus," 
has been found. Epiphanius ("II;cres." xxx. 11) 
states that the patriarch Judah, of the fourth cen- 
tury, sent messengers to Cilicia to collect titlies and 
off(!rings in every city. In Corycos in Cilicia the 
sarcophagus of a Jew named Alexander and his 

wife has been found. In Rome the ei)itaph of a 
Jew, "Asaphat of Tarsus" ("Jahrl). Gesch. der 
Jud."ii. 287), lias been decijjliered; but the reading 
is doubtful. Christianity spread rapidly in Cilicia; 
and this indicates that there were numerous Jews in 
the province. 

Cilicia produced much wine (Pliny, "Ilistoria 
Naturalis," xiv. 11), to which reference is often 
made in the Tahniid (Tosef., Sheb. v. 2; Yer. Hal. 
60b). The Cilician bean is also frequently men- 
tioned (Ma'as. v. 8), as is the so-called 
Products, "cilicium," a coarse cloth made of 
Cilician goat-liair (Kelimxix. 1). The 
word "cilicium" is used by the Vulgate to render 
the Biblical word pc** ("sack"); aud in the ecclesias- 
tical life of the Christians it has a certain rehgious 
significance. Curly hair on the body is designa- 
ted as "cilicinus" by the Rabbis' (Sifra, ed. Weiss, 

Though Cilicia came under various rulers, it was 
not until its conquest by the Turks that the Jews of 
the country attained to any prominence. 

Bibliography : Boettger, Topnai-aphisch-Historisc.hes Lexi- 
con zu den Schriften des Flavins Josephus, p. 90; Neu- 
bauer, O. T. p. 314; Bochart, Canaan, i. 5; S. Krauss, Lehn- 
wOrter, il. 531 ; Schurer, Gesch. 3d ed., lii. 17. 
G. S. Kr. 

CINCINNATI: Capital of Hamilton county, 
Ohio, U. S. A. Its Jewish community is the oldest 
west of the Alleghany Mountains. In March, 
1817, Joseph Jonas, a young English Jew, a native 

Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, O. 

(From a photograph.) 

of Exeter, arrived at the metropolis of the Ohio 
valley. He had left his English home with the 
avowed intention of settling in Cincinnati. Friends 
in Philadelphia endeavored to induce him to relin- 
quish his purpose of going to a spot so far removed 
from all association with his coreligionists, and said 




to him : " In the wilds of America, and entirely among 

Gentiles, you will forget your religion and your 

God." However, the young man remained deaf to 

the persuasions of his friends, and per- 

English severed in his original purpose. For 
Jews two years he was the only Jew in the 
Settle. Western town. In 1819 he was joined 
by three others, Lewis Cohen of Lon- 
don, Barnet Levi of Liverpool, and Jonas Levy of 
Exeter. These four with David Israel Johnson of 
Brookville, Ind., a frontier trading-station, con- 
ducted on the 
holidays in the 
autumn of 1819 
the first Jewish 
service in the 
western portion 
of the United 
States. Similar 
services were 
held in the three 
succeeding falls. 
Newcomers con- 
tinued to arrive, 
the early settlers 
being mostly 

The first Jew- 
ish child born in 
Cincinnati (June 
2, 1821) was 
Frederick A., 
son of the above- 
mentioned Da- 
vid Israel John- 
son and his wife 
Eliza. This 
couple, also 
English, had re- 
moved to Cin- 
cinnati from 
where they liad 
first settled. The 
first couple to 
be joined in 
wedlock were 
Morris Symonds 
and Rebekah 
H y a m s , who 
were married 
Sept. 15, 1824. 
The first death 
in the commu- 
nity was that of Benjamiu Leib or Lape, in 1821. 
This man, who had not been known as a Jew, 
when he felt death to be approaching, asked that 
three of the Jewish residents of the town be called. 
He disclosed to them that he was a Jew. He had 
married a Christian wife, and had reared his chil- 
dren as Christians, but he begged to be buried as a 
Jew. There was no Jewish burial-ground in the 
town. The few Jews living in the city at once 
proceeded to acquire a small plot of grovmd to be 
used as a cemetery. Here they buried their repent- 
ant coreligionist. This plot, which was afterward 



B'ne Yeshurun Temple, Cincinnati, O. 

(From a photograph.) 

enlarged, was u.sed as the cemetery of the Jewish 
community till the year 1850. At present it is situ- 
ated in the heart of the city, on the corner of Cen- 
tral avenue and Chestnut street. 

There Avere not enough settlers to form a congre- 
gation till the year 1824, when the number of Jewish 
inhabitants of the town had reached about twenty. 
On Jan. 4 of that year a preliminary meeting was 
held to consider the advisability of organizing a 
congregation ; and two weeks later, on Jan. 18, the 
Congregation B'ne Israel was formally organized; 
those in attend- 
ance were Solo- 
mon Bucking- 
ham, David I. 
Johnson, Joseph 
Jonas, Samuel 
Jonas, Jonas 
Levy, Morris 
Moses, and Mor- 
ris Symonds. 
On Jan. 8, 1830, 
the General As- 
sembly of Ohio 
granted the con- 
gregation a char- 
ter whereby it 
was incorpo- 
rated under the 
laws of the state. 
For twelve 
years the con- 
gregation wor- 
shiped in a room 
rented for the 
purpose; but 
during all this 
time the small 
was exerting it- 
self to secure a 
home. Appeals 
were made to 
the Jewish con- 
various parts of 
the country. 
Charleston, S. 
C, and New 
Orleans lent a helping hand. Contributions were 
even received from Portsmouth, England, whence 
a number of Cincinnatians had emigrated, and from 
Barbados in the West Indies. On June 11, 1835, 
the corner-stone of the first synagogue was laid; 
and on Sept. 9, 1836, the synagogue was dedicated 
with appropriate ceremonies. The members of the 
congregation had conducted the services up to this 
time. The first official reader was Joseph Samuels 
He served a very short time, and was succeeded by 
Henry Harris, who was followed in 1838 by Hart 




The first benevolent association was organized in 
1838 with Phineas Moses as president: its object 
was to assist needy coreligionists. The first re- 
ligious school was established in 1842, Mrs. Louisa 
Symonds becoming its first superin- 
Early tendent. This scliool was short-lived. 
Religious In 1845 a Talmud Torah school was 
Institu- established, which gave way the fol- 
tious. lowing year to the Hebrew Institute, 
established by James K. Gutheim. 
This also flourished but a short time ; for with the 
departure of Guiheim for New Orleans the career 
of the institute closed. 

During the fourth decade of the century quite a 
number of Germans arrived in the city. These were 
not in sympathy with their English coreligion- 
ists, and determined to form another congregation. 
On Sept. 19, 1841, the B'ne Yeshurun congregation 
was organized by these Germans, and was incorpo- 
rated under the laws of the state Feb. 28, 1842. The 
first reader was Simon Bamberger. In 1847 James 
K. Gutheim was elected lecturer and reader of the 
congregation. He served till 1848, and was suc- 
ceeded by H. A. Henry and A. Rosenfeld. The as- 
sumption of the office of rabbi in the B'ne Yeshurun 
congregation by Isaac M. Wise in April, 1854, and 
in the B'ne Israel congregation by Max Li lien thai 
in June, 1855, gave the Jewish com- 
Becomes munity of Cincinnati a commanding 
a Jewish position. Owing to their efforts in the 
Center. cause of Judaism, Cincinnati became 
a Jewish center indeed and the seat of 
a number of movements that were national in scope. 
The Union of American Hebrew Congregations, the 
Hebrew Union College, the Hebrew Sabbath- School 
Union, and the Central Conference of American Rab- 
bis have their seat in Cincinnati. 

Dr. Lilienthal died in office April 5, 1882. He was 
succeeded as rabbi of the Congregation B'ne Israel 
by Raphael Benjamin, Avlio served till Nov., 1888, 
when the present incumbent, Dr. David Philipson, 
took charge of tlu; congregation. Dr. Wise served 
as rabbi of the B'ne Y'eshurun congregation till the 
day of his death, March 26, 1900; being succeeded 
by his associate, Dr. Louis Grossman. Dr. Gross- 
man had been preceded as associate rabbi by Rabbi 
Charles S. Levi, who served from Sept., 1889, to 
Sept., 1898. 

Tlie other congregations of the city are the Adath 
Israel, organized in 1847; the Ahabath Achim, or- 
ganized in 1848 ; and the Sherith Israel, organized in 
1855. There are also a number of small congre- 
gations. Each of these congregations conducts its 
own religious school, and there are also two free 
religious schools; one holding its ses- 
Edu- sions in the schoolrooms of the Mound 
cational street temple (B'ne Israel), and the 
Work. other, conducted under tlie auspices 
of the local branch of the Council of 
Jewish Women, meeting at the Jewish Settlement. 
A large Talmud Torah school is conducted by the 
Tahniid Torah Association on Barr street. The 
Hebrew Union College is located in Cincinnati. 
Night classes for various English and industrial 
branches of study are a feature of the work of the 
Jewisli Settlement. The Jewish Kitchen Garden 

Association conducts a large school for girls in the 
building of the United Jewish Charities every Sun 
day morning, where instruction is given in dress- 
making, millinery, housekeeping, cooking, stenog- 
raphy, typewriting, and allied subjects. An 
industrial school for girls is conducted during the 
summer mouths in the vestry-rooms of the Plum 
street temple (B'ne Yeshurun), and one for boys dur- 
ing the school year in the Ohio Mechanics' Institute 
building. There is a training-school for nurses in 
connection with the Jewish Hospital. 

The Jewish charities of Cincinnati are exception- 
ally well organized. All the relief and educational 
agencies joined their forces in April, 1896, and 
formed the United Jewish Charities. This body 
comprises the following federated societies: He- 
brew General Relief Association, Jewish Ladies' 
Sewing Society, Jewish Foster Home, Jewish 
Kitchen Garden Association, Boys' Industrial 
School, Girls' Industrial School, and Society for the 
Relief of Jewish Sick Poor. The United Charities 
also grants an annual subvention to the Denver 
Hospital for Consumptives and to the local Jewish 
Settlement Association. The seat of the National 
Jewish Charities is also in Cincinnati, where the na- 
tional organization was called into being in May, 
1899. Besides the United Jewish Charities, Cincin- 
nati supports the Jewish Hospital and the Home for 
the Jewish Aged and Infirm, and is one of the lar- 
gest contributors to the Jewish Orphan Asylum at 

The Jews of Cincinnati have alwaj^s shown great 
public spirit and have filled many local positions 
of trust, as well as state, judicial, and govern- 
mental offices. Henry Mack, Charles Fleischmann, 
James Brown, and Alfred M. Cohen have been mem- 
bers of the Ohio senate, and Joseph Jonas, Jacob 
Wolf, Daniel Wolf, and Harry M. Hollheimer have 
been members of the legislature. Jacob Shroder 
was judge of the court of common pleas for a num- 
ber of years, and Frederick S. Spiegel now holds 
(1902) the same position. Julius Fleischmann is 
the present mayor of the city. Nathaniel New- 
burgh was appointed appraiser of merchandise by 
President Cleveland during his first administration, 
and Bernhard Bettmann has been collector of inter- 
nal revenue since 1897. 

Tiie Jewish newspapers published in Cincinnati 
are "The American Israelite," estabhshed 1854, and 
" Die Deborah," established 1855 ; " The Sabbath Vis- 
itor," established 1874, was discontinued in 1892. 

The Jews of the city were estimated in 1900 at 
15,000, in a total population of 325,902. 
Bibliography: The Jews of Ohio, by J[oseph] J[onas], In 
Leaser's Occident, i. 547-550; ii. 29-31, 143-147,244-247; David 
Philipson, The Oldest Jewish CongrcQaiion in the West, 
Cincinnati. 1894 ; History of the Congregation B'ne Yeshii- 
run (by a committee of the board of trustees), Cincinnati, 
1894; David Philipson, The Jewish Pioneers of the Ohio 
Valley, in Publications Am. Jew. Hist. Sac. ix. 43-57; the 
flies of The American Israelite, 1854. 
A. D. P. 

CINNAMON : The bark of the Cinnamormim 
Zri/lanictim, a plant so called botanically because 
growing best in Ceylon. A variety often substi- 
tuted for it, cassia, comes from China. Cinnamon 
was known in early times to the Hebrews. It was 
used in making the anointing-oil (Ex. xxx. 23), and, 




further, as a mere perfume (Prov. vii. 17). In the 
Song of Solomon (iv. 14) it is mentioned along with 
other fragrant woods. Gesenius and Lagarde con- 
sider the Hebrew ("kinnamon") to be a loan-word 
from the Greek {mwduuiiov), although Herodotus 
(iii. Ill) states that the Greeks themselves borrowed 
it from the Phenicians. It seems that both Hebrew 
and Greek took it from the Pheuician. 

E. G. H. G. B. L. 

CIPHER. See Gematiua. 

CmCUMCISION (nij^D; in Biblical Hebrew, 
n^10="tlie cutting away" of the n^1J? = "fore- 
skin ").— Biblical Data : A religious rite performed 
on male children of Jews on the eighth day after birth ; 
also on their slaves, whether born in the house or 
not. It was enjoined upon Abraham and his de- 
scendants as "a token of the covenant" concluded 
with him by God for all generations, the penalty of 
non-observance being "karet," excision from the 
people (Gen. xvii. 10-14, xxi. 4; Lev. xii. 3). 
Aliens had to undergo circumcision before they 
could be allowed to partake of the covenant-feast of 
Passover (Ex. xii. 48), or many into a Jewish family 
(Gen. xxxiv. 14-16). It was "a reproach" for the 
Israelite to be uncircumcised (Josh. v. 9; on "the 
reproach of Egypt " see below). Hence the name 
" 'arelim " (uncircumcised) became an opprobrious 
term, denoting the Philistines and other non-Israel- 
ites (I Sam. xiv. 6, xxxi. 4; II Sam. i. 20; compare 
Judges xiv. 3; I Sam. xvii. 26), and used synony- 
mously with" tame" (unclean) for heathen (Isa. Iii. 1). 
The word " 'arel " (uncircumcised) is also employed 
for "unclean" (Lev. xxvi. 41, "their uncircumcised 
hearts"; compare Jer. ix. 25; Ezek. xliv. 7, 9); it is 
even applied to the tirst three years' fruit of a tree, 
which is forbidden (Lev. xix. 23). 

This shows how deeply rooted in the minds of the 

ancient Hebrews was the idea that circumcision was 

an indispensable act of national consecration and 

purification. Nevertheless, there are several facts 

in the Bible which do not seem to be 

Original in full harmony with this view. Ac- 
Sig- cording to Ex. iv. 24-26, the circum- 

niflcance. cision of the first-born son was omitted 
by Moses, and tlie Lord therefore 
" sought to kill him " ; whereupon " Zipporah took a 
flint and cut off the foreskin of her son, and made it 
touch [A. v., "cast it at"] his [Moses'] feet," say- 
ing, " A bridegroom of blood art thou to me. " Thus 
Moses was ransomed by the blood of his son's 

Strange as was this omission on the part of Moses, 
the omission of the rite on the part of the Israelites 
in the wilderness was no less singular. As re- 
corded in Josh. V. 2-9, "all the people that came 
out" of Egypt were circumcised, but those "born 
in the wilderness " were not ; and therefore Joshua, 
before the celebration of the Passover, had them 
circumcised with knives of flint (compare Ex. iv. 
25) at Gilgal, which name is explained as "the roll- 
ing away " of " the reproach of Egypt " (see Gilgal). 

Attention has also been called to the peculiar at- 
titude of Deuteronomy and the Prophets toward cir- 
cumcision. Deut. X. 16 (compare ib. xxx. 6 and 
Jer. iv. 4) says, " Circumcise the foreskin of your 

heart," thus giving the rite a spiritual meaning; 
circumcision as a physical act being enjoined no- 
where in the whole book (see Geiger, " Urschrift," ii. 
79, and Montetiore, "Hibbert Lectures," 1892, pp. 
229, 337). Jer. ix. 25, 26 goes so far as to say that cir- 
cumcised and uncircumci.sed will be punished alike 
bj^ the Lord ; for " all the nations are uncircumcised, 
and all the house of Israel are uncircumcised in 
heart." Obviously, the prophetic view of the 
sacredness of the rite differed frqm that of the 

Historical Vie-w: Circumcision was known 

to be not an exclusivel}'^ Jewish rite. Ishmael was 
circumcised when thirteen years old ; that is, at the 
age of puberty (Gen. xvii. 25). The rite was, in 
fact, practised not only in ancient Arabia (Jose- 
phus, "Ant."i. 12, § 2; Origen, " Ad Genesin,"i. 14; 
Eusebius, "PreparatioEvangelica," vi. 11; Shahras- 
tani, transl. Haarbriicker, ii. 35, § 4; Sozomen, 
"Hist. Eccl." vi. 38), but also in Ethiopia (Philo- 
storgius, "Hist. Eccl." iii. 4; Strabo, xvii. 776, 824), 
as well as by almost all the primitive tribes of 
Africa and by many of Australia (see R. Andree, 
"Die Beschneidung," in "Archiv fiir Anthropolo- 
gic," 1880, xiii. 53-78; Ploss, " Geschichtliches und 
Ethnologischcs ilber Knaben-Beschneidung," in 
"Archiv fiir Gesch. der Medicin," 1885, viii. ; R. 
Hartmann, " Die Volker Afrikas," 1879, i. 178). 

This accumulation of evidence points to the fact 
that circumcision in its primitive form was connected 
with marriage, whether performed with a view to 
the facilitation of cohabitation, as Ploss thinks, or, 
as is far more in accordance with the psychology of 
all primitive as well as of all ancient nations, to 
the consecration of the generative powers. At all 
events, the age of puberty is most frequently selected 
for the rite; and, after weeks of purification, accom- 
panied by tests of courage, the boy is formally 
graduated into manhood and, bearing a new name, 
is ushered into the bridal chamber (Niebuhr, "Be- 
schreibungvon Arabien,"p. 269; Andree, ^.c). For 
Egypt the practise is attested not alone bj' Herod- 
otus (ii. 37, 104), Philo(" De Circumcisione,"§2; ed. 
Mangey, p. 210), and Ambrosius (" De Abrahamo," ii. 
348), but also by the monuments (seeEbers, "^gyp- 
ten und die Bilcher Mose's," i. 278) and the very 
valuable Greek text published and discussed by R. 
Reizenstein (" Zwei Religionsgeschichtliche Fragen," 
Strasburg, 1901). The rite of circumcision signified 
admission of the boy at the age of puberty into the 
rank of priesthood, as " web " (the Egyptian for 
" pure" or " holy "), the mother's presence being con- 
sidered especially necessary. In Biblical literature 
the rite is incidental to the recognition of heirship, 
and to the adoption of anew name (Gen. xvii. 4-14). 
Moses' neglect to circumcise Gershom was possi- 
bly associated in some way with his (JMoses') mar- 
riage to a Midianite woman. Zipporah, however, 
ultimately showed her allegiance to the God of the 
Hebrews by performing the rite herself. The 
fact that in Arabic "hatana" signifies both "to 
marry " (compare the Hebrew Jfin = "bridegroom," 
and jnin = " father-in-law ") and "to circumcise" 
shows an original connection between the rite and 
the nuptial ceremony ; whereas the terms " tuhur " 
and " tathir " (purification), applied to circumcision 




in Arabia (see Wellhausen, " Skizzeu uud Vorarbei- 
ten," 1887, iii. 154 et seq.), indicate the later relig- 
ious view (see also Kohler, in "Z. D. M. G." xxiii. 
680, and Noldeke, ib. xl. 737). 

The critical view of the Pentateuch, vphicli 
ascribes Gen. xvii. to the late Priestly Code, and 
Josh. V. 4-7 to the interpolation of the redactor 
(see Dillmaun, commentary on the passage), suf- 
ficiently accounts for the non-circumcision of young 
Israelites prior to their entrance into Canaan by the 
following theory : The ancient Hebrews followed the 
more primitive custom of undergoing circumcision 
at the age of puberty, the circumcision of young 
warriors at that age signifying the consecration 
of their manhood to their task as men of the cove- 
nant buttling against the uncircumcised inhabitants 
(see Reizenstein, I.e.). After the settlement of the 
Israelites in Palestine, the rite was transferred to the 
eighth day after birth. In fixing the time of the in- 
itiatory rite at an age when its severity would be 
least felt, the Mosaic law shows its superiority over 
the older custom. Explanations which find the origin 
of circumcision in hygienic motives, suggested first 
b}^ Philo (^.c.) and Josephus ("'Contra Ap." ii. 13), 
then by Saadia C'Emunot we-De'ot," iii. 10) and 
Maimonides ("Moreh Nebukim," iii. 49), and often 
repeated in modern times, from Michaelis ("Mosa- 
isches Recht," iv. 184-186) down to Rosenzweig 
("Zur Beschneidungsfrage," 1878), who recommends 
its introducti(m into the Prussian army, have no 
other than a historical value. 

In Apocryphal and Rabbinical Literature : 

During the Babylonian exile the Sabbath and cir- 
cumcision became the characteristic symbols of Ju- 
daism. This seems to be the underlying idea of Isa. 
Ivi. 4 : " The eunuchs that keep my Sabbath" still 
"hold fast by my covenant," though not hav- 
ing "the sign of tlie covenant" (Gen. xvii. 11, 
Hebr.) upon their flesh. Contact with Grecian life, 
especially at the games of the arena, made this 
distinction obno.xious to the Hellenists, or anti- 
nationalists; and the consequence was their attempt 
to appear like tlie Greeks by epispasm (" making 
themselves foreskins"; I Mace. i. 15; Josephus, 
"Ant." xii. 5, §1; Assumptio Mosis, viii. ; I Cor. 
vii. 18; rh-^)] IK'O, Tosef., Shab. xv. 9; Yeb. 72a, 
b; Tor. IVah i. 16b; Yeb. viii. 9a). All the more 
did the law-observing Jews defy the edict of Anti- 
ochns Epiphanes prohibiting circumcision (I Mace. 
i. 48, 60 ; ii. 46) ; and the Jewish women showed 
their loyalty to the Law, even at the risk of their 
lives, by themselves circumcising their sons. 

In order to prevent the obliteration of the "seal 
of the covenant" (nnn Dmn) on the flesh, as cir- 
cumcision was henceforth called, the Rabbis, proba- 
bly after the war of Bar Kokba (see Yeb. I.e. ; Gen. 
R.xlvi.), instituted the "peri'ah" (the laying bare 
of the glan.s). without which circumcision was de- 
clared to be of no value (Shab. xxx. 6). 

Thenceforward circumcision was the mark of 
Jcwisli loyalty. The Book of Jubilees (xv. 26-27), 
written in the time of John Hyrcanus, has the fol- 
lowing: "Whosoever is uncircumcised belongs to 
' the sons of Belial,' to ' the children of doom and 
eternal perdition ' : for all the angels of the Presence 
and of the Glorification have been so from the 

day of their creation, and God's anger will be kin- 
died against the children of the covenant if they 
make the members of their body api)ear like those 
of the Gentiles, and they will be expelled and ex- 
terminated from the earth " (see Charles, " The Book 
of Jubilees," Iv.-lx. iii. 190-192). To be born 
circumcised was regarded as the privilege of the 
saints, from Adam, " who was made in the image of 
God," and Moses to Zerubbabel (see Ab. R. N., ed. 
Schechter, p. 153; Sotah 12a). And great impor- 
tance was laid upon the shedding of a drop of blood 
as a sign of the covenant when a child or a prose- 
lyte born circumcised was -to be initiated into Juda- 
ism (Shab. 135-137b). 

Uncircumcision being a blemish, circumcision waa 
to remove it, and to render Abraham and his de- 
scendants "perfect" (Ned. 81b; Gen. R. xlvi., after 
Gen. xvii. 1). "Isaac should be the offspring of the 
consecrated patriarch" (Gen. R. I.e.). He who des- 
troys the covenant sign of Abraham (by epispasm), 
has no portion in the world to come (Ab. iii. 17; 
Sifre, Num. xv. 31; Sanh. 99). According to Pirke 
R. El. xxix., it was Shem who circumcised Abra- 
ham and Ishmael on the Day of Atonement ; and the 
blood of the covenant then shed is ever before God 
on that day to serve as an atoning power. Accord- 
ing to the same Midrash, Pharaoh prevented the 
Hebrew slaves from performing the rite, but when 
the Passover time came and brought 
Abrahamic them deliverance, thej' underwent cir- 
Covenant. cumcision, and mingled the blood of 
the paschal lamb with that of the 
Abrahamic covenant, wherefore (Ezek. xvi. 6) God 
•repeats the words: "In thy blood live! " 

In the wilderness, however, the Israelites omitted 
only the peri'ah, according to R. Ishmael; accord- 
ing to the other rabbis, they did not circumcise their 
children on accoiuit of the fatigue of the journey. 
According to Sifre, Beha'aloteka, 67, and Ex. R. 
xix., the tribe of Levi was the only one that "kept 
the [Abrahamic] covenant " (Deut. xxxiii. 9). They 
had, says R. Ishmael, piled up the foreskins of the 
circumcision in the wilderness, and covered them 
with earth. To this Balaam referred when he 
asked: "Who can count the dust of Jacob? " (Num. 
xxiii. 10); and for this reason it became custom- 
ary after circumcision to cover the foreskin with 

Loyalty to the Abrahamic covenant was shown 
by the Gentiles who voluntarily espoused the Jewish 
faith, but not by the slaves of Abraham upon whom 
circumcision was enforced, the patriarch having 
done so only because he wished to conform to the 
Levitical laws of purity. Nor did Esau practise 
circumcision in his own household: "he despised his 
birthright" (Gen. xxv. 84; Tanna debe Eliyahu R. 
xxiv. [xxii.]). The Ephraimite kingdonr also failed 
to observe the Abrahamic rite ; wherefore Elijah 
swore "there shall not be dew nor rain these years, 
but according to my word " (I Kings xvii. 1). Eli- 
jah's lot was ever to be persecuted by Jezebel; 
therefore the Lord also swore an oath that no 
" berit milah " (rite of circumcision) should be cele- 
brated in Israel without the presence of Elijah; 
hence a chair is always reserved on that occasion for 
Elijah, "the angel [A. V.. "messenger"] of the 




covenant" (Mai. iii. 1; Pirke R. El. xix.; see Eli- 
jah's Chair). 

Talismanic powers were ascribed to the sign of 
the covenant, as also to the phylacteries. Accord- 
ing to the rabbis, David, when lie saw himself at the 
bath stripped of the tefiUin and other religious in- 
signia, thanked God for the Abrahamic rite protect- 
ing him, and sang the Twelfth Psalm, which bears 
the superscription " 'Al-ha Sheminit" (lit., "on the 
eighth," explained by the Rabbis as referring to the 
rite of circumcision; Yeb. 43b; compare ib. 53b.) 
Circumcision causes an angel to save the Israelites 
from the pangs of Gehenna, to which, according to 
Ezek. xxxii. 24, the uncircumcised ('arelim) are 
consigned (Tan., Lek Leka, ed. Ruber, 27; Ex. R. 
xix.). According to Gen. R. xlviii., it is Abraham 
who sits at the gate of Gehenna to save the circum- 
cised (see Abraham). " Circiimcision is of such 
importance that heaven and earth are held only by 
the fulfilment of that covenant [after Jer. xxxi. 
35] ; and all the merits of Moses could not shield 
him against the danger to which he was exposed in 
consequence of the neglect of this command. It is 

a thirteenfold covenant " (Nod. 34b). 
Saving- But "it is also an occasion of high- 
Power of est joy " (Meg. 16b, with reference to 
Cir- Esth. viii. 16, and Ps. cxix. 162), espe- 

cumcision. cially " for the mother " (Git. 57a, with 

reference to Ps. cxiii. 9), the berit mi- 
lah having been made the occasion of great festivity 
from the days of Abraham (Shab. 130a; Pirke R. El. 
I.e. ; see Banquets). 

" Circumcision is one of the commandments which, 
having been accepted with joy, are ever obeyed 
with joy, and, because the people gave their lives 
for them, are observed with steadfast loyalty " (R. 
Simeon b. Eleazar, in Sliab. 130a). This refers to 
the martyrdom which the Jewish people under- 
went during the Hadrianic persecution, which was 
especially directed against circumcision. "We 
ought to abstain from marrying," said R. Ishmael 
b. Elisha, "since the Roman [Yawan] government 
forbids us to celebrate tlie festival of the birth of a 
son["yeshua' ha-ben," or "shabua' ha-ben"J; but 
then the world would come to a standstill " (B. B. 
60b). "Why art thou, O Israel, led forth to be slain? 
. . . Because I have circumcised my son ! ... It is 
the love I show for my Father in heaven " (Mek., 
Yitro, Ba-Hodesh, vi.). "Why did God not make 
man as he wanted him to be?" asked Tinnius (Ty- 
rannus) Rufus, with biting sarcasm ; and Akiba re- 
plied, "In order that man should perfect himself 
by the fulfilment of a divine command" (Tan., 
Tazria', ed. Buber, 7). 

In Gen. R. xlvi. the arguments for and against 
circumcision are put forth in the form of a dia- 
logue between God and Abraham. Replying to 

the question why the conmiand had 

Arguments not been given to Adam if it was so 

for and dear to Him, God reminds Abraham 

Against, that it should be sufficient for him 

that he and God are in the world — a 
play on " ShADDAI "—and that the maintenance of 
the world depends upon the acceptance of the com- 
mandment. But Abraham objects that circum- 
cision is an obstacle to the conversion of the 

Gentiles. This trouble, also, is overcome by the 
declaration of God's sufficiency to protect both 
Abraham and the world. In fact, circumcision had 
been deferred from tlie time of Abraham's conver- 
sion — in the forty-eighth year of his life — until liis 
ninety-ninth year, for the express purpose of facili- 
tating the making of proselytes. 

The problem of proselytism, indeed, had stirred 
Judaism to its very depths, and had almost separated 
Hellenistic from Palestinian Judaism. The former 
would admit Gentiles after having undergone the 
rite of baptism ; that is, regeneration by living water 
(see Sibyllines. iv. 164 et seq. : " Wash your whole 
stature clean from impurity in running streams, 
and, with hands uplifted to heaven, ask for forgive- 
ness for your doing; then the worship of God will 
heal gross impiety "). With this view, Josephus 
relates ("Ant."xx. 2, §§ 3, 4), a Jew named Ananias 
sought to make converts to Judaism. He suc- 
ceeded with Queen Helena and the women of the 
court, and her son Izates was eager to follow lier 
example. But Izates' mother, on hearing of his 
determination to submit to circumcision also, im- 
plored him not to do so, as the people might take 
umbrage at his act of compliance with strange and 
abhori-ent rites, and overthrow the dynasty. His 
instructor, Ananias, also tried to dissuade him and 
to allay his scruples with arguments based on the 
meritoriousness of his intention, which would atone, 
in the sight of God, for the non-performance of 
the rite. But, through the influence of another 
Jew, Eleazar, from Galilee, the home of the Zealot 
party, Izates was easily induced to submit to the 
operation; and he informed both his mother and 
Ananias of what he had done. He was rewarded 
for his fortitude and piety ; for "God . . . preserved 
both Izates and his sons when they had fallen into 
many dangers, and procured their deliverance wlien 
it seemed impossible, demonstrating thereby that the 
fruit of piety is not lost to those who 

Circum- wait for Him and who put tlieir sole 

cision of trust in Him." Compare the story re- 
Proselytes, lated in Gen. R. xlvi. ; " King Monobaz 
and Izates, sons of King Ptolemy [an 
error: read " Monobaz " for "Ptolemy"], read the 
Book of Genesis together. When they came to the 
passage xvii. 11 they wept; and each, without 
the other's knowledge, underwent circumcision. 
The next time they read the chapter together one 
.said to the other: ' Wo unto me, my brother! ' They 
then disclosed what thej' had done. Their mother, 
on hearing of the matter, told their father that they 
had needed circumcision as a precaution against phi- 
mosis, and he signified his approval. As a reward 
for their action they were saved by an angel from be- 
ing killed in an ambush during a war in which they 
had become involved " (compare Gratz, " Gesch." iii. 
430 e;; seq.). 

The issue between the Zealot and Liberal par- 
ties regarding the circumcision of proselytes re- 
mained an open one in tannaitic times ; R. Joshua as- 
serting that the bath, or baptismal rite, rendered a 
person a full proselyte without circumcision, as Is- 
rael, when receiving the Law, required no initiation 
other than the purificative bath ; while R. Eliezer 
makes circumcision a condition for the admission of 




a proselyte, and declares the baptismal rite to be 
of no consequence (Yeb. 46a). A similar contro- 
versy between the Shammaites and the Hillelites is 
given (Shab. 137a) regarding a proselyte born cir- 
cumcised: the former demanding the 
Cir- spilling of a drop of blood of the cov- 

cumcision enant; the latter declaring it to be 
Necessary unnecessary. The rigorous Shamma- 

or Not? ite view, voiced in the Book of Jubi- 
lees (I.e.), prevailed in the time of 
King John Hyrcanus, who forced the Abrahamic 
rite upon the Idumeans, and in that of King Aristo- 
bulus, who made the Itureans undergo circumcision 
(Josephus, "Ant." xiii. 9, § 1 ; 11, § 3). According to 
Esth. viii. 17, LXX., the Persians who. from fear of 
the Jews after Haman's defeat, "became Jews," 
were circumcised. 

The rigorous view is echoed also in the Midrash : 
" If thy sons accept My Godhead [by undergoing 
circumcision] I shall be their God and bring them 
into the land; but if they do not observe My cove- 
nant in regard either to circumcision or to the Sab- 
bath, they shall not enter the land of promise " (Gen. 
E. xlvi., with reference to Gen. xvii. 8-9). "The 
Sabbath-keepers who are not circumcised are intru- 
ders, and deserve punishment," (nn^O 3"n DSCJ'K' '13 ; 
Deut. R. i. and Ma'ase Torah, ed. Schonblum ; see 
also Hippolytus," Refutatio Omnium Hseresium," 
ix. 21). 

It appears, however, that while the Palestinian 
Jews accepted the uncircumcised proselytes only as 
"Proselytes of the Gate" ("Gere Tosliab," Yeb. 47b; 
see PuosELYTEs), non-Palestinian Judaism did not 
make such a distinction until the Roman wars, when 
the more rigorous view became prevalent every- 
where. Thus Flavins Clemens, a nephew of the 
emperors Titus and Domitian, when with his wife 
Domitilla he embraced the Jewish faith, underwent 
circumcision, for which he suffered the penalty of 
death (see Griitz, "Gesch." iv. 403 et seq., 702). 

It was chiefly this rigorous feature of Jewish prose- 
lytism which provoked the hostile measures of the 
emperor Hadrian. And, furthermore, it was the 
discussion of this same question among the Jews — 
whether the seal of circumcision, n'13 Dmn (see 
Shab. 137b; Ex. R. xix. ; Targ. Cant. iii. 8; Hermas, 
"Similitudines," viii. 6, ix. 16; II Clemens to the 
Corinthians, vii. 6, viii. 6; Guace at Meals; for 
heathen parallels of the expression " seal " see Anrich, 
"Das Antike Mysterienwesen," pp. 128-124, and 
Reizenstein, I.e. pp. 7-8), might not find its substi- 
tute in "the seal of baptism" — which led Paul to 
urge the latter in opposition to the former (Rom. 
ii. 25 e« seq., iv. 11, and elsewhere), just as he was 
led to adopt the antinomistic or antinational view, 
which had its exponents in Alexandria (see Philo, 
" De Migratlone Abrahami," xvi. ;('d. Mangey, i. 450). 

Wiiile in Biblical times the mother (perhaps gen- 
erally) performed the oi)erati()n, it was in later times 
performed by a surgeon, KDII or pix. also called by 
the specific name " mohel " (^nin ; see Josephus, 
"Ant." XX. 2, § 4; B. B. 21a; Shab. 130b. 133b, 135, 
156a) or "goze'r" (inj)- In the Codex Justinianus 
(i. 9, 10) physicians were prohibited from perform- 
ing the operation on Roman citizens who had be- 
come converts to Judaism. 

Unlike Christian baptism, circumcision, however 
important it may be, is not a sacrament which gives 
the Jew his religious character as a. Jew. An un- 
circumcised Jew is a full Jew by birth 
Cir- (Hul. 4b; 'Ab. Zarali 27a; Shulhan 

cumcision 'Aruk, Yoreh De'ah, 264, 1). A non- 
Not a Sac- Jewish physician may, according to 

rament. R. Meir, in the absence of a Jewish 
expert, perform the ceremony, as may 
women, slaves, and children ('Ab. Zarah 26b; Men. 
42a; Maimonides, " Yad," Milah, ii. 1; Yoreh De'ah, 
I.e.), although the more rigorous Shammaite rule 
was forced by the Amoraim; compare Gen. R. I.e. 

Circumcision must, whenever possible, take place 
on the eighth day, even when this falls upon the 
Sabbath (Shab. xix. 1). The Samaritans and the 
Karaites, however, dissent from this rule (.see Kara- 
ites and Samaritans); if by reascin of the child's 
debility or sickness the ceremony is postponed, it 
can not take place on the Sabbath (Shab. 137a). It 
is the duty of the father to have his child circum- 
cised ; and if he fails in this, the bet din of the city 
must see that the rite is performed (Kid. 29a). 

As early as the geonic time the ceremony had 
been transferred from the of the parents to 
the sj-nagogue, where it took place after the serv- 
ice in the presence of the whole congregation. In 
order to give it the character of a festival certain 
prayers of a mournful nature, such as "Widduy" 
and "Tahanun," were omitted, and occasionally 
appropriate hymns were recited instead. In the 
tenth century there appears, in addition to the 
mohel and the father of the child, the "ba'al berit," 
also called " godfather " (" sandek " corresponding to 
the avvTEKvog, the godfather in the Greek Church, 
who lifted the neophyte from the baptismal water). 
The sandek holds the child on his knees during the 
operation. As a rule, the wife of the godfather car- 
ries the child in and hands it to the mohel, while 
the congregation greets it with: " Blessed be he that 
Cometh in the name of the Lord " (Ps. cxviii. 26). 
Beside the chair upon which the sandek is seated 
another chair is placed, called, as has been stated 
above, "the chair of Elijah" (see Elijah's Chair). 
Upon this the mohel places the child, reciting Gen. 
xlix. 18; Ps. cxix. 156, 162, 166; and the first half of 
Ps. Ixv. 5, the congregation responding with the lat- 
ter half. He then takes the child from 
The "Elijah's chair" and places it, upon 

Ceremony, a cushion, in the lap of the sandek, 
reciting the benediction: "Blessed art 
Thou, O Lord our God, King of the Universe, who 
hast sanctified us by Thy commandments, and hast 
enjoined us to perform the commandment of cir- 
cumcision." When the operation is over, the father 
of the child recites the benediction: "Blessed art 
Thou . . . who hast sanctified us by Thy command- 
ments, and hast enjoined us to make him enter into 
the covenant of Abraham our father " ; and the con- 
gregation responds with : " As he hath been made to 
enter the covenant, so may he also be made to enter 
the study of the Torah, the huppah [nuptial cham- 
ber], and tlie performance of good deeds." The 
use of the pronoun "him" in this peculiar bene- 
diction of the father, and in the congregational 
response given in the ancient Baraita (Shab. 137b), 




seems to indicate that originally the child was named 
immediately after the circumcision, as was the case 
in New Testament times (Luke ii. 21 ; compare Gen. 
xvii. 5), and that the congregation then blessed the 
child just named. Hence, also, the prayer recited at 
the close. Owing to the fact that the original " se'u- 
dat berit milah " (see Banquets) was later on post- 
poned or changed in character, the two benedictions 
introducing it are now recited by the mohel, who, 
taking the cup of wine, says: "Blessed be Thou . . . 
who hast created the fruit of the vine. " " Blessed 
be Thou . . . who hast .sanctitied the beloved one 
[Isaac] from the womb, and hast ordained an ordi- 
nance for his kindred, and sealed his descendants 
with the sign of the holy covenant. Therefore on 
this account do Thou, O living God, our Inherit- 
ance and our Rock, command [Thy angels ; see 
Maimonides, "Pe'er ha-Dor," responsum No. 134] 
to save Thy beloved kindred [Israel] from tlie pit 
[of Gehenna], for the sake of Thy covenant which 
Thou hast put upon our flesh ! Blessed be thou, O 
Lord, Maker of the Covenant " (Shab. 137b). 

Here follows in the liturgy a praj'er, preserved from 
geonic times by Abraham b. Nathan, Tanyah, and 
Abudrahim, referring especially to the naming of the 
child : " Our God and God of our fathers! Preserve 
this child to his father and mother, and let his name 
be called in Israel N the son of N. Let the father 
rejoice in him that came forth from his loins, and 
let the mother be glad in the fruit of her womb; as 
it is written . . . [Prov. xxiii. 25] : and it is said 
. . . [Ezek. xvi. 6 (see above); Ps. cv. 8-10; Gen. 
xxi. 4; Ps. cxviii. 1]. Let the child named N wax 
great ! " Whereupon the congregation again re- 
sponds, saying: "As he hath entered into the cove- 
nant, so may he be permitted to enter the study of 
the Torah, the huppah, and the performance of 
good deeds." 

After having for centuries been practised as a dis- 
tinctively Jewish rite, circumcision appeared to 
many enlightened Jews of modern times to be no 
longer in keeping with the dictates of a religious 
truth intended for humanity at large; and its aboli- 
tion was advocated, and made the shibboleth of the 
" Friends of Reform" (" Reformf reunde ") in Frank- 
fort-on-the-Main in 1843. Under the 

Reform leadership of Theodor Creizenach, M. 

Judaism !Stern of Gottingen, and others, the 

and Cir- association published in the " Frank- 
cumcision. furter Journal," July 15, 1843, and in 
"Der Israelit des Neunzehnten Jahr- 
hunderts" of the same year articles in which, be- 
sides the abolition of circumcision and the transfer 
of the Jewish Sabbath to Sunday, the renuncia- 
tion of historical Judaism in its entirety was de- 
clared necessary, and a sort of Jewish Church, 
based upon the Mosaic monotheism, was recom- 
mended. These articles called forth the protests of 
many rabbis, even in the Reform camp, among 
whom were Joseph Aub and Samuel Hii-sch of Lux- 
emburg (see S. D. Trier, "Rabbinische Gutachten 
liber die Beschueidung," Frankfort-on-the-Main, 
1844). A bitter controversy raged in the Jewish 
congregations and press. Samuel Holdheim took 
sides with the Radical Reformers; David Einhorn, 
"with a number of other rabbis, opposed the merely 

negative standpoint of the Frankfurt Reform- 
Verein, but emphatically indorsed the view that he 
who disregards the law of circumcision, whatever 
the motive may be, is nevertheless a Jew, cir- 
cumcision having no sacramental character. Zunz 
and Aub, however, endeavored to attribute to cir- 
cumcision a semi-sacramental character (see Cere- 
monies); but Geiger, who, in his private corre- 
spondence with Stern, sympathized with the Radical 
Reformers, objected, with others, to this arbitrary 
position (see Geiger, "Gesammelte Schriften," v. 
174, 181). On the other hand, Samuel Hirscli, in a 
series of discourses on the Messianic mission of Israel 
(1843), preached a sermon on the symbolic value of 

In 1847 Einhorn, as chief rabbi of Mecklenburg, 
became involved in a controversy with Franz De- 
litzsch of Rostock, who denounced him for acting 
contrary to Jewish law in naming and consecrating 
an uncircumcised child in the synagogue. Einhorn, 
in an "opinion," published a second time in his "Si- 
nai," 1857, pp. 7Met ser/., declared, with references to 
ancient and modern rabbinical authorities, that a child 
of Jewish parents was a Jew even if uncircumcised, 
and retained all the privileges, as well as all the ob- 
ligations, of a Jew. This view he also expressed in 
his catechism, his prayer-book, and his sermons, em- 
phasizing the spiritual character of the Abrahamic 
covenant— " the seal of Abraham placed upon the 
spirit of Israel as God's covenant people." 

The abolition of circumcision in the case of prose- 
lytes, on the ground of its being a measure of ex- 
treme cruelty when performed upon adults, was 
proposed by Isaac M. Wise at the rabbinical con- 
ference in Philadelphia in 1869, and was finally 
agreed to by the Reform rabbis of America at the 
New York conference in 1892 (see Confeuences, 
Rabbinical ; Proselytes ; Reform). 

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Brecher, Die BescJmeiduiiy der Israeliten, Vienna, 1845 ; 
Friedreich, Ueber die JlXdiaclie Beschueidung, Anspach, 
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S. Holdheim, Ueber die Beschneiduna, Schwerin, 1844; A. 
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nant, in The Jewish Reformer, 1886, No. 2 ; S. Kohn, Die 
Gesch. der Beschneidung beiden Juden (Hebrew), Cracow, 
1903 ; S. Kutna, Studien Uber die Beschneidung, in Monats- 
schrift, 1901, pp. 353-861, 433-453 ; Year Book of Central Con- 
ference American Rabbis, 1891-92. 
e. g. h. K. 

In Ethnography: Distribution: The rite of 

circumcision appears to be both the oldest and the 
most widely spread surgical operation known. Ac- 
cording toAndree ("Die Beschneidung," in" Archiv 
filr Anthropologic," xiii. 76), it is still practised by 
more than two hundred million people, which is 
quite a conservative estimate, since the followers of 
Islam alone are reckoned at two hundred and fifty 
million. Though not a principle or religious duty, 
it is spread throughout the Mohammedan world; 
consequently both the age at which the operation is 
performed and the mode of treatment vary among 
Turks, Persians, Algerians, and Arabs. Among the 




Arabs circumcision seems to be a test of endurance. 
Philostorgius found it practised by them as early 
as 342 B.C. A much earlier instance, however, 
among Egyptian mummies, is that of Amen-en-heb, 
(lived between 1614 and 1555 B.C.), which H. Welcke 
has found to be a true case of circumcision (" Arcliiv 
fur Antlir." x. 123). The practise extends over part 
of the Balkans, Asia Minor, Persia, part of India, 
and the Mala}" Archipelago, besides practically the 
whole of North Africa. Nor can this be due to 
Mohammedan influence, as it occurs 

Africa. quite as frequently among the tribes 
of the east and west coasts of Africa 
which have not been in contact with Islam. Even 
the Christian Abyssinians, the Bogos, and the Copts, 
the first of whom probably learned it from Jews, still 
observe the rite. Indeed, so universal is the prac- 
tise in Africa that it would be simpler to give a list 
of the tribes that do not circumcise than to enumer- 
ate all those that do. Zobirowski attempts to prove 
that it is found in Africa only among those tribes 
which have plants of Oriental origin, like millet, rice 
or sorgho (boura), and appears to suggest that it 
has slowly spread through the dark continent from 
Egypt ; but the absence of complete induction and of 
historic records renders his contention very doubtful. 

The possibilitj" of an Egyptian origin for circum- 
cision is, however, completely disproved by the ex- 
tent of the practise in Australia. The Australian 
evidence is of particular interest, the operation 
being performed there with a stone knife, as is re- 
corded of the Israelites (Spencer and Gillen, "Tribes 
of Central Australia," p. 323; compare Ex. iv. 25). 

The practise is almost equally wide-spread among 
the islanders of the Malay Archipelago. 

For America the evidence is somewhat scanty, 
and relates chiefly to the central part of the conti- 
nent, though Petltot reports the practise among the 
Athapascans and JMcKcnzie among the Dog River 
Indians. An analogous practise is reported by 
Squier among the inhabitants of Nicaragua, who 
draw blood from the organ and sow corn dipped in 
it. In Mexico a similar practise was found bv Cortez, 
according to the report of Garcia de Palacio (1576) ; 
but the blood drawn was ofl'ered at 
America, the altar. Las Casas reports it among 
the Aztecs; and the Mayas of Yuca- 
tan still have an analogous practise. The Caribs of 
the Orinoco and the Tacunasof the Amazon practise 
the rite, as well as the Automecos, the Salivas, and 
the Guemos, who perform it on the eighth day, the 
earliest time recorded among savage tribes. 

Mode of Operation: The possibility of tliis wide 
distribution of the practise being due to a dispersion 
from a single center like Egypt or southern Arabia, 
is disproved by the great varietj^ of methods by 
which the removal of the prepuce is effected, some 
of the practises, as in New Caledonia and the Fiji Is- 
lands, throwing light on the " peri'ah " of the Jews. 

The subject can not be adeq lately treated with- 
out a reference to the analogous operation of clitori- 
dectomy performed on girls f>f nubile age, some- 
times accompanied by the so-called "infibulation " 
of the adjacent parts. According to Ploss (in 
"Zeitschrift flir Ethnologic," 1871, pp. 381 et fteq., 
summarized in his"Das Kind," 1st ed., i. 305-324), 
IV.— 7 

this occurs among tiie S. Arabs, in Egypt, in Abys- 
sinia, among the Gallas, the Susus, the Maudingos.the 
Masai, and the Waknosi (all of whom likewise circum- 
cise their boys), as well as in Peru and on the banks 
of the Ucayale River. The operation is in nearly 
every case performed simultaneously on males and 
females, though they are kept separate during the 
periods of preparation and operation. One sect of 
Jews, the Falashas, also circumcise both sexes 
(Andree, "Zur Volkskunde der Judeu," p. 84); it is 
probable that this practise has been adopted from 
the surrounding Abyssinians. 

The instrument with which the operation is per- 
formed is in almost every case an ordinary knife of 
iron or steel ; but, as stated above, the Australians 
use stone knives, as the Jews and the Egyptians 
(Pliny, "Hist. Nat." xxxv. 46) did formerly, and as 
the North-American Indians and the Aljyssinian 
Alnajas still do (Ludolf, "Hist, ^thiop." ill i. 21). 
A case in which a stone knife was used by Jews is 
mentioned by Schudt as late as 1726. Mussel-shells 
are used in Polynesia. The Marolongs of South 
Africa used a "fire-stone " (meteorite), but now cir- 
cumcise with an assegai. 

Much variety is found in the age at wliich the rite 
is performed among difllerent tribes. The earliest 
occurs among the Jews, on the eighth 
Age. day after birth (Falashas even on the 

seventh), and among the southwestern 
Arabs, who perform the rite on the seventh, four- 
teenth, twenty-first, or twenty-eighth day. The Su- 
sus near Timbuctoo and the Guemos of South Amer- 
ica are also said to perform the rite on the eighth 
day. In East Africa the Mazequas perform it be- 
tween the first and the second month. The Persian 
Mohammedans circumcise in the third or fourth 
year; the Christian Copts, between the sixth and 
eighth. The P'ijians perform the operation in the 
seventh year, as do also the Samoans. But, apart 
from these instances, all the tribes who perform this 
rite do so at the age of puberty, which is of course 
a very significant fact. The exceptional position 
of the Jews in this regard has to be emphasized in 
any discussion of the light which ethnology can 
throw upon the Biblical command. 

The act of circumcision is generally accompanied 

by some special ceremonial. In Samoa it takes 

place when the youth is named; but 

Accompa- most often it forms a part of the gen- 

nyingCere- eral set of ceremonies initiating the 

menial, young of both sexes into mature life. 
This is generally accompanied ty trials 
of endurance for the lads or young men; and from a 
certain point of view circumcision may be regarded 
as one of these tests, as is definitely the case among the 
Jauf of South Arabia (Halevy). As instances may be 
mentioned the elaborate ceremonials of African and 
Australian savages ; but there is nothing specifically 
religious in the initiation ceremonies, the elders of 
the tribe performing the operation and instructing 
the neophytes. Among the Falashas three old 
women perform the rite, possibly because it is prac- 
tised on girls as well as boys. Occasionally, how- 
ever, the operation is performed by the priest ; and 
in the New Hebrides a distinctly mystic charac- 
ter is imparted to the ceremony, no woman being 




allowed to be present. Similarly, Livingstone found 
it impossible to obtain access to the " boguera " of 
the Bechnanas. Among the Bourana tlie lads are 
kept apart in a special hut ; and on the day of cir- 
cumcision an ox is sacrificed, and all smear them- 
selves with its blood. Among the Sulus the blood 
is received in a cup of ashes and buried, while with 
the Marolongs the removed foreskin is buried. The 
rite is mostly common to the whole population, but 
occasionally, as in Rook Island, it is performed on 
the rich only, while in Celebes it is only resorted to 
in the case of princes who have no children. In 
Mexico it seems to have been a prerogative of the 
upper classes. 

There are certain indications which seem to show 
that primitive peoples adopt or drop the practise 
without much ado, possibly because it is not regarded 
as definitely religious. The Zulus and the Gallas have 
discarded the custom since Europeans have become 
acquainted with them, and Reinach gives reasons 
for believing that the Philistines, though specifically 
mentioned as uncircumcised (Judges xiv. 3; I Sam. 
xvii. 26, 36; xviii. 25; Ezek. xxxii. 30), had adopted 
circumcision by the time of Herodotus (ii. 104) and 
Aristophanes ("Birds," p. 507) — i.e., between 575 
(Ezekiel) and 445 B.C. (Herodotus) — while the Idu- 
means, who appear to have been circumcised in the 
time of Jeremiah (Jer. ix. 26), had entirely discarded 
the practise by the time of John Hyrcanus, wlio for- 
cibly reintroduced it among them (" L' Anthropolo- 
gic," iv. 28-31). 

Object : The exact object for which this wide- 
spread custom is practised has been long a subject 
of dispute. The theories mainly held point to three 
originating causes: tribal, sacrificial, and utilitarian. 
For the tribal view there is to be said that circum- 
cision, like other mutilations of the bodj' intended 
for tribal marks, takes place at the age of puberty, 
when, for example, the Hereros of Africa knock out 
the front teeth ; but as the organ is almost invaria- 
bly hidden, it is difficult to see how circumcision 
could be regarded as a tribal mark (see Gerland in 
Waitz, "Anthropologic," vi. 40). 

The sacrificial theory, which sees in circumcision 
an offering to the deity of fertility, has to draw for 
illustration from the practises of Yucatan and Nica- 
ragua, where the custom itself is only in a stage of 
survival, if it exists at all. Others regard it as a 
substitute for human sacrifice (Movers and Ghil- 
lany), and place it on the same level as eunuchism 
(Letourneau, Elie Reclus). Hence Herbert Spencer 
suggests that it was a mark of subjection introduced 
by conquering warriors to supersede the punishment 
of death. The appeal made to Samson by his father 
(Judges xiv. 3), and that made to the Israelites and 
to Saul by David (I Sam. xvii. 26, 86), give a cer- 
tain amount of plausibility to this theory ; but the 
fact that the practise is either common to all the 
tribe or is reserved for the upper classes, as in 
Mexico, the Celebes, and Rook Island, tells strongly 
against this last form of the sacrificial theory. 

The suggestion of Sir Richard Burton (" Memoirs 
Anthrop. Soc." i. 818) that it was introduced to pro- 
mote fertility seems to be contradicted by the prac- 
tise and arguments of many tribes (see Riedel, in 
"Verhandlungen der Gesellschaft fur Erdkunde zu 

Berlin," 1885, No. 3). The claims of cleanliness and 
health have been strongly urged, especially for hot 
countries, where phimosis is likely to be induced if 
the natural secretions of the parts are 
Utilitarian retained by the prepuce. Philo (" De 
Theories. Circumcisione," ed. Mangey, ii. 210) 
gives this as one of the motives for the 
Biblical injunction; and later writers, such as Clapa- 
rede ("La Circoncision," Paris, 1861) and Rosen- 
zweig ("Zur Beschneidungsfrage," 1878), have for 
this reason recommended its general adoption. But 
the practise is found among so many tribes who 
have not the most elementary notions of cleanliness, 
not to speak of hygiene, that this is not likely to be 
the prevailing motive for its adoi^tion. 

The fact that circumcision is almost invariably 
found practised as a rite of initiation, and frequently 
on both sexes, gives the clue to its general adoption, 
as H. Ploss contends in an essay (" Geschichtliches 
und Ethnologisches ilber Knaben- 
An Beschneidung," in " Deutsches Archiv 

Initiation fur Gesch. der Medicin," viii. 312- 
Ceremony. 344) mainly based on Andree's ma- 
terials. According to the wise cus- 
tom among savages of initiating their youth into all 
the duties of the mature life, the elders prepare tlie 
lads for their marital life at this time; and circum- 
cision, often of both sexes, is resorted to as part of 
the preparation. The only ancient legend about 
Zipporah circumcising Moses (as would seem to be 
implied by her exclamation, Ex. iv. 25, 26) confirms 
Ploss's view to some extent; but the exceptionally 
early age at which Jews perform the rite takes it 
entirely out of the category of initiation ceremonies 
among them, and proves it to be of a religious or 
symbolic nature, as indeed is expressly claimed for it. 
Bibliography: Index Catalogue, of Surgeon-Major^s Li- 
hrary, Washington, 1st and 2d series, s.v. Circumcision 
(ritual), gives a tolerably complete list of works and papers. 
The above article is founded mainly on the material col- 
lected by Andree and Ploss, with the use of M. Zaborowski's 
La Circoncision, aa SuperMtion en Afrigue, in L' An- 
thropologic, vii. 653-675 ; idem, De la Circoncision des Gar- 
foriset deV Excision des Filles Comme Pratique d'lnitia- 
tion, in Bulletin Soc. Anthrop. Paris, 4th series, v. 81-104. 
Special references are only introduced in correction or sup- 
plementally ; for other statements authorities will be found 
in Andree. 


In Medicine : To perform the operation and 

to avoid any danger that may be connected with it, 
an acquaintance with the anatomy of the tissues in- 
volved is necessary. The organ terminates in a con- 
ical fleshy substance called the glans. The skin cover- 
ing the organ is prolonged forward in a 
Anatomy of loose fold, which covers the glans and 
the Parts, is supplied with an inner lining of the 
character of a mucous membrane, 
Avhich, being reflected, also forms a covering of the 
glans proper. The prolonged portion of skin with 
its lining is termed the prepuce or foreskin. The 
prepuce has no large blood-vessels; and therefore 
circumcision is not attended by any dangerous hem- 
orrhage, except when the glans is injured by un- 
skilful handling of the knife, or in very exceptional 
cases where there exists an abnormal tendency to 

Circumcision varies considerably as practised by 
the Jews and by the Mohammedans. Among the 
Jews it means not only the excision of the outer 




part of the prepuce, but also a slitting of its inner 
lining to facilitate the total uncovering of the glans. 

Implements and Accessories of Circumcision (18th 

1. Cup of benediction. 2. Shield. 3. Knife. 4. Spice-box. 
5. Tape. 6. Cotton and Oil. 7. Sand. 8. Powder. 

(From Dodenachatz, " Kircliliohe Vtrfassung," 1748.) 

The Mohammedans pursue the simple method of cut- 
ting off the integumental portion of the foreskin, so 
that almost all of the inner layer remains, and the 
glans continues covered. 

The operation up to very recent times was exclu- 
sively performed by laymen, to whom the act had 
been taught by others who, by experience, had ac- 
quired the necessary knowledge and skill. The tests 
of a good operator, or *'mohel" (circumciser), were 
that he should perform his work quickly, safely as 
to its immediate effect, and successfully as to the 
condition which the parts would permanently as- 
sume. As a rule, the majority of these operators 
developed great dexterity; and accidents were re- 
markably rare. In case the glans was not sutli- 
ciently exposed after the healing process was com- 
pleted, much anxiety was occasioned; for in some 
exceptional instances a second operation was re- 
sorted to. 

The operation consists of three parts: "milah," 
"peri'ah," and "mezizah." 

Milah : The child having been placed upon a pil- 
low resting upon the lap of the godfather or "san- 
dck " (he who is honored by being assigned to 
hold the child), the mohel exposes the parts l^y 
removal of garments, etc., and instructs the san- 
dek how to hold the child's legs. The mohel 
then grasps the prepuce between the thumb and 
index-flnger of his left hand, exerting sufficient trac- 
tion to draw it from the glans, and places the shield 
(see Fig. 1, next column) in position just before the 
glans. He now takes his knife and with one sweep 
excises the foreskin. This completes the first act. 
The knife (see Fig. 3) most commonly used is double- 
edged, although one like those ordinarily used by 
surgeons is also often employed. 

Peri'ah: After the excision has been completed, 
the mohel seizes the inner lining of the prepuce, 
which still covers the glans, with the thumb-nail and 

index-finger of each hand, and tears it so that he 
can roll it fully back over the glans and expose the 
latter completely. The mohel usually lias hi.s 
thumb-nail suitably trimmed for the purpose. In 
exceptional cases the inner lining of the prepuce i ; 
more or less extensively adherent to the glans, which 
interferes somewhat with the ready removal; but 
persistent effort will overcome the difficulty. 

Mezizah : By this is meant the sucking of the 
blood from the wound. The mohel takes some wine 
in his mouth and applies his lips to the part in- 
volved in the operation, and exerts suction, after 
which he expels the mixture of wine and blood into 
a receptacle (see Fig. 4, below) provided for the 
purpose. This procedure is repeated several times, 
and completes the operation, except as to the con- 
trol of the bleeding and the dressing of the wound. 
The remedies employed for the former purpose vary 
greatly among different operators and in different 
countries. Astringent powders enter largely into 
these applications. In North Germany the following 
mixture is extensively used : dilute sulfuric acid, one 
part ; alcohol, three parts ; honey, two parts ; and vin- 
egar, six parts. A favorite remedy with many oper- 

MODERN Implements of Circumcision. 
1. Shield. 3. Mouthpiece. 3. Knife, i. Cup for Mezizah. 

ators is the tincture of the chlorid of iron, which is 
a recognized efficient styptic. These solutions are 




applied by means of small circular pieces of liuen 
with openings in the center, into which the glans is 
placed, and the dressing is closely applied to the parts 
below. This is secured in its place by a few turns of a 
small bandage. A diaper is now applied, and the 
operation is finished. The dressings are usually al- 
lowed to remain until the third day. The nurse in the 
mean time is instructed to apply olive-oil, plain or 
carbolizcd. When the parts are then uncovered the 
wound will in most cases have healed. 

To guard against any mishap through suppuration 
or erysipelas, the genitals vShould be washed with 
soap and water, and afterward with a solution of 
bichlorid of mercury, 1 to 2,000. The mohel should 
deal similarly with his 
hands, and especiall}' 
with his nails, using a; and all the 
instruments to be used 
should be immersed in 
boiling water for about 
five minutes. The dress- 
ings should consist of 
sterile or antiseptic 
gauze or similar mate- 
rial. All the prepara- 
tions relating to the 
dressings, the instru- 
ments, and the hands 
of the operator should 
be made before the child 
is brought into the room 
in which the operation is 
to be performed, in order 
to avoid unnecessarily 
prolonging the anxiety 
of the mother. A basin 
with the bichlorid of 
mercury solution should 
be at hand, into which 
the operator may dip 
his hands immediately 
before he begins his 

Care must be exer- 
cised in grasping and 
making traction on the 
foreskin just before the 
knife is used. The outer 
layer is much more elas- 
tic than the inner ; and if the outer and inner layers 
are not held firmly together at the margin, it may 
happen in making traction that the 
Pre- outer layer may become folded upon 

cautions itself, with the result that the cut 
to Be will remove a circular piece of skin 
Observed, just behind the edge of the foreskin. 
Of course this will require the sub- 
sequent removal of the remaining edge. 

Some operators dispense with the shield, but this 
is not to be commended ; for it will expose the child 
to the risk of having a piece of the glans cut off, 
and to dangerous bleeding in consequence. 

When the operator uses his nails to tear the inner 
layer (peri'ah), he should be careful to have them 
absolutely clean. Should they not have the requi- 

1. Knife. 

site shape or firmness, or should he prefer avoiding 
any risk attaching to that method, two pairs of 
short forceps may with advantage be substituted, 
and are now often used. The tear should be made 
carefully, so that it will not deviate greatly from 
the median line, and should not be carried back too 
far; for at the margin of the corona it might give 
rise to unnecessary bleeding. When the inner li- 
ning is tough, or bound down by adhesions, a probe- 
pointed scissors may be used for the peri'ah. Drs. 
Kehlberg and Lowe recommend the use of the scis- 
sors in all cases ; claiming that the wound made by 
them is more favorable, and infection less liable. 
Against this, however, is the well-established prin- 
ciple in surgery that a 
lacerated wound is less 
apt to bleed than one 
made by a sharp instru- 

Considerable opposi- 
tion has of late years 
been made against the 
mezizah on the ground 
that it is entirely in con- 
fiict with the aseptic 
treatment of wounds, 
which should be adhered 
to in all instances, but 
more especially in conse- 
quence of a case in Cra- 
cow in which it became 
known that syphilis was 
communicated to a large 
number of Jewish chil- 
dren through an infected 
condition of the mohel's 
mouth (Glassberg, "Die 
Beschneidung," p. 27). 
The result has been that 
a number of mohels have 
discarded the mezizah 
altogether. The major- 
ity of Jews, however, 
remain averse to such an 
innovation, the more so 
because it is condemned 
by the Orthodox rabbis. 
As a compromise, which 
has received satisfactory 
ecclesiastical authority, 
a method has been adopted which consists in the 
application of a glass cylinder that has a com- 
pressed mouthpiece, by means of 
Danger of which suction is accomplished. Be- 
Mezizah, fore the cylinder is applied a small 
quantity of sterihzed absorbent cot- 
ton is placed in the mouthpiece, which effectually 
protects both the child and the operator. 

The inner layer, when it is folded back after its lac- 
eration, meets with the outer retracted layer, and the 
application of the dressing will .satisfactorily keep the 
edges in fair apposition. Drs. Kehlberg and Lowe, in 
an article in Glassberg's work, recommend the closing 
of the wound by stitches after the method practised 
in surgery and known as the continuous suture. 
There are two objections to this treatment of the 

Articles Used in Circumcision. 
2. Platter, bearing as inscription Gen. xxi. i. 
3. Handle of platter. 

(In the Musee de Cluny, Paris.) 





wound. It prolougs the operation unnecessarily, 
and entails the annoyance of reuaoving the sutures 
when the union of the wound has taken place. 

The sponge, which has almost invariably been 
made use of for cleansing the parts (which are more 
or less covered with blood), should be entirely dis- 
carded. It has been found difficult to keep sponges 
surgically clean ; and pledgets of sterile gauze — fresh 
ones for every case — are to be preferred. 

The most important consideration after the com- 
pletion of the operation is to guard against hemor- 
rhage. When the wound is limited to the prepuce 
itself, hemorrhage need not be dreaded; for the 
pressure of the simple dressings alone will be suffi- 
cient to control it effectually. Many operators apply 
a little tincture of-iron, to which there 
Treatment can be no serious objection; for it is 
of Wound, the most reliable of the remedies usu- 
ally applied for the arrest of hemor- 
rhage. The mohel should remain with the child for 
at least an hour to be perfectly satisfied that no 
hemorrhage follows, and to stop it should it occur. 
If the bleeding does not proceed from an artery, the 
tincture of iron with somewhat firmer pressure of 
the bandage will usually prove satisfactory. Should 
the bleeding come in jets, a catch-artery forceps must 
be applied, which acts as a clamp ; and a surgeon 
should be sent for, as a ligature maybe needed. 

Thei-e is one form of bleeding which has thus far 
not been mentioned, and which needs consideration. 
It is well known that there are individuals who 
bleed very profusely and very persistently upon the 
slightest provocation. The old rabbis must have 
known of this condition ; for they taught that, when 
a mother lost two children from circumcision, those 
that might be born afterward should not be sub- 
jected to the operation. This abnormal tendency to 
bleeding is of hereditary character. It is trans- 
mitted through the mother and through the daugh- 
ters of such a mother. The son, who might be a 
bleeder himself, will not transmit it to his children. 
Should such a condition be met with in circumci- 
sion, the ordinary methods for the arrest of hemor- 
rhage must not be relied upon. The actual cautery 
will have to be resorted to, or a short piece of a 
metal or hard flexible catheter must be inserted in 
tiie urethra and firm pressure applied by means of a 
bandage. The catheter has the advantages of not 
interfering with urination, and of offering a firm sur- 
face for the application of pressure. It goes without 
saying that mechanical provisions must be made to 
prevent the catheter from slipping either in or out. 

As illustrating the extreme rarity of disasters as a 
consequence of the hemorrhagic diathesis in circum- 
cision, Dr. A. B. Arnold writes that in an experi- 
ence of more than 1,000 cases he met with one case 
only ("New York Medical Journal," Feb. 19, 1886). 

It happens not infrequently that the attending 
physician, on account of some unfavorable condition 
of the child, advises a postponement of the oper- 
ation. The Jewish law sanctions such a proceeding 
until the child has fully recovered its health. 

The following reasons for postponing the oper- 
ation are enumerated by Drs. Kehl berg and Lowe: 
"pronounced feebleness of the child, febrile con- 
ditions, obstinate diarrhea, refusing to take the 

breast, diseased conditions of the skin, general or 
local convulsions or jerkings, inflammation of the 
eyes or eyelids, fangaus.ejxcrescencqf jn the mouth, 
very frequent vomitiO^-, ' coatinued. slo.dplessuess " 
(Glassberg, I.e., p. 36).'^ 

Circumcisiol among tlie,',te:(vi^ iipiS j?>cje^i accepted 
and adhered to'siniplytiS' a ?elig1bus'i-ite^ Ijti}; it is of 
interest to make manifest the advantages that accrue 
to the individual from having the prepuce removed in 
early life. 

Sometimes the physiological changes in the pre- 
puce are interfered with and it can not be retracted 
at all, or only to a partial degree. 

Medical These conditions are termed respect- 

Advan- ively complete and partial phimosis. 
tagesofCir- Phimosis is followed by a train of 
cumcision. disturbances more or less serious in 
character; one of the most frequent 
troubles arising from this cause being interference 
with the emptying of the bladder. As a result of 
phimosis, or even of the ordinary exudations, in- 
flammation of the inner lining of the prepuce and 
the covering of the glans is extremely liable to 
arise. This inflammation, termed balanitis, will 
cause pain, especially during urination, and will have 
a tendency to increase the impediment to the voiding 
of urine. 

Various authors enumerate a number of other 
troubles due to phimosis; viz., habitual wetting of 
the bed by children, masturbation, prolapse of the 
rectum, hernia, and hydrocele, the latter three con- 
ditions being excited by the excessive pressure ex- 
erted by the abdominal muscles in overcoming the 
resistance of the prepuce to the flow of urine. 

An even more severe form of inflammatory change 
is known imder the name of paraphi- 
Para- mosis, which at times leads to ulcer- 
phimosis. ation of the parts or even gangrene. 

The glans in the circumcised, be- 
sides being uncovered, presents another change to 
which considerable importance has been attached. 
The covering of the glans, which before had the 
character of a mucous membrane, on being exposed 
assumes the properties of true skin, which is less vul- 
nerable, and on theoretical grounds alone leads to 
the inference that it is less liable to syphilitic infec- 
tion. In addition to this, however, there has been 
weighty authority which bases this opinion on a 
wide experience. That it offers some protection, 
there can be no doubt ; but the present writer has 
observed too many cases of primary syphilis in the 
circumcised to warrant the assumption that circum- 
cision offers any very decided imnumity. 

A communication was made to the convention of 
the American JNIcdical Association in 1870 by Dr. 
Lewis A. Sayre, in which he demonstrated that par- 
tial paralysis might result from congenital phimosis 
and adherent prepuce, and could be removed by cir- 
cumcision. In 1887 Dr. Sayre, at the Ninth Interna- 
tional Medical Congress, gave the testimony of a 
large number of other observers, who corroborated 
his own. 

Bibltooraphy: J. Bergson, Bic Bo'chneidung. Berlin, 1844; 
L Terquens, La Circoncisinn, Paris, 1844 (German trans- 
lation bv Heymann, Magdeburg, 1845): A. Asber. Jewish 
mtc of'Circumcisinn, London, 1873; M. Baum, Der T/i 6- 
ynfisdi Pmktischc Mohel, Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1884? 




A. Glassberg, Die Bcschncidung iu Thrcr Gcschichthchen, 
EthiiiKimiihischcu. BrUiiinsoi, riiif1 Mrdicinmcheii Bedciit- 
liiia lierlin, lS9ii : Trawrs. O/ini rnifiniis an the Local Dis- 
cfi.srs rcrny'd J,rtili<nia'it..u^ M,fii,:,,-<'liir}(ni>cal Transac- 
n'oiis, xvikv5;ii3, Loudon,' l.v;a: ' '• 

J. ' ■'■ • ' • ^ ' ,..„ A- Fr. 

A^ftoiik^'ilie: Ara'bJsi. It.isfi,ifficidt to determine 

whetllcr"Mohammetl deemed' circumcision ("klii- 
tau " or " tatliir ") to be a national custom of no re- 
ligious importance, and therefore did not mention it 
iuthe Koran, or whether he judged the prescription 
of a rite that had been performed by the Arabs from 
time immemorial to be superfluous. Abulfeda counts 
circumcision among the rites of pagan Arabia tliat 
were sanctioned by Islam ("Historia Ante-Islami- 
tica," ed. Fleischer, p. 24). Ibn al-Athir, in his ante- 
Islamic history, attributes to Mohammed the follow- 
ing words: "Circumcision is an ordinance for men, 
and honorable for women." On the other hand, the 
traditionalist Hurairah reported on the part of the 
prophet that circumcision is one of the observances of 
"fitrah" (natural impulsion), and has consequently 
no religious character ("Sahih al-Bukhari," p. 931). 
Be that as it may, circumcision became in Islam a 
religious obligation, to which every one was re- 
quired to submit. 

The difference of opinion which prevails among 
the historians and traditionalists as to the character 
of the rite before Mohammed, prevails also as to 
the age at which circumcision had to be performed. 
According to Josephus, the Arabs circumcised after 
the age of thirteen, "because Ishmael, the founder 
of their nation, was circumcised at 
Age. that age " (Josephus, " Ant. " i. 12, § 2). 
Ibn al-Athir and many other Ara- 
bic authorities assign different ages. It is prob- 
able that there existed no regulation as to age; and 
each locality followed its own custom. Thus, in 
Yemen, where Jews exercised great influence, the 
Arabs circumcised their children on the eighth day 
after birth (compare Pocock, " Specimen Historiae 
Arabum," pp. Sid et scq.). The Mohammedan law 
recommends circumcision between the ages of seven 
and twelve years, but it is lawful to circumcise a 
child seven daj'S after its birth. The circumcision 
of females is also allowed, and is commonly prac- 
tised in Arabia. 

The operation on males is generally performed by a 
barber, in the following manner : The operator seizes 
with the forefinger and thumb of the left hand the 
summit of the prepuce, which he fastens with a string 
provided with a knot. This string is passed tJirough 
a hole made in a disk of hardened leather. The 
operator then makes with a razor or scissors a circu- 
lar section of the prepuce between the knot and the 
disk. The hemorrhage which follows is stopped by 
the application of burned rags and ashes. In India 
a bit of stick is used as a probe, and carried round 
and round between the glans and prepuce, to ascer- 
tain the exact extent of the frenum, and that no un- 
natural adhesions exist. No splitting (" peri'ah ") is 
known to the Arabs, as is attested by Simon ben Ze- 
mah Duran, who expresses himself as follows : " Mo- 
hammed sanctioned also circumcision that the Arabs 
performed since the time of Abraham, as is said in 
the Talmud: 'A circumcised Arab'; but he adopted 
it without peri'ah " (" Keshet u-Magen," 19b). 

The ceremonies preceding circumcision give to this 
act the character of a religious initiation. After hav- 
ing performed the prescribed ablu- 
Cere- tions, the candidate makes his confes- 

monies. sion before the imam, and a new name 
is added to his former one. As among 
Jews, circumcision is followed among Mussulmans 
by feasting and rejoicing. The custom among Or- 
thodox Jews in Russia and Poland, of inviting pious 
men to spend the night preceding circumcision in 
prayer and study in the house in which the cere- 
mony is to take place, finds a striking parallel in 
that current among the Mussulmans of Egypt, 
where priests are hired to recite praj^ers in the house 
of the candidate the night before the cereraonj'. 
That night is called "lailah al-kabirah" (the gveat 
night), in opposition to the preceding night, " lailah 
al-saghirah" (the small night), in which an enter- 
tainment is given to friends. 

Bibliography : Pocock, Specimen Histnrice Arabum, pp. 319 
et seq.; Millo, Histoire du Mahometisme, p. 3.50: Hoffmann, 
Beschneidung, In Ersch and Gruber, Eiicyc; Steinschneider, 
Die BesclincidunQ der Araber iind Muhammedaner, In 
Glassberg, Die Beschneidung ; Jolly, Etude Critique du 
Manuel Operatoire des Musulmans et des Israelites, Paris, 


I. Br. 

consisting of circumstances which afford reasonable 
ground for believing in the guilt or innocence of an 
accused person. Circumstantial evidence is gener- 
ally stated to be inadmissible according to Jewish 
law ; but this assertion is incorrect. All evidence is 
more or less circumstantial, the difference between 
direct and circumstantial evidence being only a dif- 
ference in degree. The former is more immediate, 
and has fewer links in the chain of connection be- 
tween the premises and the conclusion than the 

The Mosaic law requires that every fact be proved 
by the testimony of two witnesses (Num. xxxv. 30; 
Deut. xvii. 6, xix. 15), and the Talmudic law re- 
quires that each witness testify to the whole fact, 
and that the witnesses shall not be permitted to 
supplement each other's testimony (B. K. 70b). 
But, admitting that it requires the positive testi- 
mony of two witnesses to every material fact in the 
case, this does not preclude the court from drawing 
inferences from the facts proved ; and wherever such 
inferences are drawn — this is necessarily done in 
every case at law — circumstantial evidence is to that 
extent recognized as legal. 

In criminal law the necessity for at least two wit- 
nesses is strictly maintained (Sanh. 37b; Maimon- 
ides, "Yad," Sanhedrin, xii. 3, xx. 1). 

In civil matters the testimony of one witness is in 
some cases sufficient to compel the party against 
whom the witness is produced to take the oath of 
purgation; and, on the other hand, the production 
of one witness in favor of the party absolves him 
from taking this oath, in cases where he would 
otherwise have been obliged to take it (Shebu. 32a). 
The law likewise recognizes certain presumptions 
arising from a given state of facts: although these 
presumptions maj^ be rebutted by positive testi- 
mony, they establish a prima facie case without 
further proof (Kid. SOa"). 




For further discussion of this subject see Evi- 
dence and Presumption. 

J. SR. D. vr. A. 

CIRCUS : In antiquity a large enclosure used for 
horse- and chariot-races, and sometimes for gladia- 
torial combats, etc. Public games and theatrical 
rejiresentations being such important factors in the 
life of the Greeks and Romans, the Jews living in 
the classical age had to tal^e a definite attitude to- 
ward them. As in the case of everything else charac- 
teristic of paganism, the Jews had little to say in 
favor of the circus, though only after numerous dif- 
ferences of opinion among them, and even of con- 
cessions in favor of the popular amusement. This 
applied also to all public amusements; and Jewish 
rabbinical literature discusses especially two types of 
these — the circus and the theater — so frequently to- 
gether and from so similar a point of view that they 
must be treated as a unit in this article. 

The pre-Maccabean Hellenistic party had intro- 
duced gymnasia into Jerusalem (I Mace. i. 14; II 
Mace. iv. 12), greatly to the abomination of the or- 
thodox. Herod the Great founded, in honor of the 
emperor, quinquennial gladiatorial contests, built a 
theater and an amphitheater in Jerusa- 
Hellenists lem (Josephus, " Ant." xv. 8, § 1 ; " B. 
and J." i. 21, §; 8), and also helped maintain 

Herodians. such contests in foreign cities. The pi- 
ous Jews thought it criminal that men 
should be thrown as food to wild beasts to amuse 
the multitude. Tliey were most shocked, however, 
by the trophies and images set up in the theaters 
("Ant." XV. 8, § 1): upon one occasion a riot occa- 
sioned thereby was quelled by Herod only after much 
bloodshed. The other Herodians also had a predi- 
lection for the theater, Agrippal. contracting a mor- 
tal malady in that at Cffisarea. As a matter of course 
there were theaters in the Palestinian cities which 
held a Hellenistic population ; hence the Rabbis knew 
this side of the Greco-Roman life at first hand. A 
circus at Cicsarea is especially mentioned (Tosef., 
Oh. xviii. 16), as well as the tlieater (" Ant." xix. 7, 
§4); a hippodrome at Jerusalem ("B. J."ii.3, § 1); 
and a stadium at Tiberias, in which 1,200 Jews were 
killed by Vespasian ("B. J." iii. 10, § 10). Hence 
the Jews looked upon the circus, the theater, and 
the stadium as distinctive institutions of pagan 

The Midrash interprets the " sinner " denounced by 
the Psalmist (Ps. xiv. 1) as being Rome, which fills 
the whole world with iniquity by building temples 
for idols, theaters, and circuses. " In four ways the 
Roman empire eats up the wealth of the nations: 
with taxes, witli baths, with theaters, and witli im- 
posts" (Ab. R. N. xxviii.). "The feet of man will 
take him as lie wills either into tlie house of God and 
the synagogue, or into the theater and the circus" 
(Gen. R. Ixvii. 3). " Wliat confusion there is in the 
games that the heathens give in their theaters and 
their circuses ! Wliat have the doctors of the Law 
to do there? " (Pesik. 168b). The Jews are accused 
of keeping away from the circus, and tlius diminish- 
ing the revenues of the state (Esther R., Preface). 

Nevertheless, Jews probably often went to the cir- 
cus; and it is even permitted in the Halakah to go 

to the theater and tlie circus on the Sabbath, if pub- 
lic affairs are to be discussed there (Ket. 5a). It is 

well known that the tiieaters were fre- 
Rabbinical quently used for assemblies of the peo- 
Opinions. pie, since they were the largest public 

buildings (Josephus, " B. J. " vii. 3, ^ 3). 
R. Judah I. was even inclined to find something 
good in the public games: "We nuist thank the 
heathens that they let mimes appear in the theaters 
and circuses, and thus find innocent amusement for 
themselves, otherwise they would be constantly get- 
ting into great quarrels as soon as they had anything 
to do with one anotlier" (Gen. R. Ixxx. 1). It was 
even hoped that the time would come when the the- 
aters and circuses Avould become the homes of the 
Torah (Meg. 6a). R. Nathan also found reasons to 
justify visiting the circus ('Ab. Zarah 18b). 

In the course of time, liowever, it was formally 
forbidden to visit the public games. Sad remem- 
brances connected with the circuses, especially the 
massacres of thousands of Jews in the theaters un- 
der Vespasian and Titus, made those places hateful 
to the Jews, who came to regard them as scenes of 
bloodshed, as indeed they were. But even at peace- 
ful representations, when there was no bloodshed, 
the Jews were jeered and flouted on account of their 
peculiarities. In reference to this tliere is an inter- 
esting Midrash to the passage, " They that sit in the 
gate" (Ps. Ixix. 13 [A. V. 12]): "The heathens are 
meant who sit in the theaters and circuses; after 
they have feasted and become drunk they sit and 
scoff at Israel. They say to one another : ' Let us 
beware that we do not resemble the Jews, who are 
so poor that they have nothing to eat but locust- 
beans. ' Furthermore, the}^ say : ' How^ long are 
you going to live?' 'As long as the Sabbath gar- 
ment of the Jews lasts. ' Then they bring a camel 
swathed in clothes into the theater and ask : ' Why 
does this camel mourn?' And they answer: 'The 
Jews are now celebrating their Sabbatical year; and 
since thej^ have no vegetables, they eat up the 
camel's thistles: hence it mourns.' Then a mime 
with shaved head comes into the theater. ' Why is 
your head shaved?' ' The Jews are celebrating 
their Sabbath, eating up on that day everything that 
they earn during the week-days; hence they have 
no wood for cooking, and they burn up their bed- 
steads. They must, therefore, sleep on the ground, 
getting entirely covered with dust; then they must 
cleanse themselves freely with oil; and the latter, in 
consequence, is excessively dear' " (Lam. R., Intro- 
duction, No. 17). 

Every public place of amusement was looked upon 
as a "seat of the scornful," in reference to Ps. i. 1. 
" He who frequents the stadia and the circuses, and 

sees there the magicians, the tumblers, 

Ordinances the ' buccones, ' the ' maccus, ' the 

Against ' moriones, ' the ' scurrse, ' and the 

At- 'ludi sa?culares ' — this is 'sitting in the 

tendance, seat of the scornful'" (Tosef., 'Ab. 

Zarah, ii. 6: Yer. 40a, Bab. 18b; Yalk., 
Ps. 613). "I sat not in the assembly of the mock- 
ers nor rejoiced " (Jer. xv. 17) is the cry of the Jew- 
ish congregation. "Lord of the world! never do I 
set foot in tlie theater and the circus of the ' people of 
the earth ' '' (Pesik- 119b). Still a third passage is 



interpreted as being an ordinance against the pagan 
theater (Sifra, Lev. xviii. 3). It is reprovingly said 
—apparently in reference. to Ex. i. 7, but really to 
Roman times— that the theater and circus are filled 
with Jews (Tan. on the passage). Hence an actual 
anathema is pronounced against attendance at the 
circus (Targ. Yer. Deut. xxviii. 19). Devastating 
earthquakes come in consequence of the theater and 
the circus (Yer. Ber. 13c). A Talmudic sage writes 
an especial prayer of thanks that Israel has no part 
in the heathen circus : " I give thanks to Thee, O Lord 
my God and God of my fathers, that Thou hast placed 
my portion among those who sit in the house of learn- 
ing and the house of prayer, and didst not cast my 
lot among those who frequent theaters and circuses" 
(Yer. Ber. 7d; Bab. 28b). This prayer is even 
now found in many prayer-books as a part of the 
daily morning prayer. According to this prayer, 
people should keep away from tlie theater because 
it is a waste of time, and study is more profitable. 
It was, moreover, felt that these diversions had 
their root in idolatry, especiall}^ as images of royalty 
were placed in the theater and circus (Lev. R. xxxiv.). 

Similar reasons also induced earlj^ Christianity to 
look askance at the pagan games, and perhaps it was 
against tliemthat Paul spoke in I Cor. xv. 32. It is 
certain that Christians as Avell as Jews furnished vic- 
tims for the theaters (Renan, " Histoire 
Christian des Origines du Christianisme, " 3d ed. , 
View. iv. 163) : thej^ likewise recognized their 
idolatrous origin; and TertuUiau, in 
forbidding attendance ("De Spectaculis," ch. iii.), 
refers to Ps. i. 1, as do the Rabbis. Tertullian's 
phrase (ch. x.), "Theatrum proprie sacrarium Ve- 
neris" (the theater is a place for sexual immorality), 
is not, however, put so strongly by the Rabbis. 

It is curious that, in spite of the iniquity attach- 
ing to tie circus, the later Midrashim have much to 
say of a splendid circus and hippodrome which was 
said to have existed at Solomon's court, the descrip- 
tion being based on the B_yzantine pattern of Con- 
stantinople. Even in the later Middle Ages Jews 
attended the races, often at their peril (Malalas, 
"Chronicle," p. 446; Griltz, "Gesch. der Juden," 3d 
ed., V. 16). See Athletes; Games. 

Bibliography: Wagenseil, De Ludis Hebrceorum, Altdorf, 
l6^r,Saichs, BeitrUgezm-StM-ach-nndAlterthumsforschiing, 
i. 70, Berlin, 1853 ; J. Perles, Tliron \ind Circus des KdnigxSa- 
Inmo, in Moncttsschrift, xxi. 122 etseq. ; I. Abrahams, Jewish 
Life in the Middle Ages, ch. xiii.; Bacher, Ag. Tan.; idem, 
Ag. Pal. Amor, passim (Index : Tlieatrc and Circus) ; 
S. Krauss, LehmvOrtcr, i., "Excurs." No. 10. 

G. S. Kr. 

CISTERNS. See Well. 


CITRON. See Etrog. 

CITRON, SAMUEL LOB : Hebrew writer of 
fiction and literary critic; born at Minsk, Russia, 
May 24, 1862. He attended the rabbinical school at 
Wolozhin, and made his first appearance as a He- 
brew author at the age of fourteen, in the periodical 
"Ha-Maggid." He contributed to other Hebrew 
periodicals, and in 1884 translated Leon Pinsker's 
"Autoemancipation" from German into Hebrew, 
under tiie title "Im en ani li mi li." His works of 

fiction are: (1) "AsefatSippurim," 1885, a collection 
of short stories translated from the German and 
French; (2) "Mi-Shuk ha-Hayyim " (From the Fair 
of Life), 1885; (3) "Abraham ben Joseph," a trans- 
lation of Levanda's Russian historical novel, "Abra- 
ham Jesophovich " ; and (4) " Yonah Fotah " (Foolish 
Dove), 1888. Of his literary and critical essays the 
following are the most important: (1) "Mapu and 
Smolensky," a critical estimate of their works; (2) 
" The Development of Hebrew Literature in Russia 
During the iSTineteenth Century," in "Ozar ha- 
Sifrut," vol. ii. ; (3) "Ha-Sifrut we ha-Hayyim" 
(Literature and Life), in "Pardes," vols. i. and ii. ; 
(4) "Life of Levanda," in " Ahiasaf," 1897; and (5) 
" Ha-Meshorer be-Hayyaw ube-Moto " (The Poet 
Living and Dead), in "Ahiasaf," 1900. 
Bibliography: Sokolov, Sefer Zikaron, p. 97, Warsaw, 1889. 
II. R. A. R. 

CITY: The Hebrews distinguished in size between 
villages and cities. The individual homesteads ("ivn, 
Ex. viii. 9; Lev. xxv. 31; Josli. xiii. 23; Isa. xlii. 
11; Ps. x. 8; Neh. xi. 25, xii. 39) developed either 
into villages (ni'D. Gen. xxv. 16, or "|Q3, 1 Sam. vi. 
18; Cant. vii. 12; I Chron. xxvii. 25, Neh. vi. 2) or 
into cities (T>j; or nnp, Gen. iv. 17, xix. 25, 29). The 
larger settlements were formed where the banks of 
a lake or river widened into a plain, as at Tiberias 
and Jericho ; at the confluence of several rivers, as at 
Beth-sheau and Nineveh ; at a convenient fording- 
place, or where an isolated mountainside afforded a 
natural protection against attacks, as was the case at 
Jerusalem. Villages and cities are not always dis- 
tinguished as unfortified and walled places respect- 
ively, as Benzinger ("Arch." § 18, 2) maintains: for 
ninan ''ly C cities of the flat or open country ") are 
also mentioned (Esth. ix. 19); and these are equiva- 
lent to "nEJ^^bn ^ly, as Kimhi correctly interpreted in 
his work on Hebrew roots under nS- The same 
may be inferred from nOIPI T'J? (Lev. xxv. 29; com- 
pare Prov. xxv. 28), according to which there might 
also bel^J?; i.e., without walls. Naturally, however, 
most of the cities were surrounded by walls in those 
ancient times, when attacks from hostile, roving 
bands were imminent, and this danger probably 
gave the first stimulus to the building of cities. In 
any case it is significant that Cain undertook to build 
a city only after the birth of liis first son, and that 
he named it for this son. It was meant to be a 
place of refuge for his family. 

In the enumeration of the chief features of a city 

mention must first be made of the water-sources; 

for an abundant supply of good water for drinking 

purposes is the first prerequisite for 

Water- the welfare of a city. This view is 

Works. supported by passages in the Old 
Testament. At the siege of Jcbus, 
David offered a prize to the hero wiio should ad- 
vance as far as the water-works ("zinnor," II Sam. 
V. 8), and in Isa. vii. 3 King Ahaz's care in having 
the water-works protected against the attack of the 
enemy is recorded. 

The streets (" huz, " " shuk ") formed the second im- 
portant feature. They were as narrow in the cities 
of the ancient Orient as they are in those of the mod- 
ern East (Josephus, "B. J." vi. 8, g 5; Benzinger, 



Ciudad Beal 

I.e. § 18, 4). It was also au exception if a street 
could be called straight, as, for example, the street in 
Damascus referred to in Acts ix. 11 ; for the major- 
ity were very crooked, with many corners. The 
Law commands that the roads leading to the cities 
of refuge shall be kept in repair (Deut. xix. 3); but 
in early times the paving of streets was probably 
unknown. Josephus ("Ant." viii. 7, § 4), indeed, 
relates that Solomon had the streets leading to Jeru- 
salem paved with black stones ; but the statement is 
ambiguous, since the mud of the streets is often men- 
tioned as something proverbial (Isa. v. 25, x. 6; Mi- 
cah vii. 10; Zech. ix. 3, x. 5; Ps. xviii. 43). Since 
Herod, however, had the principal street of Antiochia 
paved (Josephus, "Ant." xvi. 5, § 3), it may be as- 
sumed that he showed like favor to the inhabitants 
of Jerusalem. It is certain that under Herod Agrippa 
the streets of Jerusalem were paved with white 
stones (Josephus, "Ant." xx. 9, § 7). In antiquity 
the cleaning of streets was almost as little known as 
lighting them ; the latter being a very recent inno- 
vation in Oriental cities. It is recounted, however, 
that Herod constructed in the recently built port 
of Csesarea a subterranean channel, to carry ofT 
the rain and the refuse of the streets {ib. xv. 9, § 6). 

The streets were named after the place to which 
they led ("the highway of the fuller's field, "Isa. vii. 
8), or after the occupation of the majority of its in- 
habitants ("the street of the bakers," Jer. xxxvii. 
21; "the valley of craftsmen," Neh. xi. 35; and the 
quarter of the "goldsmiths and merchants," Neh. 
iii. 32). Here and there the streets broadened out 
into open places, which were formed at the parting 
of ways (C'X-l; Ezek. xxi. 24 [A. V., 21j), or at the 
corners of streets (riJD ; Prov. vii. 8), or where two 
streets crossed. These points are 
Streets and called "mother of the way," or "head 

Gates. of the two ways" (Ezek. xxi. 26 [A. 

v., 21]), or " the house of ways " (Prov. 

viii. 2). Open squares were mainly found near the 

gates. Here travelers tarried overnight (Judges xix. 

15); and here the children played (Zech. viii. 5). 

In a walled town the gates were most important 
parts; for near them citizens were wont to gather in 
the dusk to watch or greet the caravans of travelers 
(Gen. xix. 7; Job xxix. 7); and liere also court was 
held (Deut. xiii. 17; Isa. lix. 14; Ps. Iv. 12), com- 
pacts were made (Gen. xxiii. 10; Ruth iv. 11), and 
the market-place was situated (II Kings vii. 1). 

The designation "mother city " (metropolis) indi- 
cated that the city so styled was one of importance. 
This epithet is expressly applied to the old city of 
Abel Beth-maachah (II Sam. xx. 19); while the same 
idea is indirectly expressed when tlie " daughters " of 
a city are spoken of (Num. xxi. 25). Occasionally 
a city is explicitly designated as a large one, as in 
Gen. x. 12, where the clause "the same is a great 
city " can not refer to Calah, but is evidently meant 
as a designation for Nineveh together with the three 
neighboring cities. Nineveh is also called " great " 
in Jonah iii. 3, where it is hyperbolically described 
as "a city of three days' journey ": this must refer 
to its diameter and not the circumference, for it is 
more natural to assume that a person would go 
through a city than around it. The actual size of 
the cities of Palestine can not be definitely ascer- 

tained, as explicit statistics regarding the number of 
inhabitants are seldom found. Not even the state- 
ment that the total population of Ai was 12,000 
(Josh. viii. 25) can be regarded as a fact. Benzinger 
[I.e. ^ 10, 5) estimates the number of the inhabitants 

of Jerusalem to have been about 110,- 

Extent and 000, a number that coincides with the 

Cultural statement that 80,000 of the inhabit- 

Im- ants of Jerusalem perished and yet 

portance. many remained (II Mace. v. 14). The 

statement of Josephus ("B. J." vi. 9, 
§ 3) that at the time of the Passover Jerusalem had 
3,000,000 inhabitants is manifestly an exaggeration. 
Life in the villages was more simple and natural 
than that in the cities. But the large cities had of 
course many attractions ; for there magnificent tem- 
ples and palaces, and whole streets taken up by ba- 
zaars displaying the treasures of the most distant 
countries, were to be found. These sights are de- 
scribed very picturesquely in reference to Tyre in 
Ezek. xxvii. 5 et seq. The large cities were also the 
seats of learning, and contained tlie colleges and the 
libraries (Isa. xlvii. 10; Dan. ii. 2). But luxurious- 
ness to the utmost degree also prevailed in the large 
cities, as may be gathered from Isaiah's description 
of the feasts (Isa. v. 11, xxviii. 8). Extravagance 
in dress was also carried beyond due limits (Isa. iii. 
16 et seq.), and, worst of all, boldness and shameless- 
ness kept pace with the vices mentioned (Amos iv. 
1 et fteq. ; Isa. xxxii. 9 et seq. ; Nahum iii. 4). 

The frequent changing of the names of the cities 
is an interesting fact to note ; and the Old Testament 
has been especially careful in recording these 
changes. The long and detailed series of these rec- 
ords begins with the words "Bela which is [the 
later] Zoar " (Gen. xiv. 2, 8), other examples being 
Luz, i.e., Beth-el (ib. xxviii. 19; xxxv. 6, 27; Josh, 
xviii. 13; Judges 1. 23, 26; xviii. 29); Kirjath-arba, 
i.e., Hebron (Gen. xxiii. 2; Josh. xiv. 15; xv. 18, 54; 
XX. 7; xxi. 11; Judges i. 10); Kirjathsepher, ^.e., 
Debir (Josh. xv. 15, 49; Judges i. 11); Jebus, i.e., 
Jerusalem (Judges xix. 20 == I Chron. xi. 4). This 
process of changing the names of cities was con- 
tinued in later times. The ancient Shechem, for 

example, was called " Neapolis " (New 

Changes City) ; and the name of Jerusalem was 

in Names, changed by the Romans (Hadrian) to 

xElia and by the Arabs to al-Kuds 
(the Sanctuary). Thus, many of the cities of Bib- 
lical antiquity have continued their existence down 
to modern times under new names, and not infre- 
quently under their old ones. For the city in post- 
biblical times see Community, Organization of. 

et seq. 

Bibliography : ScheRfr, Bibl. ArclUlologie, 1887 
Benzinger, Arch. § 18. 
E. G. H. 

E. K. 

CIUDAD REAL (formerly Villa Real): Capi- 
tal of the former province of La Mauclia (now the 
province of Ciudad Real) in New Castile, founded in 
1255 by Don Alfonso X. of Castile. Among its first 
inhabitants were Jews as avcU as 3Ioors, the former 
of Avhom, chiefly from the neighboring Alarcos, set- 
tled in such numbers that as early as 1290 the Jewry 
paid 26,486 maravedis in taxes, a sum larger than 
that paid by all the other inhabitants together. Like 
the Moors, the Jews had their own (piarter, apart 

Ciudad Real 
Classical Writers 



from the Christians. This Jewrj^ extended from 
the eastern part of the cit}', between the gates 
De la Mata and De Calatrava, along the wall to the 
west as far as the Calle de la Paloma or De Lega- 
nitos, as it is called in all documents; on the north 
and the soutli it was bounded by the streets De Cala- 
trava and Lanza, as well as the street De la Mata. 
It formed a large square Avhich was divided from 
west to east into two unequal parts by the Jews' 
street proper, or the Calle de la Juderia. The Jews' 
street (which Avas called " Calle de Barrio Nuevo " 
after 1391, " Calle de la Inquisicion " after the intro- 
duction of the Inquisition, and is now known as 
the "Calle de la Libertad ") had on its right Calle 
de la Culebra, Calle de Sangre, and Calle de Lobo; 
on its left, Calle de Tercia, Calle de-Combro, and 
Calle de Refugio. Calle de la Barrera, now called 
"Compas de S. Domingo," and Calle de la Peiia, 
ran in the direction of the first three streets, the 
Great Synagogue being situated between them. No 
traces remain of the other synagogues of Villa Real. 
The Jewish cemetery (Fonsario de los Judios), hav- 
ing an area of about 3,000 square feet, was sit- 
uated on the outskirts of the citj-, between the roads 
De la Mata and De Calatrava, on the street leading 
along the Guadiana. 

The Jews of Villa Real traded extensively in the 

products of the countrj- and in other goods, which 

they exposed for sale in the large markets called 

" Alcana " or " Alcaiceria. " They also lent money 

to the agricultural population of the 

Trade city and vicinity ; but their monetary 

of Jews, transactions occasioned frequent com- 
plaints. In a decree of Sept. 5, 1292, 
the king, Sancho IV., permitted the Jews to charge 
three or, at the utmost, four per cent interest. One 
of the richest Jews of Villa Real was Don Zulema 
aben Albagal, who, like his son-in-law, Abraham 
aben Xuxen (Susan), was a mill-owner and a farmer 
of the royal taxes, and had business relations 
with the grand masters of the Order de Calatrava, 
which was very powerful in the city. Donna Maria 
de Molina, the wife of Sancho IV., and, after his 
death, regent of Castile, protected the Jews and 
guarded their privileges during the continuous inter- 
nal dissensions of the country, because she was de- 
pendent on the taxes they paid. Like all the Jews 
of Castile, those of Villa Real enjoyed peace during 
the reign of Pedro I. Nor were they subjected to 
the punishments which Henry II., after Pedro's 
death, inflicted upon the aljama of Toledo. For 
faithful services to Henry II., the grand master of 
Calatrava received a grant of from 500 to 1,000 
maravedis, "payable from the taxes of the Jews 
residing between Guadalerza and Puerto de Mu- 
radal, together with Villa Real and its vicinity." 
This grant was confirmed by Juan I. (Aug., 

The great persecution of the Jews in 1391 visited 
Villa Real in all its horrors. " The storm swept over 
Muradal and fell with equal severity upon Villa 
Real," writes a contemporary chronicler. On a day 
not precisely indicated, but probably between the 
tenth and twentieth of June, the mob rushed into 
the Jewr}^ and plundered the dwellings, the ware- 
houses, and the sj^nagogues. Every Jew that re- 

sisted was mercilessly cut down, and the whole 

Jewrj' was destroj-ed in a few hours. All the Jews 

who did not seek safety in flight were 

Persecu- baptized. Accoi'diug to a document 
tion dated Aug. 6, 1393, the Great Syna- 

in 1391. gogue, with its outbuildings and the 
Jewish cemetery, was presented by 
the king, Don Henry III. , to his steward, Gonzalo 
de Soto, who sold it in 1398 for a consideration of 
10,000 maravedis to Juan Rodriguez de Villa Real, 
the last named intending it for a monastery dedi- 
cated to San Domingo. 

Notwithstanding their conversion to Christianity, 
the secret .Tews, or Maranos, were bitterly hated by 
the Christians. In June, 1449, a bloody battle oc- 
curred between the Christian inhabitants of Villa 
Real and the Maranos, who were mostly tax-farmers 
and tax-gatherers. The first victim was Alfonso de 
Cota, a man of immense wealth, whose house was 
stormed and plundered. The mob, led by knights 
and nobles, rushed into the quarter De la Magda- 
lena, where the richest Maranos were living, and 
into the former Jewr}', robbing, plundering, and 
killing. The corpses of the noblest Maranos were 
dragged through the streets and hung up by the 
legs in the public places. The ringleader, Pedro 
Sarmiento, led away 200 mules laden with gold, sil: 
ver, tapestries, and everything portable of sufficient 
value to tempt cupidity ; he, as well as all the other 
miscreants, went impunished. Thenceforth no ]\Ia- 
rano was allowed to hold public office at Villa Real. 
The chroniclers say that it is doubtful whether any 
Jews ever returned to the city after this occurrence. 
In April, 1483, the activities of the Inquisition w^ere 
extended to Villa Real; the first victims being the 
rich tax-collector Juan Gonzales Pampan and his 
wife, known as " La Pampana. " 
BiBLioGRAPHT:- Luis DclfTado Merchdn, Hlstnria Docwmen- 

tada de Ciudad Real, Ciudad Real, 1896; Boletin Acad. 

Hist. XX. 462 ct seq. 

G. M. K. 

CIVIDALI: Italian city, in the province of Udine. 
It is a part of the ancient duchy of Friuli, now di- 
vided between Austria and Italy. Aside from cer- 
tain inscriptions preserved in the Cividali Museum, 
which would date the first Jewish settlement at 
about 604 B.C., the first mention of Jews, is by 
Paulus Diaconus, who refers to it, and by the 
council at Friuli in 796, Avhich complained that 
the Christians as well as the Jews celebrated the 
Sabbath. The chroniclers state that Cividali was 
the rallying-point of the Jews from Goritz, Triest, 
and Vienna. There is also a report that Jewish 
corpses were brought to Cividali for burial from 
distant countries, even from Moravia. The ceme- 
tery near the city wall gave to that quarter the 
name "Zudaica," which name it still bears. 

The graves found there date from the fourteenth 
centurj% the earliest decipherable inscriptions being 
of the year 1428, 1464, and 1606. In 1646 that part 
of the city wall, as well as part of the cemetery, 
was destroyed. 

The presence of Jews in Cividali at an early date 
is shown bj^ the fact of Jewish families bearing the 
name of that town. At the present day (1902) there 
are no Jews residing there. 



Ciudad Real 
Classical Writers 

Bibliography: I. S. Reggio, Strenna /sme/itiVn, iii. 84; Ves- 
sillo Israelitico, 1899. xlvii. 187, 250, 307, 337, 300. 
G. I. E. 

CLAAB, EMIL : Austriau poet, playwright, 
and actor ; born Oct. 7, 1842, in Lemberg. Early in 
life he went to Vienna with the intention of study- 
ing medicine; but, in compliance with the desire 
of his relatives, he adopted a commercial career. 
After long struggles he determined to give this up 
also and to become an actor. He made his debut in 
lb60 at the Vienna Burgtheater, and afterward 
played in Graz, Linz, and the Berlin Hoftheater. 
Subsequently Claar was engaged to pla}' at the city 
theater of Leipsic, and remained there for five j'ears, 
and during the later part of this period also acted as 
a dramatic collaborator of Laube. From Leipsic 
Claar went to "Weimar, becoming there stage-mana- 
ger of the Court Theater till 1872, when he gave up 
this position and became chief stage-manager of the 
Landestheater at Prague. In 1876 he was appointed 
director-manager of the Berlin Residenztheater, and 
has since July 1, 1879, been superintendent of the 
United City Theaters of Frankfort-on-the-Main. 

Besides two volumes of poems (" Gedichte," Leip- 
sic, 1868; Berlin, 1885) Claar published a number of 
dramatic productions, such as " Simson und Delila, " 
a comedy (1869); "DerFriede" (1871); "Auf den 
Knieen," a comedy (1871) ; " In Hamburg," a comedy 
(1871), " Die Heimkehr," a drama (1872) ; " Gute Gei- 
ster " (1872) ; " Shelley," a tragedy (1874), and others. 

Bibliography; Guhernatis, Dictionnaire International des 
Ecrivains du Jour, 1., Florence.1888; Meyers Konversations- 
Lexikon ; O. G. Fliiggen, Biographisches BUhnen-Lexikon 
der Deutschen Theater, Munich, 1892. 
8. B. B. 


The name 'lovSaloc is apparently first mentioned by 
Theophrastus, a philosopher of the fourth century 
B.C. He regards the Jews as a nation of philoso- 
phers who "spend their days in discussions about 
God, and their nights in observing the stars." Aris- 
totle met a Jew in Asia who knew Greek perfectly 
and was, according to Clearchus, a Greek at heart 
and a philosopher. Megasthenes, a historian of the 
first half of the third century B.C., says that "all 
the ideas expressed by the ancients in regard to the 
laws of physics were also known to non -Greek phi- 
losophers, partly to the Brahmans of India, and 
partly to those in Syria called Jews. " The learned 
Greeks were naturally in sympathy with the mono- 
theistic doctrines of the Jews, and at first assumed a 
friendly attitude toward them. Hecataeus of Ab- 
dera, Strabo, Varro, and even Tacitus himself have 
words of praise for the religious beliefs and for many 
of the institutions of Judaism. It was not long, 
liowever, before the religious isolation of the Jews, 
und their contempt of the heathen beliefs, created 
much antagonism. 

As early as the third century B.C. the unfriendlj' 
feelings toward the Jews found expression. This is 
jiarticularly true of Egypt, where the fable origina- 
ted of the Jews being tlie descendants of lepers 
and unclean persons. Hecateeus, of Abdera (third 
century B.C.) tells of the expulsion of the Jews from 
Egypt in his history of that country. According to 
him there was a plague in Egypt, which the people 

ascribed to the anger of the gods. This they 
thought was caused by the increase in the land of 
foreigners not believing in their divinity. It was 
decided to expel them. The bravest and strongest 
of the foreigners united and moved to Greece and 
other places; the lower classes settled in Judea, 
which had been uninhabited theretofore. Descri- 
bing the laws and customs of the Jews as established 
by Moses, Hecat?eus says that Moses persuaded his 
followers that God has no form, and that He is the 
"sky surrounding the earth." Moses, he adds, es- 
tablished laws prohibiting humanity and hospitality. 

Manetho, a learned Egyptian priest, is quoted by 
Josephus as describing the origin of the Jews, in 
substance, as follows: Amenopliis, the king, com- 
pelled all the unclean persons and lepers, numbering 
80,000, to work with criminals in the stone-quarries 
along the Nile. Among the lepers were some learned 
priests. After some time the king allowed them to 
leave the quarries, and gave them the city of Avario 
for their habitation. Settling there, they appointed 
a priest named Osarsiph— who afterward changed 
his name to Moses— as their leader, repaired the 
walls of the city, and called to their aid the inhabit- 
ants of Jerusalem, which city had been settled by 
shepherds expelled from Egypt. They made war 
on Egypt, and reigned there for thirteen years, 
after which the fugitive king returned with a great 
force and drove the shepherds and lepers into Syria 
("Contra Ap." i. 26-27). 

The same story with variations is repeated by 
Diodorus Siculus (first century B.C.). Cleomedes 
refers to the " beggars ever present near the sj^na- 
gogues " ; and Agatharchides (second century B.C.) 
says that the Jews spend every seventh day in idle- 
ness, discarding their weapons, and playing in 
their temple. According to Josephus, Apollonius 
Molo (a contemporary of Cicero) wrote a treatise 
against the Jews, "in which he scattered his asper- 
sions in all directions throughout the work." He 
calls Moses "a conjurer and deceiver," and the Jews 
he describes as " godless and hostile to other men. " 
Strabo, the geographer (c. 60 B.C.-25 c.E.), does not 
repeat the story of the Jews being descendants of 
lepers, though he evidently follows Diodorus in his 
representation of Jewish theology. While Man- 
etho ascribes the expulsion of the Jews to the king's 
desire to regain the favor of the gods, Chaeremon, a 
Stoic of the first half of the first century b.c, traces 
it to a dream which Amenopliis had and in which 
the goddess Isis appeared to him. Isis rebuked the 
king for allowing her temples to be demolished in 
the war. " Phritiphantes, the sacred scribe, in- 
formed him that if he would purge Egypt of the 
men who were diseased he should no longer be 
troubled with such apparitions. Amenophis there- 
upon collected 250,000 unclean persons and drove 
them out of Egypt. The leaders of these people, 
called jMoses and Joseph, made their waj- to Pelu- 
sium, united with 380,000 men whom Amenophis 
would not allow to enter the country, made war 
on Egypt, and overran the land for thirteen years. 
The son of Amenophis, when he attained to man- 
hood, drove these pei'sons into Syria." 

Lysimachus of Alexandria is also mentioned and 
criticized by Josephus. The version by Lysimachus 

Classical Writers 
Clava, Isaiah 



—thanks to Apion and Tacitus— was well known in 
the ancient world. According to him, in the reign 
of Boclioris, King of Egypt, the Jewish people, being 
infected with leprosy, scurvy, and other diseases, 
took refuge in the temples, and begged there for 
food. In consequence of the vast number of the 
persons infected, there was a failure of crops in 
Egypt. The oracle of Amnion being consulted, the 
king was told to drive into desert places all impure 
and impious men, and to drown all those affected 
with scurvy and leprosy. The king ordered the 
first to be driven out, and caused the others to be 
wrapped in sheets of lead and thrown into the sea. 
The former took counsel together, selected a priest 
named Closes as their leader, traveled amid great 
privation until they reached Judea, <;onquered it, 
and founded a city which they named Hierosyla 
(from their disposition to rob temples), but later 
changed it to Hierosolyma. 

Apion, a grammarian and lawyer of Alexandria, 
expre.ssed his evident enmity to the Jews by collect- 
ing, from whatever source, all current stories un- 
favorable to them. He repeats the story of their 
descent from unclean persons, represents their laws 
as antagonistic to those of their neighbors, and de- 
scribes also their Temple and its interior. He even 
goes a step further and adds another fable — an in- 
vention of his own most probably. He relates that 
it was the custom of the Jews to capture every year 
some Greek stranger, to fatten him with good food, 
to kill him in sacrifice, and to eat his entrails. Sto- 
ries similar to the above foimd credulous hearers, 
made curious by the mysteries of the Jewish religion. 
The customs of the Jews, so different from those of 
other peoples, formed a fruitful subject for discus- 
sion ; as, for instance, their abstinence from pork, 
their rite of circumcision, their Sabbath, etc. 

The claim of the Jews that theirs was the only 
true religion created not only interest, but also en- 
mity. Celsus (second century c.E.), who wrote 
against Christians, also mentions the Jews. He ac- 
cuses them of never having given anything useful 
to the world and of never having earned the respect 
of other peoples. They worship the imaginary, and 
neglect what is real; they look down upon the be- 
liefs of non-Jews, and try to induce others to adopt 
the same views. Philostratus (180-250 c.E.) can not 
understand why Rome takes so much interest in the 
kingdom of the Jews. "From olden times," he 
says, " they have been opposed not only to Rome, 
but to the rest of humanity. People who do not 
share with others their table, their libations, their 
prayers, their sacrifices, are further removed from us 
than Susa, or Bactria, or even farthest India." 

At the beginning of the third century of the pres- 
ent era the character of the Jews seems to change 
in the eyes of pagans: they cease to be a nation, 
and come to be regarded as a religious body. 
Proselytism becomes a feature of their activity, and 
is beginning to cause concern. Dion Cassius (150- 
236 c.E.) writes: "I do not know the origin of the 
terra Mew.' The name is used, however, to desig- 
nate all who observe the customs of this people, 
even though they be of different race. Tlierefore 
we find them also among native Romans. The Jews 
differ from all otlier peoples in their whole manner 

of life, but especially in that they do not honor any 
of the other gods, but worship with much fervor 
only one. Even at Jerusalem they never had an 
image of their divinity; they believe Him to be in- 
effable and invisible. . . . The day of Saturn is de- 
voted to him. On this day they carry out many 
peculiar rites, and consider it a sin to work. All 
tliat relates to this God, His nature, the origin of 
His worship, and of the great awe with which He 
inspires the Jews, has been told long ago by many 
writers." In the same century Porphyry, a Neo- 
platonic philosopher, gives some oracles of Apollo. 
Among other things, he says: "The way of the 
happy is steep and rough, . , . and the Phenicians, 
Assyrians, Lydians, and the race of Hebrew men 
taught many ways of the happy. . . . The Chal- 
deans and Hebrews alone received wisdom as their 
destiny, worshiping in a pure manner, the self-pro- 
duced Ruler as God. " 

The Roman writers devote considerably more 
attention to the Jews than do the Greek. The rea- 
son for this is the greater familiarity of the Romans 
with the Jews, whose numbers in Rome had largely 
increased. Cicero, the great orator, philosopher, 
and statesman (103-43 B.C.), often refers to the Jews 
in liis orations, and in a tone of evident enmit3^ He 
calls them "nations born to slavery"; and in his 
defense of Flaccus he says, among other things: 
" While Jerusalem maintained its ground and the 
Jews were in a peaceful state, their religious rites 
were repugnant to the splendor of this empire, the 
weight of our name, and the institutions of our an- 
cestors; but they are more so now, because that race 
has shown by arms wiiat were its feelings with re- 
gard to our supremacy ; and how far it was dear to 
the immortal gods, we have learned from the fact 
that it has been conquered, let out to hire, and 

Horace (65-8 b.c.) refers in his satires to the per- 
sistence with which the Jews try to convert people 
to their religion, and ridicules tiieir Sabbath. Ovid 
also refers to "the seventh day kept holy by the 
Syrian Jew." Seneca (d. 65 c.e.) strongly at- 
tacks the Jewish Sabbath. He denies the utility 
of such an institution, and considers it even injuri- 
ous; for the Jews, "by taking out every seventh 
day, lose almost a seventh part of their own life in 
inactivity, and many matters which are urgent at 
the same time suffer from not being attended to." 
Seneca admits the great moral power of " this most 
outrageous nation," and considers their successful 
proselytizing as an instance where "the conquered 
have given laws to their conquerors." 

Martial (d. 104 c.e.) repeatedly pokes fun at the 
Jews, their Sabbath, the offensive odor of the keep- 
ers of the Sabbath, their custom of circumcision, and 
their beggars. Juvenal (d. 140 c.e.) also mentions 
the great swarms of Jewish beggars and their ex- 
treme poverty, the abstinence of the Jews from the 
flesh of swine, etc. Tacitus in his history, written 
between 104 and 109 c.e., devotes considerable space 
to the Jews. He derives his information from the 
Greek writers, and repeats the fable of the Jews 
being descendants of unclean persons, of lepers, etc. ; 
tells of their wanderings and their suffering in the 
desert ; discourses about Moses and the laws that he 



Classical Writers 
Clava, Isaiah 

established contrary to those of other nations; and 
attempts to account for the origin of their various 
customs. He says : 

" These rites and ceremonies, however introduced, have the 
support of antiquity ; but other institutions have prevailed 
among them, vrhich are tainted with low cunning. For the 
refuse of other nations, having renounced the religion of their 
own country, were in the habit of bringing gifts and offerings 
to Jerusalem ; hence the wealth and growth of Jewish power. 
And, whilst among themselves they keep inviolate faith and are 
always prompt in showing compassion to their fellows, they 
cherish bitter enmity against all others, eating and lodging with 
one another only, and, though a people most prone to sensuality, 
having no intercourse with women of other naticms. Among 
themselves no restraints are known ; and in order that they 
may be known by a distinctive mark, they have established the 
practise of circumcision. . . . They show concern, however, 
for the increase of their population. For it is forbidden to put 
any of their brethren to death, and the souls of such as die in 
battle, or by the hand of the executioner, are thought to be im- 
mortal ; hence their desire to have children, and their contempt 
of death. . . . The Jews acknowledge one god only, and con- 
ceive of him by the mind alone." 

Tliese, in brief, are the views held by the classical 
writers concerning the Jews. In most cases they 
are far from complimentary. These unfriendly, un- 
just, and at times very naive opinions are expressed 
by writers, many of whom in other cases show 
much kindly yet critical judgment. In fact, to 
them can be attributed the lack of familiarity of the 
ancient world with the life and customs of the Jews, 
as is amply proved by Josephus in iiis work " Con- 
tra Apionem " ; and there is no doubt that it was the 
social and religious isolation of the Jews, and their 
contempt for the pagan beliefs, that gave birth to 
an enmity that has descended to more recent times. 

Bibliography : Keinach, Te.vte>> fVAnteurs Green et Bnmains 
Relatifs au Judaisme, Paris, 1895 : F. C. Meier, Judaica sen 
Veterum Scriptorum Profnnorum de Rehua Judaicis Fian- 
menta, Jena, 1833 ; Gill, Notices of the Jews and Tlieir Coun- 
try by the Classic Writers of Antiquity, London, 1872; 
Pereferkovich, review of the above-cited work of Reinach, 
In Voskhod, 1896, Ix.; M. Joel, Die Angriffe des Heiden- 
thums Oeuen die Juden und Christen. 1879; idem, BUcke 
in die ReliQinnsgesch. ii. 96, Breslau, 1883 ; Schurer, Gesch.ii. 
549etseg.; Hild, Le» Juifs a Rome Dcvant VOpinion et 
Dans la Litterature, in Rev. Etudes Juives. viii. 1 et seq.; 
Frankel, in Monatsschrift, v. 81 et seq., ix. 125 et seq. 

o. J. G. L. 

CLAUDIUS (Tiberius Claudius Drusus 
Nero Germanicus) : Roman emperor, 41-54 c.e. 
Claudius was the second son of Drusus, the brother 
of the emperor Tiberius. Being of a feeble consti- 
tution, and unprepo-ssessing in appearance, he was 
slighted by everybody, even by his own mother. 
During his reign both his freedmen and his wife 
Agrippina exerted a great influence over him. Fi- 
nally, Agrippina, in order to secure the succession 
of Nero, her son by her first marriage, had Claudius 

After the murder of Caligula, Claudius had been 
brought forth from his hiding-place by a pretorian 
and proclaimed emperor. Thanks to the advice 
and diplomatic skill of his friend, the Jewish king 
Agrippa I., the accession of Claudius was, on the 
following day, recognized by the senate. In return 
he confirmed Agrippa in his possession of the domin- 
ions granted him b)' Caligula, and added thereto 
Judea and Samaria, so that Agrippa had now under 
his rule the whole former kingdom of Herod. He 
also interpo.sed between the Jewish and the pagan 
citizens of Alexandria, who had been in open hostility 

to one another since 38 c.e. The leaders of the anti- 
Jewish Alexandrians, Isidorus and Lampon, were 
called to account in Rome, and executed (Wilcken, 
in "Hermes," xxx. 481 et.seq. ; "Berliner Philol. Wo- 
chenschrift," 1896, pp. 1617 et .leq. ; ib. 1897, pp. 410 
etseq. ; Th. Reinach, in " Rev. Et. Juives." xxxi. 161 
etseq.; ib. xxxii. 160; ib. xxxi v. 296; Weil, in "Revue 
des Etudes Grecques," xi. 243 «< seq.\ Moinmsen, in 
" Sitzungsberichte der Berliner Akademie," 1898, p. 
498; idem "Romisches Strafrecht," p. 265; Mitteis, 
in "Hermes," xxxiv. 88 etseq.). The governor of 
Egypt was ordered to suppress the disorder; the 
Alexandrian Jews had their privileges reconfirmed; 
and, at the instigation of Agrippa and Herod, an 
edict of tolerance was issued for the Jews of the 
whole Roman empire. On the death of Agrippa his 
kingdom was again taken under Roman administra- 
tion. Repeated charges brought against the gov- 
ernor by Jewish envoys received favorable attention 
from the emperor, owing chiefly to the interven- 
tion of Agrippa the Younger. Thus, on one occa- 
sion the garments of the high priest were handed 
back to the Jews; and Agrippa's brother Herod was 
put in charge of the Temple, with the right of ap- 
pointing the high priests. On the decision of Clau- 
dius in a dispute between Samaritans and Judeans, 
see CuMANus. 

The Jews in Rome itself, however, in the year 49, 
were forbidden to hold religious gatherings, owing 
to continued disturbances resulting from the fre- 
quency of Christian Messianic sermons. No expul- 
sion took place; but many Jews no doubt left Rome 
voluntarily. However, this measure of Claudius 
was certainly not directed against the Jewish 

Bibliography: H. Lehmann, Clatufiusund iVcro,!.; Schiller, 
Gesch. der Rdmischen Kaiseizeit, I. 314 et seq.; Mommsen, 
R6misc7ie Geschichte. v.; Schiirer, Gesc?t. 3d ed., j^assim; 
Vogelstein and Rieger, Gesch. der Juden in Rom. i. 19 et 
seq.; Pauly-Wissowa, fleal-jBncyc. iii. 2777 et seq.; Harnack, 
Die J/i'f'sioH luid Ausbrcitung des Christentums in den 
Ersten Drei Jahrhunderten,p. 4. 
G. H. V. 


Roman poet. He held high public offices in Rome, 
but returned (416) to Gaul, the land of his birth, after 
the devastation of the latter by the Goths. He depicts 
his return in his poem " De Reditu Suo. " As a poly- 
theist he was antagonistic to Judaism ; and his aver- 
sion was the more emphatic because he wished there- 
by to strike covertly at Christianity. He scorned 
the Jews mainly on account of their dietary laws, 
their rite of circumcision, and their strict observance 
of the Sabbath. He ends his diatribes by express- 
ing the wish that Pompey and Titus had never sub- 
dued the Jews, for the insidious plague was spread- 
ing farther than before, and the vanquished had 
subdued the victors. 

His poems were edited by Lucian MiUler, 1870; a 
German translation was published in 1872 by Itasius 
Lemniacus (A. von Reumont). 

G. H. V. 

CLAVA, ISAIAH: Spanish poet of Amster- 
dam. He translated from Hebrew into Spanish a 
Purim song, under the title " Cancio de Purim, Es- 
tablecido Sobre su Historia, Echo por un Anonimo, 
y Ahora Nuevamente Sacado del Hebrayco al Es- 




pagnol," Amsterdam, 1772. The poem contains 110 
strophes of nine lines each. 

Bibliography : Kayserling, Bihl Exp.-Port.-Jud. p. 38. 
G. M. K. 

CLAVERING, ROBERT : Bishop of Peterbor- 
ough and Christian Hebraist; born in 1671; died 
July 21, 1747. He was regius professor of Hebrew 
at Oxford from 1715 until his death. In 1705 at 
Oxford he published a translation of Maimonides' 
" Yad," Hilkot Talmud Torah and Teshubah. 

Bibliography: Diet. National Bingraplu/; Steinschneider, 
Cat. Bodl. col. 847; idem, in Zeit.far Hebr. Bihl. il. 122. 
T. « J. 

CLAY (" homer, " " tit ") : A word used in the Old 
Testament to denote several kinds of soil, including 
the clays of the East as well as the loam of the Nile 
valley. Clay, in its technical sense, is "a mixture 
of decomposed minerals of various kinds. Alumina, 
silica, and potash are the principal constituents; 
but along with these may be variable quantities of 
lime, magnesia, and iron, which give variety both 
to the quality and color" (Hull, in Hastings' "Diet, 
of the Bible," s.v.). Clay was used among ancient 
peoples and in Biblical times for at least three spe- 
citic purposes: (1) for making bricks; (2) for making 
pottery ; (3) as writing-material. 

(1) For Making Bricks: The great mounds of earth 
marking the remains of ancient cities testify to the 
prevalent use of clay bricks as building-material. 
Throughout Babylonia, and mainly in Assyria, sun- 
dried and kiln-burnt bricks were the chief materials 
of which the people built their magnificent palaces 
and huge and massive city walls. Lower Egypt, ac- 
cording to the representations in the pictures of an- 
cient life, and to the remains discovered by NavilJe at 
Tell el-Maskhuta, has always been a place where 
brickmaking was an important industry. Most of 
its villages, ancient and modern, have been con- 
structed of sun-dried brick. 

(2) For Making Pottery : Among the ruins of the 
most ancient cities of Egypt, Babylonia, Palestine, 
and Assyria remains are found of the potter's art. 
In the Old Testament the potter at his wheel is used 
as a symbol of divine power over the fate of men 
(compare Jer. xviii. 1-3; Isa. Ixiv. 8; Rom. ix. 2). 

(3) As Writing- Material: This was the most re- 
markable use made of clay in ancient times. The 
tens of thousands of tablets found in the ruins of 
ancient cities testify to the prevalence of this curi- 
ous custom. On the soft material, carefully selected 
for its freedom from hard bodies, cuneiform charac- 
ters were impressed ; and to preserve the tablet from 
ruin it was carefully baked. Some tablets were not 
only impressed with cuneiform signs, but sealed by 
rolling' over the soft clay the private seals of the 
principals or witnesses: such tablets are called "con- 
tract tablets." Others when written were enclosed 
within an envelope of clay, upon which the matter 
of the inner document was more or less faithfully 
reproduced. It is not improbable that " the evidence " 
mentioned in connection with Jeremiah's transfer of 
land bought before the fall of Jerusalem refers to 
a clay document (compare xxxii. 10-14; also Job 
xxxviii. 14). Up to the present (1902) only one 
cuneiform tablet has been found in Palestine, that at 

Tell al-Hasi. It dates from the fourteenth century 
15. c. — the so-called Amarna period (see Bliss, "A 
]\[ound of Many Cities," pp. 52-60). 

.J. JR. ■ I. M. P. 

Aoinuils ceremonially pure and tit for food, and such 
as are not. Biblical Data : The distinction be- 
tween clean and unclean animals appears first in Gen. 
vii. 2-3, 8, where it is said that Noah took into the 
ark seven and seven, male and female, of all kinds of 
clean beasts and fowls, and two and two, male and 
female, of all kinds of beasts and fowls that are 
not clean. Again, Gen. viii. 20 says that after the 
flood Noah " took of every clean beast and of every 
clean fowl, and offered burnt offerings on the altar 
that he had built to the Lord. " It seems that in the 
mind of this writer the distinction between clean and 
unclean animals was intended for sacrifices only; 
for in the following chapter he makes God say: 
" Everything that moveth shall be food for you " 
(Gen. ix. 3). In Leviticus (xi. 1-47) and Deuteron- 
omy (xiv. 1-20), however, the distinction between 
"clean " and " unclean " is made the foundation of a 
food-law: "This is the law . . . to make a difference 
between the clean and the unclean, and between the 
living thing that may be eaten and the living thing 
that may not be eaten" (Lev. xi. 4G- 
Distinction 47). The permitted food is called 

Between "clean," "pure" (TinO, tahor): the 
"Clean" and forbidden food is not simply not clean, 
"Unclean." but is positively unclean, polluted, 
impure (XJDD, tame), "an abomina- 
nation" (yp^, shekez). The terminology "clean 
and unclean " in the food-law has to a certain extent 
a different implication from that borne by the same 
terms as used in the sacrificial law (see Sacrifice). 

The clean animals were: (1) All quadrupeds that 
chew the cud and also divide the hoof (Lev. xi. 3; 
Deut. xiv. 6) ; for instance, the ox, the sheep, the 
goat {i.e., the sacrificial animals), the hart and the 
gazel, the roebuck, the wild goat, the pygarg*, the 
antelope, and the chamois (Deut. xiv. 4-5). Among 
other forbidden animals, the camel, the rock-badger 
(see Coney), the hare, and the swine were excluded 
by name (Lev. xi. 4-7; Deut. xiv. 7-8), probably 
because used as food or for sacrifice by the neigh- 
boring tribes. 

(2) Fish proper; i.e., "whatsoever hath fins and 
scales ... in the seas and in the rivers " (Lev. xi. 
9; compare Deut. xiv. 9). 

(3) Birds. Here the Law proceeds by way of 
elimination. From the rather lengthy list of forbid- 
den birds (Lev. xi. 13-19; Deut. xiv. 11-18) it may 
be concluded that all the birds of prey and most of 
the water-fowl were considered unclean. The bat 
closes the list. 

(4) The winged creeping things "that go upon all 
four" which "have legs above their feet to leap 
withal," of which four kinds of locusts are named 
(Lev. xi. 21-22). All the other creeping things (see 
Animals) are most emphatically and repeatedly for- 
bidden and held up as the greatest abomination 
(Lev. xi. 20, 31-38, 42-43). A list of creeping 
things to be avoided includes the weasel, the mouse, 
four kinds of lizards, and the chameleon (Lev. xi. 




Restrictions were also placed on the use of the 
flesh of cleau animals: it was forbidden to eat it 
when the animal had been torn in the field by a car- 
nivorous beast (Ex. xxii. 30), or when it had died a 
natural death, or had been carried off by disease 
(Deut. xiv. 31). Although, however, the use of such 
meats rendered people unclean, strictly speaking, 
their prohibition belongs to the law concerning 

Ethnological View : For the distinction be- 
tween clean and unclean animals various origins 
have been suggested ; though few of them seem to 
have fully satisfied any one but their own origina- 
tors. Omitting the most ancient ones (Origen, " Con- 
tra Celsum," iv. 93; ed. Migne, xi., col. 1171; The- 
odoret, on Lev. ix. 1, ed. Migne, Ixxx., col. 299, and 
others, analyzed in Vigouroux, "Diet, de la Bible," 
i. 61o et seq.), only the most popular 

Theories ones in our own day need be men- 
ofDis- tioned. According to Grotius, on Lev. 

tinction. xi. 3; Spencer, "DeLeg. Hebr. Kit." 
i. 7, 2; S. D. Michaelis, "Mosaisches 
Recht," iv., § 220, etc., the distinction between clean 
and unclean animals is based on hygiene : it is a sani- 
tary law. According to others, the law was a na- 
tional one, intended to separate Israel from the 
neighboring nations, Arabians, Canaanites, and 
Egyptians (Ewald, " Antiq. of Israel," pp. l^^-^etseq.), 
and partly a sanitary one (Roscnmiiller, " Scholia in 
Vetus Testamentum" — Leviticus). According to 
Keil, "Haudbuch der Biblischen Architologie," pp. 
493 et seq., the law is a religious one, intended to 
deter men from the vices and sins of which certain 
animals are the symbols, which view is a mere vari- 
ation of the allegorical interpretation proposed by 
Philo ("De Concupiscentia," 5-10). 

Of these explanations the first two have been re- 
futed by Sommer in his"Biblische Al)haudlungeu," 
i. 187-193; Keil's opinion has been opposed by No- 
wack, " Lehrbuchder Biblischen Archiiologie, " i. 117, 
and others. The most popular theory at the present 
day is perhaps that offered by the late W. Robertson 
Smith, in his article "Animal Worship and Animal 
Tribes Among the Ancient Arabs" ("Journal of 
Philology," 1880), according to which the unclean 
animals were forbidden because they were totems 
of the primitive clans of Israel. This theory has 
been accepted by Cheyne (" Isaiah, " 1. 99 ; ii. 123-134, 
303) and Stade ("Gesch. Israels," i. 408), but by 
Dillmann is either entirely and without discussion 
rejected ("Genesis," p. 383), or restricted to the pre- 
historic times of Israel, as being a survival of the 
old totem-worship and totem-clan organization, re- 
sembling in historic times the case of the horse in 
England, which anthropologists say is not eaten be- 
cause it was once sacred to Odin, and thus tabooed 
(Joseph Jacobs in his "Studies in Biblical Archeol." 
p. 89, and similarly Salomon Reinach, "Les Interdic- 
tions Alimentaires et la Loi Mosai'que," in "Rev. 
Etudes Juives," xli. 144). See Blood; Food; and 


Biblioorapht: Zapletal, Der Tofemrsmits und die Reliainn 
Israels, In Jew. Quart. Rev. April, 1903; idem, Der Totem- 
i-tmrn, 1900; Levy, Du Tntemwme chez les Hehreux, in 
Rev. Et. Juives, Ixxxix. 21-24; Cheyne, The Prophecies of 
Imiah, 1880-81. 
E. G. H. H. H. 

In Rabbinical and Hellenistic Literature : 

The distinctions between clean and unclean ani- 
mals, as described in the Scriptures, are more fully 
drawn in the Kalakah. To chew the cud and to 
have split hoofs (Lev. xi. 3) are the marks of the clean 
tame quadruped ("behemah"), and the Talmudic 
traditions add that an animal without upper teeth 
always chews the cud and has split hoofs (see Aris- 
totle, "Natural History," ix. 50), the only excep- 
tions being the hare and the rabbit, which, in spite 
of having upper teeth, chew the cud and have split 
hoofs, and the camel, which has, in place of upper 
teeth, an incisor on each side (n''J). Even the meat 
of the clean and the unclean animals can be distin- 
guished. The meat of the former below the hip- 
bones can be torn lengthwise as well as acrf>ss, 
which, among unclean animals, is only possible with 
the flesh of the wild ass. These differences apply 
also to clean wild animals (miriLi pTTI) as against un- 
clean wild animals (riNOLD rrri). In order, however, 
to distinguish cleau wild from cleau tame animals 
attention must particularly be paid 
Quadrupeds, to the horns. The horns of the former 
must be forked, or, if not forked, 
they must be clear of splinters, notched with scales, 
and be niinn ("round"), or, as others read, nniin 
(" pointed "). It is important to distinguish the clean 
wild animals from the cleau tame animals, because 
the tallow of the former may be used, while that 
of the latter is forbidden, and the blood of the clean 
wild animal must be covered up (Lev. xvii. 13), 
which is not the case with that of other animals (Hul. 
59a, b). 

It was hard for the rabbinical authorities to dis- 
tinguish clean from unclean birds, as the Scripture 
(Lev. xi. 13-19) enumerates only the birds which 

shall not be eaten, without giving any 
Birds. of the marks which distinguish them 

from the clean birds. This is all the 
more important as the names of some of the birds 
mentioned in the Scriptures are followed by the 
word " lemino " or " leminehu " — i.e. , " after its kind " 
—and it is therefore necessary to recognize certain 
fixed distinguishing characteristics. The follow^ 
ing rules are fixed by the Talmud, by which a 
clean bird may be distinguished. It must not 
be a bird of prey; it must have a front toe, if 
that be the meaning of niTl' y3VX; but according 
to most explanations the hind toe is meant. Al- 
though most birds of prey have the hind toe, the 
toes of the cleau bird are so divided that the three 
front toes are on one side and the hind toes on the 
other, while the unclean bird spreads his toes so that 
two toes are on each side; or if it has five toes, three 
will be on one side and two on the other (compare 
Rashi to Hul. 59a, and Nissim b. Reuben on the 
Mishnah to this passage). 

The clean birds, furthermore, have craws, and their 
stomachs have a double skin which can easily be sep- 
arated. They catch food thrown into the air, but will 
lay it upon the ground and tear it with their bills be- 
fore eating it. If a morsel be thrown to an unclean 
bird it will catch it in the air and swallow it, or it 
will hold it Ofi the ground with one foot, while tear- 
ing off pieces withits bill (Hul. 59a, 61a, 63a). As 
this distinction is not found in Scripture, opinions dif • 

Clement XIV. 



fered greatly during and since Talmudic times. Ac- 
cording to the Talmud (Hul. 62a, 63b), only the 
twenty-four kinds of birds mentioned in Scripture 
are actually forbidden. If certain birds are posi- 
tively known as not belonging to these, no further in- 
vestigation as to characteristic signs is necessary, 
and they may be eaten. The marks of distinction 
are laid down only for cases in which there is doubt 
whether the species is clean or unclean. Authori- 
ties, especially in Germany, would only permit the 
eating of such kinds as have always been eaten 
(miDD). Accordingly some birds are permitted to 
be eaten in certain countries, but not in others. There 
are many controversies in the casuistic literature 
concerning this matter. Menahem Mendel Krochmal 
("Zemah Zedek," No. 29), for instance, declares 
the wild goose forbidden, while Eybeschiitz (" Ke- 
reti u-Peleti," §82) permits it. When the turkey 
was brought to Europe Isaiah Horwitz forbade 
it to be eaten; and although his opinion did not 
prevail, his descendants refrain from eating it even 

In regard to clean and unclean fishes the authori- 
ties of the Talmud have also made some additions to 
the regulations in the Scriptures. While it is stated 

in Lev. xi. 9 that only those fishes are 
Fishes. to be considered clean which have 

scales and fins, the ]\Iishnah (Niddah 
vi. 9) declares that all fishes with scales have, 
doubtless, fins also. According to this all fishes 
having scales but no fins may be eaten, as under 
that opinion it liiay be taken for granted that all 
scaly fishes have fins; apparent exceptions are ac- 
counted for by the supposition that sometimes 
fins are so small or rudimentary that they can not 
be distinguished. On the other hand, a fish with 
fins may be without scales and thus be unclean. 
The formation of the spinal cord and head also af- 
fords means of distinction. The clean fishes (D'JT 
Dninta) have a perfect spinal column, and a head of 
a more or less flat projection ; the unclean fishes 
have no spinal bone, and their heads end in a point 
('Ab. Zarah 39b, 40a). There is a difference in the 
form of the bladder and roe in clean and unclean 
fishes. In clean fishes the bladder is blunt at one end 
and pointed at the other ; while the unclean have 
the ends either both blunt or both pointed. Whether 
these marks can be depended on when the scales and 
fins are absent, or when the actual condition can no 
longer be positively ascertained, has been much dis- 
cussed by old authorities (compare Jacob b. Asher, 
Tur Yoreh De'ah, 83). As a "cause celebre" of 
modern times may be mentioned the controversy of 
Aaron Chorin with many Orthodox rabbis concerning 
the eating of sturgeon, which Chorin declared per- 
missible, contrary to all former usage. 

Concerning the use of the four kinds of locust 
permitted in the Scriptures (Lev. xi. 21-22) the Mish- 
nah (Hul. iii. 8) says that a clean locust must have 
four feet, two of which are for jumping, and four 

wings, which must be long and broad 
Insects. enough to cover the whole body. 

But it is still subject to the restriction 
that, to be eaten, it must belong to the species 201, 
and there must be a reliable tradition recognizing it 
as eatable. Later authorities (compare Samuel b. 

David ha-Levi on Yoreh De'ah, 85) forbid its use 
entirely. Very rigorous are the rules set down by 
the Rabbis concerning the eating of " creeping things 
which crawl upon the ground " (Lev. xi. 41). Ac- 
cording to the Rabbis only such " worms " are per- 
mitted for food as do not live in an isolated condi- 
tion, but are found only in other substances ; for 
instance, the maggots in meat, fruit, fish, drinking- 
water, etc. But even in such cases the eating is 
forbidden if the worms have been removed from the 
place in which they originated, or if they have left 
that place and returned to it, thereby practically 
excluding all worm-eaten food (Hul. 67a, b). The 
conditions concerning the enforcement of these rules 
are very complicated (compare Yoreh De'ah, 84), 
but it may suffice to point out the following: Fruit 
and vegetables must be thoroughly examined before 
use to see whether they contain worms, and Ortho- 
dox families pay strict attention to the fact that 
should the food, after cooking, be shown to have 
been worm-eaten, it is not fit for consumption (com- 
pare Danzig, "Hokmat Adam," pp. 35, 22). 

There was much speculation as to the reasons why 

certain species of animals should be allowed as food 

and others forbidden. In the Letter 

Reasons for of Aristeas (lines 144-154) it is ex- 

Distinc- plained at length that "these laws 
tion. have been given for justice' sake to 
awake pious thoughts and to form the 
character." It is especially emphasized that birds 
of prey have been forbidden, to teach that man shall 
practise justice; and not, depending up(m his own 
strength, do injury to others. The marks which 
distinguish the clean animal are allegorically ex- 
plained, as shown in the following instance: To 
have two feet and split hoofs signifies that all actions 
shall be taken with consideration of the right and 
wrong (compare Allegorical Interpretation). 
The martyr Eleazar, in IV Mace. v. 25, answers the 
king, who ridicules the law^s forbidding unclean ani- 
mals, " Whatever is congenial to our soul He permits 
us to eat ; the use of obnoxious meats He forbade 
us." In this is apparently expressed the same idea 
which is stated later on by Zarza in the words : " All 
these things are forbidden, because they deprave 
the blood and make it susceptible to many diseases; 
they pollute the body and the soul " (Mekor Hay- 
yim, "Tazria'," beginning). 

The prolix allegories of Philo concerning the 
clean and unclean animals (compare " De Agricul- 
tura Noe," xxv.-xxxi.) have been far surpassed by 
the Church Fathers (Irenaeus, " Adversus Haereses," 
V. 8; Clemens Alexandrinus, "Pa^dagogus," iii.; 
Origen, Hom. 7 in Lev. ; and many others), and 
for this reason in many Jewish circles no exposi- 
tion of the law whatever would be heard. One 
should not say "The meat of the hog is obnoxious 
to me," but 'I would and could eat it had not my 
Heavenly Father forbidden it" (Sifra, Kedoshim, 
end). In Talmudic-Midrashic literature no attempt 
is made to bring these laws nearer to human under- 
standing. It was feared that much defining would 
endanger the observance of them, and all were sat- 
isfied "that they are things the use of which theTo- 
rah forbids" (Tanhuma, Lev. ed. Buber, Shemini, iii. 
29), although they were not capable of explanation. 



Clement XIV. 

Beginning with Saadia, tlie Jewisli commentators 
started to explain the Biblical laws either rationalis- 
tically or mystically. It is remarkable that Saadia's 
theory bears great resemblance to the modern theory 
of totemism. He asserts, namely, that some animals 
which were worshiped as divine were declared eat- 
able as a protest against that worship, and for the 
same reason others were declared unclean (" Kitab 
al-Amanat Wal-1'tikadat," 117. bottom; Hebrew 
translation, iii. 2; ed. Slucki, p. 61). Ibn Ezra is of 
the opinion that the flesh of unclean animals has 
been forbidden because it is impure and obnoxious, 
and the substance swallowed and digested goes into 
the flesh and blood of those who have eaten it (com- 
mentary to Lev. xi. 93; concerning other passages 
of Ibn Ezra compare Zarza, I.e.). 

Maimouides (" Moreh Nebukim,'" iii. 48) finds in 
these ordinances mainly sanitary, and partly esthetic, 
principles. Similar is the opinion of the great 
French exegete Samuel b. Meir, in his commentary 
on Leviticus. Nahmanides agrees only i:»artly with 
these theories, and mentions only one sanitary rea- 
son concerning fishes. The clean, he argues, get 
nearer the surface of the water, and therefore pos- 
sess a degree of heat which drives away too mucli 
humidity; while the fishes without fins and scales, 
which stay in the deep water, and especially those 
in swampy water, possess a degree of cold and hu- 
midity which acts mortally. It is different with the 
birds, which, with exception of the " peres " and " 'oz- 
uiyyah," two species of eagles, are all birds of prey, 
the black and thick blood of which causes a marked 
inclination to cruelty. Concerning the quadrupeds, 
Nahmanitles wavers between ethical and sanitary 
reasons, and refers to non-Jewish pliysicians to main- 
tain the objections to the flesh of the hog (commentary 
onLev. ix. 13; compare his " I)erasha,"ed. Jellinek, 
p. 29). The explanations which Bahya b. Asher (on 
Lev. xi.) gives concerning the forbidden animals are 
mainly taken from Nahmanides. He adds the new 
explanation that this law is merely an expansion of 
the rules of the cult of sacrifice, so that many ani- 
mals which can not be used for sacrifice shall not be 
eaten {idem, 163d, ed. Riva di Trento). Isaac Arama 
is especially opposed to sanitary reasons ("'Akedat 
Yizhak," ])art 60, ed. Pollak, iii.' 33b), and acknowl- 
edges psychological and ethical motives only. " The 
imclean animals," says Arama, "cause coarseness 
and dulness of the soul." Arama, evidently refer- 
ring to Abravanel, but without mentioning his name, 
gives other theories of Jewisli scholars. In his re- 
markable polemic against the rationalistic exi)lana- 
tion by INIaimonides of the laws regulating food, 
Viterbo tries to show the untenableness of the sani- 
tary grounds ("Ta'am Zekenim," ed. El. Ashkenazi, 
pp. 42-43). 

Like the Jewisli religious philosophers, the mys- 
tics have stated their speculations concerning the 
grounds of these laws. According to the cabalis- 
tic theory which makes the negative Sefirot the 
cause of the existence of evil in the world, the 
Zohar (Sheniini, iii. 41b) explains that the unclean 
animals originate from some of these negative Sefi- 
rot, and therefore they are forbidden as food ; but as 
with the arrival of tlie Messiah all will become purer 
and nobler, these animals will then be permitted as 
IV.— 8 

food (Talk. Hadash, Likkutim, 36, 79). In this 
manner the mystics explained the idea, expressed 
in Midrash Tehillim tocxlvi., that in the future God 
will declare the unclean animals clean. This Mid- 
rash caused Abravanel and other Jewish scholars 
much embariassment (see Buber, ad he), so that 
several of them did not hesitate to declare it a Chris- 
tian interpolation; but without reason, as similar 
opinions have been held and expressed in the remo- 
test time (compare Antinomi.\nism), and probably 
had their origin in pre-Cliristian times. Regarding 
the view taken by Reform rabbis and by modern 
Bible exegetes of clean and unclean animals, .see 
DiETAKY Laws ; Puiuty ; Repoum ; Totemism. 

Bibliography : Hulluu SOa, 66b ; for. the old Halakah, Torat 
Knhanim, Shemini; Sifre, Deut., 100-104; Caro, S)iul- 
han 'Aruk, Yoreh D^alu 79-86 ; idem, Bet Yosef, Yo- 
reh De'ah, 79-86; Lewysohn, Zooloqie des Talmuds, pp. 
14-18: Wiener, Speisetresetzc, pp. 298-328. 
E. c. L. G. 


CLEIF, DANIEL HAYYIM : Russian rabbi ; 
born in Amsterdam 1729; died there May 14, 1794. 
He settled in Hasenpoth, in the government of Cour- 
land, originally as a jeweler; later he officiated there 
as rabbi for many years. At this time he wrote 
"'Arugah Ketannah" (The Small Garden-Bed), a 
booklet in which the 248 mandatory precepts are 
formulated in rime (Altona, 1787, and reprinted 
several times). He also left in manuscript a com- 
mentary on the Pentateuch. 

One of Cleif 's sons was a physician in the service 
of the Russian government, with the title of coun- 
cilor of state: he died in the government of Orel in 

Bibliography: Wunderbar, Gesch. der Juden in Liv- und 
Ku7-la7id, Mitau, 1853. 

H. R. 

NELLI) : Two hundred and fifty-sixth pope; 
born at San Arcangelo, near Rimini, Oct. 31, 1705; 
elected May 19, 1769; died Sept. 22, 1774. His 
election was hailed with particular joy by the Jews, 
who trusted that the man who, as councilor of the 
Holy Office, declared them, in a memorandum issued 
]\Iarch 21, 1758, innocent of the slanderous blood ac- 
cusation, would be no less just and humane toward 
them on the throne of Catholicism. In this they 
were not deceived. Two months after his accession 
Clement XIV. withdrew the Roman Jews from the 
jurisdiction of the Inquisition and placed them un- 
der that of the " Vicariato di Roma " (Aug. 5, 1769). 
Another token of his benevolence toward the Jews 
was the confirmation (March 29, 1773) of the bull of 
Clement VIII. concerning the Jus Gazaka. which 
was of very great importance to the Roman Jews. 

The memorandum of Clement XIV. (Gangauelli), 
referred to above, deserves special mention, as much 
from the importance of the subject treated therein 
as from the great authority of its author. It was 
called forth by a blood accusation against the Jews 
of Yanopol, Poland. Alarmed by this frequently 
repeated accusation, the Polish Jews sent one Jacob 
SelektoRome to implore the protection of the pope. 
Benedict XIV. thereupon ordered a thorough exami- 

Clement XIV. 



nation of tlie matter, and the councilor of the Holy 
Office, Lorenzo Gaugauelli (later Clement XIV.), 
was charged with the preparation of a report on the 
subject. This report, bearing on its title-page the 
motto "Non soils accusatoribus credendum," was 
presented to the congregation of the Inquisition 
March 21, 1758. The author shows therein not 
only the groundlessness of the Yanopol accusation, 
but, passing in review all the principal cases of 
blood accusation since the tliirteenth century, de- 
monstrates that they were all groundless. Only in 
two cases did Ganganelli hesitate to declare the fal- 
sity of tlie accusation ; namely, in that of Simon of 
Trent, in 1475, and in that of Andreas of Rinn, in 
1462. The future pope could not very well ac- 
knowledge that the canonization of these two pre- 
tended martyrs was undeserved. But he pointed 
out that the popes themselves hesitated a long 
time before admitting the worship of Saint Si- 
mon and Saint Andrew ; the former having waited 
more than 110 years, and the latter almost 300 years 
— a proof that the veracity of the accusation was 
doubted. No account is to be taken of the testi- 
mony of some baptized Jews, such as Julio Moro- 
sini and Paul Sebastian Medici, who, in their hatred 
of their former coreligionists, claim in their writings 
that the Jews use Christian blood. Moreover, these 
writings were triumphantl}' refuted by high authori- 
ties. Ganganelli concludes his memorandum by re- 
minding the Christians that they themselves were 
once accused by the heathen of the same crime, as 
attested by Tertullian, Minucius Felix, Theodoret, 
and Rufinus. 

The effort of Ganganelli was crowned with suc- 
cess. Benedict XIV., impressed by the arguments 
in the memoir, declared the Jews of Yanopol inno- 
cent, and dismissed Jacob Selek with honors, recom- 
mending him, through Cardinal Corsini, to Visconti, 
Bishop of Warsaw, who received orders to protect 
the Polish Jews in the future from such accusations. 

Ganganelli's memorandum was translated into 
German by A. Berliner, under the title " Gutachten 
Ganganelli's (Clemens XIV.) in Angelegenheit der 
Blutbeschuldigung der Judcn," Berlin, 1888. The 
original Italian te.xt was published by Isidore Loeb 
in "Rev. Etudes Juives," xviii. 179 et .leq. 

Bibliography: Mortara, in Edxicatore, 1862, pp. 257-270; 
Berliner, as above ; Levisohn, Bfcs Damim.pp. 107 et seq.; 
Gratz, Gesch. der Juden, x. 433; Strack, Das Blut, p. 183; 
Isidore Loeb, as above ; Vogelstein and Rieger, Gesch. der 
Juden in Rom, ii. 346 et seq. 
J. I. Br. 

TINE LITERATURE: A series of kindred 
works of a Judaso-Christian sect of the second cen- 
tur3% of which onlj' the Homilies, the Recognitions, 
and the Epitomes have been preserved. The Homi- 
lies, published first in 1853, present in the form of dia- 
logues between Peter, Clement of Rome, and others, 
a gnostic sj^stem based on revelation. By revela- 
tion alone can knowledge be obtained, not by phi- 
losophy (Hom. i. 19, ii. 5). This is illustrated by 
the histoiy of Clement, who vainly tried to arrive 
at the truth by means of philosophy. The Hom- 
ilies assume a twofold revelation— the primal rev- 
elation, and the continuous revelation through the 
true prophets. The first was given in the act of 

creation, especially in that of man. The Homilies 
say, like the Mishnah (Sanh. 37a): "God revealed 
Himself by making man in His image ; were there 
another god he also would have to reveal him- 
self, and create other men in his image " (Hom. 
xvi. 10). Man as the image of God is God's revela- 
tion, and as he also has in him God's spirit (-^vevua), 
the whole truth lies in him like a seed, need- 
ing only to be developed. Had men recognized 
the will of God and been ready to obey it, there 
would have been no need of a further revelation; 
but as they have sinned, the primal revelation is 
obscured and a new revelation is always necessary 
{ib. i. 18, viii. 5). This is afforded by the true 
prophet, who knows tlie past, the present, and the 
future. His knowledge is not derived from the ex- 
ternal world, but is innate, as is the spirit in him ; 
and his revelation is not ecstatic, but clear and un- 
ambiguous (lb. ii. 6-12, iii. 11-20). The true prophet 
has appeared not in one, but in various forms; 
changing name and shape, he will traverse this 
world until he finds rest in the coming world, aluv 
luX/.uv {ib. iii. 20). 

Eight persons are exalted above the rest of hu- 
manity and brought into special connection with 
revelation — Jesus and the "seven pillars of the 
world," Adam, Enoch, Noah, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, 
and Moses; and among these eight Adam, Moses, 
and Jesus are preeminent as po.ssessing all the qual- 
ities of the true prophet (compare Uhlhorn, " Die 
Homilien," pp. 164-166). The Haggadah (Hag. 
12b) also says that the world rests on seven pillars, 
but according to other authorities one pillar, pnV 
by name, supports the world (compare Prov. x. 25). 
' Avaiinp-Tj-ng (pnV) is, according to the Homilies (ii. 
6), the true prophet (compare also Suk. 52c on the 
haggadic interpretation of the " seven shepherds and 
eight princes " ; Micah v. 4). 

As the person of the true prophet is alwaj's the 
same, so the religion revealed by him is always 
the same: the primal revelations through Adam, 
through pure Mosaism, and through 
Theological Christianity are identical (Hom. xviii. 
Teaching- of 3). The fundamental doctrine of this, 
the Homi- the only true, religion is that of the 
lies. one God, the Creator of the world. 

"Before all things, consider that no 
one shares His rule, no one has a name in common 
with Him ; that is, is called 'God. ' For He alone Ijoth 
is, and is called, ' God.' Nor is it lawful to think 
that there is any other, or to call any other by that 
name. And if any one should dare do so, eternal 
punishment of soul is his" {ib. iii. 37). The attacks 
on those who deny the unity of God, and the posi- 
tive proofs of that unity, constitute the greater part 
of the Homilies. The conception of monotheism is 
entirel}' Jewish, and all attempts to modify abstract 
monotheism in the Christian way are emphatically 
rejected. So much stress is laid on monotheism 
that it almost becomes pantheism, God being desig- 
nated as TO Uav, TO "Ov, and everything else as noth- 
ing. He alone is ; He is the tangible and the intangi- 
ble, near and far, here and there ; He alone exists. 
He penetrates everything. As the sun warms and 
illuminates the surrounding air, so God warms and 
illuminates the world ; He is the heart of the world. 



Clement XIV. 

and the center from which all life irradiates {ib. 
xvii. 7, xviii. 8, and passim; compare Uhlhorn, I.e. 
p. 174). Although this pantheistic conception is 
originally Greek, it must be remembered that it was 
also known to the Jewish scholars of Alexandria 
and of Palestine. Similar to the statement in the 
Homilies (xvii. 8): "The space of God is the non- 
existent, but God is that which exists, "is the state- 
meut in theMidrash: Q^iyn ^N"! lO^IV DlpO NIHtJ' 
IDipO (Gen. R. Ixviii. 10; Midr. Teh. xc). 

From this pantheistic point of view the Homihes 
regard the development of the world as a develop- 
ment within God ; the ■rrvevua (" spirit ") and the au/na 
(" body "), which were originally united in God, were 
separated, and this was the beginning of the world. 
The Creation is explained by assuming that the 
spirit of God changed into air, the air into water, 
and the water into fire. The Homilies teach not 
the emanation of the world from God, but the eter- 
nal flux of things, God being the beginning and the 
end. Herein the Book of Yezirah corresponds with 
tlie Homilies, holding likewise that the world was 
created out of the first four Sefirot; the last six Sefi- 
rot treated in this book — namely, the three dimen- 
sions of space in the two opposite directions, by 
means of which, out of the prototypes of the world, 
the world Avas produced as a reality— also occur in 
a passage of the Homilies, which, however, has often 
been misunderstood (xvii. 9; compare Gratz, "Gnos- 
ticismus," p. 113; Epstein, in "Rev. Et. Juives," 
xxix. 73). 

Like the Book of Yezirah and the Cabala in general, 
the Homilies also hold the doctrine of contrasts, 
which constitutes their conception of the world. 
All things separate ('5<;fwc xal kvavrluc) and go in 
opposite directions, unite, separate, and finally 
unite again. As the material world is made up of 
the four elements mentioned above, 
Syzygies. which oppose each other in pairs 
(Homilies, xix. 12), so the spiritual 
world is governed by contrast. The ruler of this 
world is Satan, the ruler of the better future world 
is tlie Messiah, who was produced by the spirit or 
pneumatic side of God. While the greater, mascu- 
line principle — heaven — earth, day — night, sun — 
moon, life— death; etc.— has precedence in the orig- 
inal syzygial series, the reverse takes place among 
men, the smaller, feminine priuciple preceding. 
Hence in history, especially in that of Israel, Cain 
is opposed to Al)el, Ishmael to Isaac, Esau to Jacob, 
etc. The principles that appeared separate in 
Adam and Eve, but which are mixed in the major- 
ity of men, appear from time to time separated 
again. The final outcome of this evolution is a re- 
turn to God by a process of purification or annihila- 
tion. When the Messiah, the eternal light, ap- 
pears, all darkness will vanish (ih. ii. 17). At the 
resurrection all men will be transformed into crea- 
tures of light so that they may behold God {ib. xvii. 
16). This rests on the assumption that He can not 
be seen by Tuan in the flesh. " He who sees God can 
not live [Ex. xxxiii. 20], for the excess of light dis- 
solves the flesh of him who sees, . . . but ... at 
the resurrection of the dead, when they shall have 
been changed into light and become like the angels, 
they shall be able to see Him " {I.e.)— a. theory found 

also among the tannaim of the second century, whom 
Akiba attacked (Sifra, Wayikra, 2; Sifre, Num. 
103 ; compare also Abba Arika's description of the 
joys of the future world, when tlie pious "shall en- 
joy the glory of God "— nj''3e'n Vro pjnj; Ber. 17a; 
Tan. iv. 145, ed. Buber). This is an instance of that 
anthropomorphic conception of God which is found 
in the Homilies side by side with the pantheistic 
conception, and although in its present form it be- 
trays attempts to reconcile these two diametrically 
opposed conceptions, yet the contradiction between 
the two is often very marked. The anthropomor- 
phism is less pronounced in tlie metaphysical por- 
tions of the Homilies; but it forms the basis of their 
ethics, which is founded on the doctrine that man 
was made in the image of God (compare the teach- 
ing of the Jewish Gnostic Ben Azzai; Gen. R. xxiv. 
7); and this doctrine they can establish only by 
assigning a shape to God (compare especially ib. 
xvii. 11). 

As regards the attributes of God, which are, how- 
ever, only given in human similes, the Homilies 
hold that the n-iDmn niDI pnn mo ("justice and 
mercy ") of Jewish theology (Sifre, Deut. 27) consti- 
tute the nature of God (Homilies, iv. 

Judaism 13). It is this conception especially 
and Chris- that stamps the Homilies as consisting 

tianity. entirely of Jewish gnosis, admitting 
of no contrast between the " righteous " 
God of the Old Testament and the " merciful " God 
of the New Testament, but identifying the teach- 
ings of Jesus with those of Moses, so that the salva- 
tion of those who follow ISIoses is as assured as that 
of those who believe in Jesus; the former, however, 
must not hate Jesus, nor the latter, Moses (ib. viii. 
6, 7). Hence the Homilies never speak of Chris- 
tians, their point of view being always designated 
as the " Jewish " one (see Laugen, " Die Klemensro- 
mane," p. 90); and it is pointed out that the daugh- 
ter of the Canaanite woman was healed only after 
the latter had become a Jewess (Homilies, ii. 19) ; that 
is, had accepted the Jewish Law. The Pentateuch 
did not originate entirely with Moses, for he put 
nothing into writing; and those who recorded his 
teachings after his death introduced much that was 
contrary to those teachings. The sacrifices especially 
do not belong to the original Law (an Essene heresy), 
and as these and similar interpolations obscured the 
meaning of the Torah, it became necessary for the 
true prophet to appear in the person of Jesus. It 
is difficult to say how the authoi-s of the Homilies 
conceived of the incarnation of Jesus ; they, how- 
ever, decidedly opposed the doctrine of the divinity 
of Jesus, and considered the Christian doctrine of the 
atonement and salvation through the sufferings of 
Jesus as without importance. The strict asceticism 
found in the Homilies may be traced back to Essen- 
ism. It is a sin to possess anything whatever; the 
eating of meat is absolutely forbidden, only bread 
and water being allowed (compare Abot vi. 4) ; and 
the Homilies, like the Essenes, lay great stress on 
ablutions and bodily cleanliness. Bathing is le- 
gally prescribed after cohabitation, as in the Talmud 
(Ber. 21b, 22a) ; but marriage itself is highly regarded 
and recommended, even early marriage being in- 
sisted upon— in which points the Clementina follow 




entirely rabbinical Judaism (Yeb. vi. 6, based upon 
Gen. i. 28, ix. 1). 

The Recognitions are extant only in the Latin 
translation of Rufinus. Regarding their relation to 
the Homilies, and regarding the historical value of 
the Clementina in general, opinions differ. While 
Baur and many representatives of the Tubingen 
school regard them as a chief source for the his- 
tory of the early Christian Church, Harnack thinks 
that they contribute nothing toward determining 
the origin of that Church. It can not be denied, 
however, that the Clementina are higlily important 
for the history of gnostic Judtco-Christianity, as 
■well as for that of Jewish Gnosticism, being among 
the few extant literary documents of those sects. 
Compare Adam Kadmon; Elcesaites; Gnosticism; 
Simon Magus. 

BiBLiOfiiiAPHY: Baur, De Ehidniiariini OrUjiuc: idem. Die 
Chri^tliche Gnosis; Bigg, The Clriiiciiliiic Hduiilivs. in 
Stiidia Bihlica, ii. 157 et scfj.; Hilgenffld, Die Clcmcnti- 
nisdien RcaionitioJiru iiikI JToiiiiliou 1848; idem, Dcr 
tfrsprungder PsfiKJaclniinitiniscIicn RccoQnitionen und 
Homilien, in Tlirohnii^rlic .lahrhihhcr. 18.54, pp. 483 et scq. ; 
Harnack, Dooiiiciiij' srh., :;d ed., i. 294-300; Langen, Die 
KUmensromaiic, 18!t0; Lcliinami, Die ilemctitiiiisehoi 
Schrifteii, 1869; Lipsius, in Pnite^tmitisclie Kircheiizci- 
tung, 1879, pp. 477 et seq.; idem, Die Quelleii lii r Petrns- 
saae; Schliemann, Die Clemctitim ii, 1S44 ; Scliwegler, /.iif.s 
N(ichni,i,><t<>Jische ZritaUn; i. ;!ti4 ,1 .sr</.; lUlschl, Die Eut- 
st,h,n,,i ,ln- Altkiithnliselieii Kiirln ; SclialT, jlistani of the 
Ciiristian CIniirli, ii. 4:ir)-442 ; VhWun'n, Die Hoiiiilien und 
liivniiiiitidiirii, li^^'i: itletn, in Reiili tinil.iopdilie flir Prn- 
texliiiitischc r/ico/oyiV, 3d ed., iv. 11, 171-179; Cliawner. J/i- 
dc.v of Noffimrlhu Words and Phrases in the Clemen- 
tine Writinyx, 1894. 

K. L. G. 

CLEOPATRA: Queen of Egypt 52-30 B.C.; 
daughter of Ptolemy Auletes. Through her associ- 
ation with the rulers of Rome, Cleopatra was of im- 
portance not so much to the Jews of lier own country 
as to those of Judea. AYhen II(?rod fled in great dis- 
tress before Antigonus, he turned toward Egypt; 
but it was only after sulfering many indignities at 
Pelusium that he was enabled to embark for Alex- 
andria, where he saw Cleopatra. However, although 
she invited him to remain, he hastened on to Rome 
(40 B.C.) (Josephus, "Ant." xiv. 13, § 2; "B. J." 
i. 14, § 2). 

After Herod became king by the help of the Ro- 
mans, Cleopatra tried in every way to injure him. 
Alexandra, Herod's mother-in-law, complained to 
Cleopatra that the office of high priest was denied to 
hei- son Aristobulus, and she sent the pictures of her 
beautiful children, Mariamne and Aristobulus, to 
Antony, at that time held captive by Cleopatra's 
charms. Antony desired the handsome youth as a 
companion, and to prevent this Herod was forced 
to appoint Aristobulus as high priest (35 B.C.). 
Alexandra's ambition went so far as to desire the 
throne for her son. Hidden in coffins, mother and 
son intended to have themselves transported to 
Egypt to Cleopatra, but the plan Avas discovered, 
and Herod had Aristobulus secretly murdered 
C' Ant." XV. 2, g§ 5-7; 3, g§ 1-3). Alexandra noti- 
fied Cleopatra of the deed (ib. 3.^5); but Herod, 
protected by Antony, went unpunished. 

Cleopatra's ambitious spirit seriously injured 
Herod. She not only induced Antony to give to her 
in fief the entire coast-line, except Tyre and Sidon, 
but appropriated Jericho, a region of Judea rich in 
palms and the far-famed balsam. She traveled to 

Judea by way of Apamoea and Damascus; and 
Herod was forced not only to appease her animosity 
with presents, but also to rent Jericho from her for 
a yearly sum of two liundred talents, and to send 
her at his own expense as far as Pelusium {ib. xv. 4, 
§§ 1-2; "B. J." i. 18, § 5). Through her machina- 
tions he was drawn into a war Avitli the Nabataean 
king Malich ; and when he was victorious, Cleopatra 
sent her general Athenion to help the Nabataeans; 
whereupon the Jews were defeated and retired across 
the Jordan (31 B.C.). Herod had great difficulty in 
surmounting the consequences of this defeat ("' Ant." 
XV. 5, g§ 3-4; "B. J." i. 19, g§ 5-6). 

The anti-Jewish Apion not incorrectly looked 
upon Cleopatra as a ruler hostile to the Jews; for 
she seems indeed to have been inimical to them. 
Still Josephus sa}'s(" Contra Ap." ii., § 5) that Apion 
should rather have denounced the vices of this devil- 
ish woman, and thinks it redounds to the honor of the 
Jews that they received no wheat from her during a 
famine in Alexandria. Cleopatra's hatred Avent so 
fur that Avhen her capital, Alexandria, had been taken 
by Cyesar Augustus and she had lost everything, she 
conceived the idea that all could j-et be saved if she 
should murder the Jews of her city Avith her own 
hands (ib.). Her death immediately aftcrAvanl saved 
the JcAvs from this fate (30 B.C.). 

Rabbinical litcirature also reports one of her cruel 
deeds. The bodies of some of her female slaves, 
Avho had been condenmed to death, Avere torn open 
and the contents examined (Tosef., Niddah, iv. 17; 
Talmud, Niddah, 30b). A question that she is said to 
have addressed to R. Meir (Sanh. 90b) can scarcely 
be historical, OAving to the anachronism involved in 
making them contemporaries, and it is probable that 
the reading Nn3^0 NnDS^p ("Queen Cleopatra") 
in this pas.sage is a corruption of ^sni31 Np^IDD 
(■'patriarch of the Samaritans"; see Bacber, in 
"Rev. Et. Juives," v. 185, vi. 159; idem, "Ag. Tan." 
ii. G8). 

G. S. Kr. 


nincAvivesof Herod I., Avhoni he married late in life. 
She bore to him Herod and Philippus (Josephus, 
"Ant." xvii. 1, § 3; "B. J." i. 28. § 4). 
G. S. Kr. 

CLERGY. See Cohen; Priest; Rabbi. 

CLERICAL ERRORS : Errors made in the 
Avrituig of documents, especially legal documents, for 
the prevention of Avhich the Jcavs have many strin- 
gent laws. The Jewish official scribes were notably 
exact in the preparation of legal documents (Git. 2b) ; 
for an error Avas often fatal to the validity of the 
instrument. Care is taken not to Avrite an acknowl- 
edgment of indebtedness on any substance on Avhich 
it may be easily altered. Such an instrument Avould 
be absolutely invalid even though it Avere intended 
to be used immediately for the collection of the debt 
(Shulhan 'Aruk, Hoshen Mishpat, 42, 1). But if 
the instrument is a bill of sale, it is valid (ib., gloss), 
because there would be no reason for the holder of 
the instrument to make any alteration in its terms. 

Some authorities adopt the general rule that an 
instrument Avhich is not prepared in accordance Avith 




the rabbinical ordinances is ipso facto invalid {ib., 
gloss). The instrument of indebtedness may be 
written in any language, but the scribe must take 
care that it does not deviate fiom the prescribed 
form of documents {ib. 42, 2). If an erasure is 

made, it must be noted on the instru- 

Alterations ment before the witnesses sign {ib. 44, 

in Deeds. 5-11). It is the duty of the witnesses 

and the court to scan the instrument 
carefully to note whether the rules for writing it 
have been complied with {ib. 45, 2). 

These rules are numerous. The scribe must write 
his letters of equal size and equidistant {ib. 42, 3). 
He must spell the am.ounts of money in full, and not 
merely use the letters (corresponding to modern fig- 
ures) to designate the amount {ib. 42, 4). He must 
not write at the end of a line words that can easily 
be altered, such as the amounts from three to ten ; 
as these b}^ the addition of a letter or two can be 
raised to ten times their original amount {ib. 42, 4). 
The failure to close the instrument with the univer- 
sally accepted formula, " A 11 is fixed and established, " 
is absolutely fatal {ib. 44, 9). If the scribe has 
omitted the date of the instrument, it is nevertheless 
valid, but is no lien on goods sold to third persons 
{ib. 43, 1). If the date is partially written, it is 
sufficient; as, for instance, if the scribe has omitted 
the thousands of the date {ib. 43, 2), or has written 
"on the fourtii day," omitting "beshabbath " (of the 
week) {ib. 43, 4), or if he has erred in the day of the 
week {ib. 43, 5). But if the instrument is written 
by the debtor himself, it is valid even though it has 
no date at all and is without witnesses, and was de- 
livered in the presence of Avitnesses without the cus- 
tomary "livery of seizin" (ib. 40,2; 43, 6). If the 
instrument is wilfully antedated it is void; but if 
antedated by mistake it is valid, though it can not 
serve as a lien on propcrt}' sold to a third person {ib. 
43, 8). If the document is postdated it is valid {ib. 
43, 12); but a bill of sale should not be postdated 
unless this fact is noted thereon {ib. 43, 13). If the 
date appears to be a yabbath, or the Day of Atone- 
ment, the instrument is valid; for, inasmuch as no 
instrument can be written on those days, it is pre- 
sumed to have been postdated {ib. 43, 14; 239, 2). 

I f there is a contradiction in the amounts mentioned 
in the instrument, the amount last stated governs (ib. 

42, 5). If the coinage in which pay- 
Contradic- ment is to be made is not stated, the 
tions and coinage nf the place where the con- 
Erasures, tract was made governs. If the place 

is not stated, then the coinage of the 
place whore the debt is sought to be collected gov- 
erns {ib. 42, 14). 

If there is an erasure of one letter of the name on 
the last part of the instrument, it may be supplied 
from the statement of the name in the beginning; 
but if more than one letter is obliterated, the instru- 
ment is void. If by the error of the scribe there is 
more than one letter entirely omitted from the name 
in the last part of the instrument, it is valid for the 
bearer of tlie last name, it being i)resumed that the 
scribe has erred in the first name by writing two 
letters too many; but it is not to be supposed that 
he would err in omitting two letters of a name 
{ib. 42, 0). 

All interlineations, obliterations, and erasures must 
be noted before the final formula; and if they occur 
in the names of the parties or in the amount, and are 
not so noted, the instrument is \o\([(ib. 44, 5). The 
formula used is "The word ... is interlined," or 
"The words . . . are obliterated." In bills of di- 
vorce, erasures or interlineations in the formal parts 
do not affect the validity of the instrument; but if 
they occur in the essential parts, it is void, unless 
they are noted at the end as in the case of other in- 
struments (Shulhan 'Aruk, Eben ha-'Ezcr, 125, 19). 
The modern rule, however, is stricter and will not 
tolerate any such imperfections in the "get." To 
insure accuracy and freedom .from clerical errors 
the Seder ha-Get (Eben ha-'Ezer, Rules 46-52) pre- 
scribes that the writing must be clear and neither 
crooked nor confused ; the letters must be separately 
written and not joined together; the letters of two 
lines must not run into each other; nor should the 
letters extend beyond the marginal line. There must 
be no erasure of ink-spots or of words, no roughness 
in the letters, and no writings over erasures. In 
case any of these rules be violated a new get must 
be written. 
Bibliography: Shulhan 'Aruk, Hoshen Mishpat, xlii., xllil. 

J. SK. P. W. A. 

CLERMONT-FERRAND : Chief town of the 
department of Puy-de-D6me, France. The origin 
of the Jewish communitj^ of Augusta-Nemetum 
(Clermont) is usually assigned to the third century 
of the common era. It is said that the first apostle 
of Auvergne, St. Austremoine (Stremonius), was 
killed about 286, by order of Lucius, the Jewish 
governor of Issoire, by a Jew, the owner of the vil- 
lage Perrier (compare Labbe, "Nova Bibliot-heca," 
ii. 482; Gonod, "Chronologic des Eveques de Cler- 
mont " ; A. Tardieu, " Histoire de Clermont "). This 
is evidently a legend, as perhaps is also the story 
told by the Abbe Marmeisse (" Vie de St. Veruy et 
de Ste. Marcelle," Clermont, 1858), that, about the 
second half of the thirteenth century, a Jewish 
working man murdered a young Christian child 
named Verny, who was afterward proclaimed a 
saint. It is certain, however, that the Jews es- 
tablished themselves in Clermont at a very early pe- 
riod. They then occupied the entire eastern part 
of the market-town Fontgieve, called 
Early "Fontjuifs" or "Fontjuifve" in the 

History, fourteenth century; and they owned 

the hillock Montjuzet; i.e., "Mons 

Judaeus" or "Judaicus" (Cohendy, "Inventaire des 

Chartes des Archives, Departeraent du Puy-de- 

Dome," pp. 11, 51). 

Sidonius Apollinarius, Bishop of Clermont (472- 
488), held the Jews in great esteem. He speaks in 
the highest terms of the Jew Gozolas, servant of the 
Bishop of Narbonne ("Epistle," vi. 4), and recom- 
mends to the bishop Eleutherus the cause of a Jew. 
In a third letter, addressed to the bishop Nonnechius, 
Sidonius Apollinarius recommends to him Promotus, 
a Jew of Clermont (I.e. ii. 13). Bishop Gallus, uncle 
of Gregory of Tours, also showed good-will to the 
Jews. When he died (551) the Jews of Clermont 
took part in the general mourning, weeping for the 
man who had treated them so kindly, and carrying 




the wax tapers at his funeral (Gregory of Tours, 
"Vitse Patrum," vi. 7). Bishop Cautiuus (551-571) 
esteemed them no less. " He was dear to the Jews, " 
says Gregory of Tours {I.e. Iv.), "and was much at- 
tached to them." The historians of Auvergne, Sa- 
varon in his "Origines de Clairmont," and Audigier 
in his "Histoire de Clermont," censure this prelate 
for his familiarity -with the Jews, saying that "he 
lived on friendly terms with them, not with the 
view of enlightening them, but in order to buy his 
furniture and jewels cheap from them." On his 
death the presbyter Euplirasius sent to the king 
many valuable things which Cautinus had bought 
from the Jews— a proceeding quite different from 
those of Bishop Avitus a few j'ears later (see Avitus 
OF Auvergne). 

The councils which met at Clermont in the sixth 
century occupied themselves repeatedly with the 
affairs of the Jews. Those of 585 and 549 forbade 
intermarriages between Jews and Christians, and the 
appointment of Jews as magistrates of the people 
(Cone. Arverne, Canons vi. and ix.). 

It does not appear that Jews were living at Cler- 
mont at the time of the first Crusade (1090). Only 
toward the end of the thirteenth century are traces 
of a Jewish community again found in that citj'. 
At that time (1298-99) the Jews of Auvergne paid 
into the royal treasury a tax of 992 livres, 6 sous, 6 
deniers (Library of Clermont, Auvergne MS. No. 62; 
compare "Revue Etudes Juives," xv. 248). In 1293 
Jews dwelt in several market-towns or villages of 
Auvergne, such as Herment, Ennezat, Montaigut, 
Lignat, etc. (see article by M. A. Tardieu, in "La 
Depeche du Puy-de-D6me," Sept. 14, 1891). At Or- 
beil lived one of the disciples of R. Hayyim of 
Blois, R. Isaac, author of " Menahel " (The Guide), a 
collection of ritual rules known only by the quota- 
tions from it found in the ritualistic work " Orhot 
Hayyim" of Aaron of Luuel (Renan-Neubauer, 
"Les Rabbins FranQais," p. 448). The Manuscript 
de Rossi 813, 3, cited by Gross ("Gallia Judaica," 
p. 589), contains the haggadic explanations of Na- 
than ben Joseph. This scholar probably came from 

There were ^Iso Jews in other French places 
which bore the name of Clermont. Some are found 
in 1321-23 at Clermont-en-Argonne, in the depart- 
ment of the Meuse ("Revue Etudes Juives," xix. 
257), and some at Clermont, Herault, in 1350-1400 
(S. Kahn, "Les Juifs de Tarascon," p. 25). In 1808 
thirty-eight Jews were living at Clermont; in 1901 
it had twenty-five to thirty families. The commu- 
nity is part of the consistory of Lyons. 

BIBLIOGRAPH.Y : In addition to the citations in the text, see 
BeQCstenzur Oesch. der Juden, Nos. 29, 34, 35, 38. 
G. S. K. 


CLEVE, ELIJAH. See Gomperz Family. 

CLEVELAND: Capital of Cuyahoga county, 
Ohio, U. S. A. ; situated at tlie mouth of the Cuya- 
hoga River, and an important port on Lake Erie. 
The history of its Jewish community dates back to 
the year 1837, when a Bavarian, Simson Thorman, 
settled here. He was soon followed by others of 
his countrymen— Cleveland being then a thriving 

town of about 6,000 inhabitants- and in 1839 the 
colony had increased sufficiently to warrant the es- 
tablishment of a permanent religious organization. 

This first congregation, called The Israelitish So- 
ciety, began with twenty members. In 1842 it was 
divided, the seceding branch forming the Anshe 
Chesed society ; but four years later these two again 
united, and formed the Anshe Chesed congrega- 
tion, the oldest existing religious organization in the 
town. Its first synagogue was built on a lot ex- 
changed for laud which had been presented to the 
Anshe Chesed society, for building purposes, by 
Leonard Case, a w^ealtliy non-Jewish landowner. 

Dissensions in 1848 resulted in the withdrawal of 

members, who in 1850 formed the Tifereth Israel 

congregation, the second of the now 

First Set- existing congregations. A legacy of 

tlements. !:j3,000 bequeathed by Judah Touro 
of New Orleans in 1854, purchased 
the site upon which its first synagogue was erected. 
Tliese two congregations have always been the 
leading factors in Cleveland Jewry — the Anshe 
Chesed representing the Conservative branch, its 
present membership being 210; the Tifereth Israel, 
the Radical Reform, with a membership of 513, and 
a Sabbath school enrolment of 775. Both are pros- 
perous, and worship in splendid modern edifices. 

The rabbis of Anshe Chesed congregation have 
been: Fuld, 1850; E. Hertzman, 1860-61; G. M. 
Cohen, 1861-66; Nathan, 1866-67; Gustave M. 
Cohen, 1867-75; M. Tintner, 1875-76; M. Machol, 
the present incumbent, from 1876. 

The rabbis of Tifereth Israel congregation have 
been: Isidor Kalisch, 1850-55; Wolf Fassbinder, 
1855-57; Jacob Cohen, 1857-66; G. M. Cohen, 1866- 
1867; Jacob Mayer, 1867-74; Aaron Hahn, 1874-92; 
Moses J. Gries, the present incumbent, from 1892. 

The congregation next in importance is the B'ne 
Yeshurun Hungarian, which was founded in 1865, 
reorganized in 1886, and has (1903) a present mem- 
bership of about 200. Its rabbi is Dr. Sigmund 

The year 1881 saAv the arrival of the first Russian 
refugees, wiio, in point of numbers, have since be- 
come a highly important part of the community. 
Besides the three leading congregations mentioned, 
there are no less than eleven minor congregations, 
mostly Russian, with a combined membership of 
about 700 — the largest of them, Beth Hamidrash 
Hagodol Beth Israel, having 600 seat-holders. There 
are also many so-called "hebrahs," formed only for 
services during the principal holidays. On Oct. 17, 
1885, the first American Rabbinical Conference was 
held in Cleveland. The first annual conference of 
of the existing Conference of American Rabbis was 
held in Cleveland, July 13, 1890. 

The Jewish Orphan Asylum of Cleveland, founded 
by the Independent Order of B'nai B'rith, District 
No. 2, was established in 1868; its superintendent 
since 1878 has been Dr. S. Wolfenstein. This institu- 
tion, which shelters 500 cliildren, has become famous, 
being considered a model of its kind (see ai'ticle there- 
on in "Ohio State Bulletin of Charities and Correc- 
tions," vol. iv. 47), and exerting a wide-spread in- 
fluence in furni.shiug (from its trained assistants) 
superintendents and matrons for other similar insti- 




tutlons. The heads of the Jcwisli orphan asyhuns 
of San Francisco, Atlanta, Chicago, Philadelpliia, and 
Rocliester were formerly assistants at the Cleveland 
institution. The Educational League, formed for 
the higher education of orphans, and now a national 
■organization, was founded in Cleveland in 1896. 

In 1875 the Hebrew llelief Association, the oldest 
benevolent society of importance, was organized; 
in 1890 it joined the National Confer- 
Charitable ence of Jewish Charities. Its annual 
and Other income is about §4,500. There are 
Organiza- many lesser charitable organizations 
tions. in the community, among them the 
Daughters of Israel, the oldest wom- 
en's benevolent society, founded in 1860. The 

Association, in which charity the larger part of its 
funds is expended. It supports also a free Sabbath- 
school of about 500 children, a working girls' chib 
of 160 members, a free kindergarten, and several 
other departments. Its annual expenditure is nearly 
§3,000. In 1899 an educational organization, called 
the Council Educational Alliance, was formed, and a 
building for its use was presented by jMoritz Joseph. 
Though not a social settlement, its work is along 
settlement lines; being educational and social in 
character, and having a resident director. In its 
building are a large gymnasium with baths, a free 
public library with reading-rooms, and club, class, 
and social rooms. Courses of free lectures and enter- 
tainments are given during the winter. A public 

The Jewish Orphan Asylu.m, Cleveland, O. 

(From a, photograph.) 

Russian part of the community has recently devel- 
oped several of its own. In 1881 the Sir Moses 
IVIontefiore Home for Aged and Infirm Israelites, 
founded by the Order Kesher Shel Barzel, was es- 
tablished in the city. It has at present 54 inmates. 
In 1889 the Young Men's Hebrew Association was 
formed ; but after a more or less active life of eight 
or nine years it went out of existence in the fall of 
1899, for want of interest and support. 

In 1894 the Council of Jewish Women was organ- 
ized by the federation of the older women's socie- 
ties — tlie Benevolent Society, the Sewing Society, 
the Personal Service Society, and others. This or- 
ganization joined the National Council of Jewish 
Women in 1890, and has since become an active 
power in educational and philanthropic work. It 
assumes the care of the sick poor, and in this works 
jointly with the older society, the Hebrew Relief 

playground is maintained by the Alliance. The 
monthly expenditure is §400; the average monthly 
attendance (1902) was about 25,000. 

The Jewish lodges in Cleveland are as follows: 
Independent Order B'nai B'rith, 3; Independent 
Order Sons of Benjamin, 9; Order B'rith Abraham, 
5 ; Order Kesher Shel Barzel, 2 ; Independent Order 
Free Sons of Israel, 2; Order Knights of Joseph, 7. 
The B'nai B'rith lodges now form Cleveland Lodge, 
No. 16. There are also several Zionist societies and 
two newspapers, "The Jewish Review and Ob- 
server," an amalgamation of the "Hebrew Observ- 
er," founded in 1888, and the "Jewish Review," 
founded 1893; and a Yiddish paper which has led 
a precarious existence under various names, and is 
now (1903) appearing as the "Jewish Free Press." 

In a total population of about 400,000, estimates 
place the number of Jews between 15,000 and 25,000. 




Of these not more than 7,000 to 9,000 are per- 
manently affiliated with any religious organization. 

The older part of the community is rapidly in- 
creasing in wealth and importance, an extensive 
cloak and clothing manufacturing interest being 
almost entirely under its control. Its members are 
also well represented among the prominent mer- 
chants, and in law, medicine, art, and music. 

The younger part of the community, the Russian 

and Polish element, is also rapidly forging to the 

front. Some of its earlier arrivals 

Social have already attained to affluence ; and 

Status. they also are well represented in the 
medical profession. The majority, 
however, are still small tradesmen and pedlers, with 
a good percentage of tailors, cloak-makers, cigar- 
makers, carpenters, shoemakers, plumbers, etc. 

Temple of Tifereth Israel Congregation, Cleveland, O. 

(From a photngraph.) 

The early struggles of the Jews of Cleveland were 
perhaps more severe than those of other communi- 
ties, and development was slower. It is indeed onlj'' 
within the last decade that university education has 
become fairly general; and perhaps it is for this 
reason that Cleveland has not given more Jews of 
prominence to the world. The best known now 
living here is Dr. IMarcus Rcsenwasser, for .some 
years dean of the Wooster Medical College, and for 
many years professor of abdominal surgery in the 
Cleveland College of Physicians and Surgeons. In 
the early days Benjamin F. Peixotto was a resident 
and active communal worker here. Simon Wolf 
also lived here for some years. Besides these the 
community boasts of but two famous sons — the art- 
ists George P. M. Peixotto and Louis Loeb. 

The religious attitude of the community differs 
but little from that of others in the West, save per- 
haps in that the Reform movement has advanced 
more rapidly in Cleveland than elsewhere. All 
shades and varieties of Judaism are to be found, 
from the most rigidly Orthodox to the ultra-radical 
Reform — on the one hand, an unswerving adher- 
ence to tradition; on the other, at Tifereth Israel 
synagogue, now called "The Temple," almost an 
entire abolition of it. The Temple congregation 
worships on Sunday, a large number of its attend- 

ance being non-Jews. It has abolished the reading 
of the Torah and practically all Hebrew from its 
service and Sabbath-school. Its Sabbath school ses- 
sion is held on Sunday afternoon. In its house of 
worship are given regular public courses of lectures 
and entertainments. It lias a public library and 
reading-room; and recently a large, well-equipped 
gymnasium, with baths, has been added. 

Bibliography: Anniversary Souvenir of the Anshe Chesed 
Coufiregation, 1896; Souvenir Tifereth Israel Connrega- 
tion, 1900. 
A. S. WoL. 


adaptation of the individual to a new climate. It has 
been observed that when people emigrate to a strange 
countrj% even when tlie new climate differs but little 
from that of the mother country, there occurs a 
transformation which affects the entire organism. 
It has been shown by Virchow that it is not only 
the individual who is affected by a prolonged so- 
journ away from his native country, but his poster- 
ity as well. At present one of the most urgent prob- 
lems confronting modern statesmen and sociologists 
is whether Europeans can emigrate to other climates, 
particularly the tropics, live healthful lives, and 
perpetuate their kind and ethnic type there (see C. 
II. Pearson, "National Life"; B. Kidd, "Control of 
the Tropics," p. 79, note). 

The Jews furnish perhaps the best statistics 
for solving the problem of climation. They live, 
thrive, perpetuate their kind, and preserve their 
identity in almost every climate. Many students of 
the problem of acclimatization have shown that the 
Jews are a cosmopolitan race (see particularly Bou- 
din, "Memoircs de la Societe d' Anthropologic," i. 

117). Andree aptly says that "the 
Jews an Jew is able to acclimatize himself 
Exaxnple. with equal facility in hot and in cold 

latitudes, and to exist without the as- 
sistance of native races. He lasts from generation 
to generation, in Surinam (Dutch Guiana) or in Mal- 
abar (India), tropical climates where Europeans, in 
the course of time, die out unless they are constantly 
reenforced by immigration from the mother coun- 
try " (" Zur Volkskimde der Juden," pp. 70, 71). In 
Algiers, where the French find it so difficult to adapt 
themselves, the Jews are known to prosper and mul- 
tiply, as the following figures show: 


Mortality per 1,000 Population. 



1844 : 











The climation of the Jews in Algiers appears 
the more striking in view of the following figures 
for the year 1856, given by Boudin (I.e. p. 119), 
showing the relation of the birth-rate to the death- 
rate among the Jews in comparison with Europeans 
and the native Mohammedans : 














A similar vitality and power of acclimatization 
are shown by the Jews in India (for statistics seeM. 
Legoyt, "De Certaines Immunites Biostatiques de 
la Race Juive," pp. 21-24), in the tropical countries 
of South America (Montano, "L'Hygiene et les 
Tropiques," in "Bulletin de la Societe de Geo- 
graphic," series 6, xv. 418-451), in the south- 
ern portion of the United States, and in Cuba. 
The same holds good in South Africa and Aus- 

A. R. Wallace considers the Jews " a good exam- 
ple of acclimatization because they have been estab- 
lished for many centuries in climates very different 
from that of their native land; they keep themselves 
almost wholly free from intermixture with the peo- 
ple around them. . . . They liave, for instance, at- 
tained a population of near two millions [at pres- 
ent nearly six millions] in such severe climates 
as Poland and Russia ; and according 
Extremes to ]VIr. Brace (' Races of the Old 

of Tern- World,' p. 185), their increase in 
perature. Sweden is said to be greater than that 
of the Christian population ; in the 
towns of Algeria they are the only race able to main- 
tain its numbers; and in Cochin China and Aden 
they succeed in rearing and forming permanent 
communitics"(" Acclimatization," in "Encyclopaedia 
Britannica," 9th ed., vol. i.). 

It is important to note that wherever they 
live the Jews preserve their peculiar typical Sem- 
itic features, and in most cases also their habits of 

Felkin (" Can Europeans Become Acclimatized in 
Tropical Africa?" in "Scottish Geographical Mag- 
azine," ii. 653) states that it is probably due to a 
certain amount of Semitic blood that the southern 
Europeans possess in a higher degree the power of 
adapting themselves to a subtropical climate. Dis- 
cussing the overwhelming superiority in adaptabil- 
ity of the Maltese over the Spaniard, Virchow says 
that it is derived from the mixture of foreign (Sem- 
itic) blood ("Ueber Akklimatisation," in " Verhand- 
lungen der Versammlung der Naturforscher und 
Aerzte in Strassburg." 1885). 

Investigation tends to show that even a little 
Semitic blood in the veins of nations is a great help 
in acclimatization, and that the power to adapt 
themselves to a strange climate is a racial trait of 
the Jews. Another important point is that while 
other white races find it advantageous to climation 
to intermarry with the native races, and Avhile many 
have shown that this is absolutely necessary for 
successful climation, the Jcavs do not, as a rule, 
inter-marry with their neighbors, and still adapt 
themselves easily to new climatic conditions. See 

Some consider that the superior power of clima- 
tion of the Jews is a racial trait, acquired by their con- 
stant migrations, and even their tem- 
Suggested porary stay in Egypt; and their slow 

Causes. progression ("petit acclimatement ") 
is stated by Bertillon ("Acclimate- 
ment," in " Dictionnaire des Sciences Anthropolo- 
giques," Paris, 1884) to have had its influence on 
their power of climation. But Schellong ("Ak- 
klimatisation," in Weyl's " Handbuch der Hygiene," 

i. 334) points out that the center of dispersion of the 
Jews was in the countries near the Mediterranean, 
whence they have slowly penetrated into the heart 
of Europe (an opinion not shared by all authorities 
on the subject) ; and that in this manner they have 
reached the northern countries of Europe, their pro- 
gression being constantly in the direction of the 
colder regions, for which less aptitude for climation 
is necessary. 

Another point especially worthy of notice is the 
fact that the Jews in the tropical countries are not 
engaged in pursuits requiring much exertion and 
exposure to the hot rays of the sun. This is espe- 
cially emphasized by Ripley ("Races of Europe," p. 
563), who says that Jews confining all their activi- 
ties to shops in the towns can not be compared with 
others who take up the cultivation of the soil. 

Another view of the question of the causes of the 
Jew's power of climation is that his sobriety, 
purity of home life, and freedom from vicious habits 
contribute largely to his easy adaptation to a new 
climate. That there is a great deal of truth in this 
can not be denied, because it is well known that 
inunigrants in tropical countries are prone to do 
things which they would not even think of amid the 
restraints of home life. The English (according to 
Wallace), who can not give up animal food and the 
use of spirituous liquors, are less able to sustain the 
heat of the tropics than the more sober Spaniards 
and Portuguese. The Boers in South Africa are 
another example of a people who keep sober and 
prosper in a tropical land. The sobriety of the 
Jew is admitted by all, and has undoubtedly a great 
influence on his adaptability to new climates, al- 
though this adaptability seems to be a racial charac- 
teristic of the Semites, not dependent upon the 
merely negative virtue of sober and temperate 

Bibliography : R. Virchow, AkMimatisatwn, in Verh. Berl. 
Gesell. filr Anthropolodic und Ethnologie, 1885, p. 202; A. 
R. Wallace, Acclimatization, In Eticyclop. Britmmica ; A. 
Bertillon, Acclimatement, in Dictionnaire des Sciences 
Anthropolofjiques, Paris, 1884; Boudin, Traite de Gengra- 
phie et de Statistique Medicate, Paris, 1857; O. Schellong, 
AhMimatisation, in Weyl's Handbuch der Hygiene, Jena, 
1894 ; W. Z. Ripley, Races of Europe, New York, 1899. 
J. M. Fr. 

CLISSON : Town in the department of Loire- 
Inferieuie, France, formerly belonging to the prov- 
ince of Brittany. Clisson was a center of Jewish 
learning, several renowned scholars having resided 
there; and its name, variously written J1V7lp. JlV^p, 
\))6< jn^p, tl"lYN^p, PV^P, occurs in the Hebrew 
writings of the thirteentli century. Its most prom- 
inent scholars were : (1) the Tosafist Joseph, called 
also "Joseph the Jerusalemite " ; (2) Mei'r Clisson, 
mentioned as a Biblical commentator in the commen- 
tary "Zofnat Pa'neah"; (3) Isaac of Clisson, men- 
tioned in the " Semak " ; (4) Jacob, mentioned .by 
Mordecai ben Hillel. 
Bibliography: Zunz, Literaturgesch. der Synagogalen 

Poesie, p. 613; Gross, Gallia Judaica, pp. 594 et seq. 

G. I- Br. 

CLOAK. See Mantle. 

CLOUD.— Biblical Data : The Hebrew equiva- 
lents for "cloud " are: (1) " 'Anan," (Gen. ix. 13, 14; 
Ex. xiii., passim), which occurs once in the feminine 




form " 'ananah " (Job iii. 5), and ooce in the Aramaic 
form py (Dan. vii. 13). (2) " 'Ab " is generally used in 
the poetic books instead of the more prosaic " 'anan " 
(Job xxxvi. 29; xxxvii. 11, 16; 1 Kings xviii. 44; 
Isa. V. 6, etc.). (3) " Shahak," a purely poetic form, 
occurring frequently in the plural, but only twice 
in the singular (Ps. Ixxxix. 7, 38), is used for 
"heavens" (Job xxxvii. 15; Ps. Ixxxix. 7, 38). In 
Deut. xxxiii. 26; Isa. xlv. 8; Jer. li. 9; Job xxxv. 
5, xxxviii. 37; Ps. xxxvi. 5, Ivii. 11, cviii. 5, it is 
used as a parallel for "heaven." (4) "'Arafel,"a 
thick, heavy, dark cloud (Deut. iv. 11, v. 22; II 
Chron. vi. 1; Job xxii. 13, xxxviii. 9; Isa. Ix. 2). 
(5) "Nesi'im," rendered "vapors" in Jer. x. 13, li. 
16. Ps. cxxxv. 7 seems to echo Jer. x. 13 and li. 
16, having a very similar phraseology. "Nesi'im" 
occurs also in Prov. xxv. 14, "clouds and wind and 
no rain. " 

In the peculiar climatic conditions of Palestine 
■clouds were an important feature. The j^ear was 
divided into a rainy season, from October to May, 
and a dry season, from May to October. During 
the rainless season not only was there no rain, but 
not even a cloud appeared in the heavens (I Sam. 
xii. 17, 18), and when the rain-cloud did appear it 
arose gradually from the west — that is, from the sea 
— and then the heavens were darkened and a tremen- 
dous downpour followed (I Kings xviii. 45). Many 
figurative expressions are derived from the qualities 
of the clouds. They are driven across the sky very 
quickly ; hence it is said that the enemy "shall come 
up as the clouds" (Isa. xix. 1, ix. 8; Jer. iv. 13). 
Job complains of his welfare passing away as the 
cloud (Job XXX. 15). Here, too, is the thought that 
the cloud leaves no trace behind it. Originating from 
this thought is the phrase in Isa. xliv. 22, "I have 
blotted out, as a thick cloud, thy transgressions." 
The clouds of the rainy season foreshadow the rain, 
hence symbolize a favor bestowed (Prov. xvi. 15). 
In the dry season the dew-cloud revives the dried 
vegetation ; God's favor is therefore pictured as the 
dew (Hosea xiv. 5). The blackness of the clouds 
betokens misfortune (Ezek. xxx. 18; Lam. ii. 1), and 
€ven a curse, as in Job iii. 5. 

Clouds are frequently pictured as hiding God 
from man and as intercepting man's petitions (Lam. 
iii. 44; Job xxii. 13, 14). In Job xxvi. 8 there is 
the strong figure of the cloud used to bind up and 
contaiu the waters. As direct manifestations of 
God, the clouds are His cliariots (Ps. civ. 3; Isa. 
xix. 1). When God appeared over Mount Sinai it 
was in clouds and thunder and lightning. A cloud 
covered the mercy-seat (Lev. xvi. 2) in the Taber- 
nacle, and later on it rested over the Temple (I Kings 
viii. 10, 11 ; II Chron. v. 13, 14). A pillar of cloud ac- 
companied the Ark, showing the way by day through 
the wilderness (Ex. xiii., passim). See Rainbow. 

J. G. B. L. 

In Rabbinical Literature : The observation 

of clouds for the purpose of divination (piy) was one 
of the forbidden methods of forecasting the future 
(Lev. xix. 26). Notwithstanding this, the pillar 
of cloud of tlie altar was observed for that pur- 
pose in the Temple on New- Year's or Atonement 
Day (compare Yoma 21b., B.B. 147a), the direction 
which the pillar of cloud took being thought to in- 

dicate what part of the land would be blessed with 
plenty during the year (Lev. R. xx. ; compare Abra- 
ham's forecasting of the year while observing the 
stars on New- Year's eve [Book of Jubilees, xii. 16]). 
A cloud stationary over the top of Mount Moriah, be- 
traying the presence of the Shekinah, was the means 
by Avhich Abraham recognized " the place afar off " 
(Gen. xxii. 4; Gen. R. Ivi. ; Tan., Wayera, 46; Pirke 
R. El. xxxi. ; Targ. Yer. to the passage). A cloud 
over the entrance to the tent of Sarah also indicated 
the presence of the Shekinah (Gen. R. Ix.). 

Of Moses it is narrated that when he was about 
to ascend to heaven, a cloud came to meet him, and, 
forming about him, carried him up (Pesik. R. 20 ; ed. 
Friedmann, p. 96). God wrapped Moses in a cloud 
to protect him when the angels of heaven, who were 
jealous of him, wanted to cast him down (Ex. R. xii., 
xlii.). The cloud of the divine glory also appeared 
at Aaron's death on Mount Hor, and gradually cov- 
ered him until he disappeared from before Moses 
(Yalku^, Mas'e, ^ 787). Moses was sanctified by the 
cloud so that he could receive the Law from God 
on Sinai (Ab. R. N. i.). When Moses' life was 
drawing to an end, the cloud of glory surrounded 
his successor, Joshua, at the gate of the tent, and 
Moses, standing outside, felt that his leadership was 
transferred to Joshua (Jellinek, "B. H." i. 116). Jo- 
sephus (" Ant." iv. 8, § 48) relates of Moses' end that 
after he had dismissed the elders and was still dis- 
coursing with Eleazar, the high priest, and Joshua, 
a cloud suddenly stood over him and he disappeared 
(compare Samaritan Book of Joshua, vi.). 

The clouds carried along from the River Pishon 
in paradise the precious stones for the ephod and 
the high priest's breastplate, as well as the sweet 
odors, the sacred oil, the balsam for the candlestick, 
and the ointment and incense for the Tabernacle 
(Targ. Yer. to Ex. xxxv. 27, 28, the word D''X''CJ'J, 
used in the passage, denoting both " princes " and 
"clouds"). The clouds spoken of in Isa. Ix. 8 
("Who are these that fly as a cloud?") are miracu- 
lous clouds, carrying the righteous every morning 
and evening from all parts of the world to the Tem- 
ple at Jerusalem, so that they may participate in 
the divine service (Pesik. R. 1.; compare I Thess. 
iv. 17: "We which are alive and remain shall be 
caught up together with them [the angels] in the 
cloud to meet the Lord in the air"). 

The cloud of divine glory which carries the Son of 
man in the Messianic vision (Dan. vii. 13) has given 
rise to the identification of Anani, the descendant of 
David (I Chron. iii. 24), with the Messiah as " the one 
who will come down from the clouds " (see Targ. and 
Sanh. 92b : ^isQJ "12 [j^f^f'^'/], " the son of the cloud " ; 
hence Matt. xxiv. 30, jmssim). 

Clouds of a miraculous character appeared to R. 
Hiyya ben Luliani in the time of a drought, saying 
to one another: " Come, let us bring rain to Ammou 
and Moab " (Ta'an. 25a). For the cloud-vision in 
the Baruch Apocalypse (liii. et seq.), see Baruch, 
Apocalypse of. 

Regarding the origin and nature of the clouds, R. 
Eliezer holds, pointing to Gen. ii. 6 and Job xxxvi. 
28, that the clouds above sweeten the water rising 
from the ocean as mist, while R. Joshua, referring 
to Deut. xi. 11 and Job xxxvi. 37, says that the 




clouds form a receptacle through which the water 
coming from above pours dowu as through a sieve ; 
whence the name "shehakim" (grinders), as they 
"grind" the water into single rain-drops (Gen. R. 
xiii. ; compare Bacher, "Die Agada der Tannaiten," 
i. 136). These views seem to liave given rise to an- 
other controversy between R. Johanan and R. Simon 
b. Lakish, the former referring to Dan. vii. 13, the 
latter to Ps. cxxxv. 7 (Gen. R. I.e.). The five Bib- 
lical names for " cloud " are explained : " 'ab " = the 
cloud thickening the upper atmosphere; "ed" = 
the cloud bringing, in the form of rain, " calamity " 
upon corn-speculators; " 'anan "= the cloud render- 
ing people "pleasant" toward one another through 
prosperity; "nesi'im " = the cloud rendering people 
"princes," either by benefiting all or by favoring 
some; "haziz" = the "shining" cloud causing 
men to have " visions " (Gen. R. I.e., and Yer. Ta'an. 
iii. 66c). 

s. s. K. 

CLOUD, PILLAR OF (pyn TilDJ?, Ex. xiii. 21). 
—Biblical Data: When Israel was marching 
through the wilderness, Y'liwii, wrapped in a pillar 
of cloud, preceded the people in order to show them 
the right way. During the night the cloud turned 
into a pillar of fire (Ex. xiii. 21 ; xiv. 19, 24; Num. 
xiv. 15; Deut. i. 33; compare Ps. Ixxviii. 14; Neh. 
ix. 12, 19). On one occasion the pillar of cloud 
moved behind the Israelites in order to sliield them 
from the pursuing Egyptians (Ex. xiv. 19, 24). 

The historic basis of this account is doubtless 
found in the frequently mentioned custom of carry- 
ing fire before an army on the march, so that the 
route might be indicated by day by the rising smoke 
and after nightfall by the light. When Alexander 
was marching through Babylonia and Susiana he 
gave the signal for his army to set out, not by 
trumpet, but by means of a long pole fastened 
above the chief tent, on which a fire burned by 
night, and from which smoke rose by day (Curtius, 
V. 2, 7). Thrasybulus, leading home banished men 
through imtrodden regions, was preceded at night 
by a fire (compare Clement of Alexandria, "Stro- 
mata," cd. Colon, i. 348). In Arabia to day iron ves- 
sels filled with burning wood are carried on long 
poles at the head of caravans (compare Harmer, 
"Beobachtungen," i. 348; Pococke, in "Morgen- 
land," ii. 51). Since Y'liwii is Israel's leader, and 
clouds and fire signify His presence (Ex. iii. 2, xix. 
9), smoke and fire are transformed into cloud and 

K. (i. H. W. N. 

In Rabbinical Literature: The Haggadah, 

taking tiie words " I placed the children of Israel in 
tents" ("sukkot," Lev. xxiii. 43) in an allegorical 
sense as signifying that the Israelites were surrounded 
witli clouds for protection, and the name of the city 
Sukkot (Ex. xii. 37, xiii. 20) as the place where they 
were covered with clouds (see Mek., Bo, xiv. ; Mek., 
Beshallah, i.), mentions not one, but seven, "clouds 
of glory " as having accompanied Israel on its march 
through the desert (nnD 'JJJ?) ; namely, one on each 
of the four sides, and one above, one below, and 
one in front of, these four. According to another 
passage there were even thirteen clouds, two on 

each side, two above, two below, and one in front. 
Others, again, speak of only four, or of two (Mek., 
Beshallah, i.; Sifre, Num. 83). The cloud in front 
prepared the way by leveling the heights and depths 
(see Aunon), killing the snakes, and making the way 
pleasant. These "clouds of glory" prevented the 
garments of the Israelites from becoming soiled or 
worn during the forty years in the wilderness (Pesik., 
ed. Buber, x. 32a ; compare the parallel passages in 
Buber, I.e.). They were combined with the stand- 
ards of the twelve tribes as follows: a strip of the 
seventh cloud, on which the initials of the names 
of the three patriarchf flashed in heavenly light, 
rested on the standard of the tribe of Judah, while 
a second strip of the same cloud,, on which the sec- 
ond letters of the names of the three patriarchs 
flashed, rested on the standard of the tribe of Reu- 
ben; the standards of the tribes of Ephraim and 
Dan were similarly distinguished by strips of 
the seventh cloud. Hence the first strip of cloud 
bore the letters ^''X; the second strip, yvd; the third, 
pnS; and the fourth, 3pb, the name of Abraham 
being spelled without the letter n, and appearing 
on these strips of cloud as "Abram." This n com- 
bined with ^ and forming the name of God (h'), 
appeared on the pillar of cloud that hovered over 
the Ark of the Covenant. During the seven days 
of the week the pillar of cloud went the rounds of 
all the camps of Israel, giving light as the sun by 
day and as the moon by night. When God wished 
the Israelites to remove their camps, the cloud on 
which the letters h"* were marked moved upwaid 
from the Ark of the Covenant. The four other 
strips of cloud followed after it, and as soon as the 
priests noticed these clouds following in the wake 
of the first, they blew their trumpets as the signal 
to continue the journey ("The Chronicles of Jerah- 
meel," pp. 149-157; a slightly different version is 
found in the description of the cloud in the " Kanah, " 
ed. Korez, p. 32b-c). These clouds receded from the 
Israelites when they had committed sins, and thus 
failed to protect them ; this happened in the case of 
the tribe of Dan, which, having been guilty of 
idolatry, was assailed by Amalek, and many were 
slain (ilek., Beshallah, Amalek, 1). Compare Fire, 
Pillar of; Standard. 

E. c. L. G. 
Critical View : An account somewhat differ- 
ent from that in the two earlier sources of the Pen- 
tateuch, J and E, is found in the latest source, the 
Priestly Code. The latter never speaks of a pillar, 
but merely of a cloud, and this appeared only after 
the erection of the Tabernacle, which it covered by 
day, while by night it contained fire, which was per- 
ceived on the Tabernacle and taken as an omen. 
When the cloud rose the Israelites broke camp, and 
v/hen it was lowered they set up their tents (com- 
pare Ex. Ix. 34 et seq. ; Num. ix. 15 et seq., x. 11 et 
seq.. xvii. 7). Hence the conception in the Priestly 
Code seems to be based on the idea of the continu- 
ally burning altar-fire in the tent (compare Dillmann, 
on Ex. xiii. 21). 

E. o. n. W. N. 

COAL : Expressed in the Bible by two words, 
DHD (Prov. xxvi. 21; Isa. xliv. 12, liv. 16) and 


Coat of Arms 



rhm, n'^hm (Ps. xviii. 9 [A. v. 8] ; Prov. XXV. 22). 
Since ^m moans "to glow" or "to burn," D'^i'm 
probably means "the glowing," and QriD, "black 
coal" (compare Prov. xxvi. 21), although this dis- 
tinction does not always obtain (Isa. xliv. 12, liv. 
16). Of course, charcoal is always meant, wiiich 
was made of tamarisk and broom, the kind formed 
of the thick roots of the latter (Dm) giving an espe- 
cially strong and lasting heat, and being still much 
sought in the East (Robinson, "Biblical Researches 
in Palestine," 1. 203 ; Germ, ed., iii. 683). According 
to Jer. vi. 29, the flame was fanned by a bellows 
(nSD), probably the ancient variety worked with the 
feet and hands ; but in a picture found in Wilkin- 
son's "Ancient Egyptians," iii. 339, the Egyptians 
are shown using for that purpose long reeds pro- 
tected against the flame bj^ long metal points. 

Though the coal-fire was used chiefly for cooking 
food, and for baking bread, meat, and fish (Isa. xliv. 
19), it was also used for heating the homes. In the 
winter, live coals were placed in a brazier standing 
in the middle of the room (nx, Jer. xxxvi. 22; 1^3 
tJ'X. Zech. xii. 6); in the houses of the poor they 
were placed in a hole in the floor. As there were no 
chimneys, the smoke found vent either through the 
door or through the grated window (n2"lN), which 
was generally rather high in tlie Avail (Hosea xiii. 3). 

The word "coal" is often used in a metaphorical 
sense: II Sam. xiv. 7 speaks of the "quenching of 
the coal " of a man, meaning the complete annihila- 
tion of his issue; while in Prov. xxv. 22 kindness 
bestowed upon an enemy is called "heaping coals 
of fire upon his head," since it tends to waken his 
deadened conscience and help him to realize his 
wrong. Ecclus. (Sirach) viii. 10 compares the 
smoldering and easily roused passion of the godless 
man to the coal that is easily lighted and breaks forth 
into flame. 

E. G. H. W. K 

COAT : An outer garment with sleeves, for the 
upper part of the body; in the Bible it is an article 
of dress for both men and women, worn next to the 
skin, and is distinct from the "cloak," or outer gar- 
ment (compare Matt. v. 40); either "shirt" or 
" tunic " would be a more correct rendering. The 
Hebrew has "kuttonet," rarely "ketonel," which is 
sometimes translated "robe" or "garment" (Isa. 
xxii. 21; Neh. vii. 70, 72; II Sam. xiii. 18, 19; Ezra 
ii. 69). " Kuttonet " is a word of doubtful etymol- 
ogy (coming, perhaps, from a root meaning "to 
clothe "), but its cognate forms are found in Arabic 
("kattan"), Ethiopic ("ketan"), Assyrian ("kit- 
inng"), and Greek ("chiton"). 

Originally (Gen. iii. 21) the garment worn by the 
Hebrews was a simple loin-cloth of leaves or skins, 
like that adopted by Elijah (II Kings i. 8, " girdle of 
leather"; compare the use of the "punti" on the 
border of the Red Sea : Mliller, " AsienundEuropa," 
p. 108). In course of time this developed into a 
short shirt, with an aperture for the head to pass 
through, and was gradually lengthened to the knees 
(especially when used by women), and sometimes to 
the ankles. Even tunics with trains are mentioned 
(Isa. vi. 1 ; Jer. xiii. 22 ; Nahum iii. 5). The shirt was 
made at first without sleeves, and also failed to 

cover the left shoulder (see Mliller, I.e. pp. 296 et seq.). 
The working classes continued to wear the " primi- 
tive loin-cloth" (Milller, ib. p. 297), or the sleeveless 
coat, as this allowed, full freedom of movement for 
both arms and legs. When the shirt was long, a 
belt or girdle was worn over it, partly for the pur- 
pose of holding it together, but mainly to enable the 
Avearer to tuck in the laps when running, walking, 
or working. 

The expression "mouth of the coat" can not be 
understood to mean that the shirt had a collar. It 
denotes simply the opening at the top, fitting closely 
round the neck (Job xxx. 18). At night (Cant. v. 
3) this undergarment was taken ofl:. Later, as outer 
garments came into use, one clothed only with 
the kuttonet was considered to be " naked. " As a 
sign of mourning, originally, every article of dress 
was removed, and cuts were made in the flesh; but 
as soon as the wearing of the kuttonet alone came 
to be regarded as equivalent to "nakedness," that 
garment was rent to express grief (II Sam. xv. 32; 
compare jMorris Jastrow, in "Journal of the Ameri- 
can Oriental Society," xxi. 23, 39; and see Cut- 
tings). That a loin-girdle was regarded as equally 
inadequate with the kuttonet is shown in Talmudic 
allusions (Shab. 62b; Sotah9a; Esth. R. 104b). 

The more luxurious classes of society — e.g., women 
of royal blood (II Sam. xiii. 18, 19) and men of lei- 
sure — wore tunics with sleeves. This is tlie meaning 
of the Hebrew " passim " occurring in the descrip- 
tion of the garment presented to Joseph by his father 
(Gen. xxxvii. 3). It was not "of many colors " (see 
Septuagint); the color of the shirt worn even by 
those of high rank was yellow, or red, or black 
(Mliller, I.e. pp. 297-399); the upper garment, wound 
spirally round the body, was of blue and red, and 
showed various patterns, like those worked into 
rugs; but its significance lay in the fact that the 
sleeves (Targ. and Bereshit R. parashah 84) marked 
the favorite son, who was absolved from work. 
These sleeves sometimes extended only to the elbow- 
joint; when they covered the whole length of the 
arm, the lower part was, as a rule, richly ornamented 
with fringe. Whether or not the common shirt had 
seams is not clear. The more costly shirts appear tc 
have been sewed together, the seams, especially those 
round the neck, being heavily covered with embroid- 
ered strips (Mliller, I.e. pp. 2*98, 299). The materials 
from which these tunics were made were wool — 
woven by the w^omen — flax, and, for the more 
costly ones, worn by otflcials, both secular and sac- 
erdotal (Ezek. xxvii. 16; Isa. xxii. 21), imported 
Egyptian byssus ("shesh," Gen. xli. 42; Ex. xxviii. 
39; and "buz," Ezek. xxvii. 16). 

In Mishnaic times this coat, or shirt, was still 
worn. It is found under the name "onkali" 
("nokli," Yer. Sliab. 15d), which sometimes seems 
to denote a garment worn by women, and is cor- 
rectly explained in the " 'Aruk " as " a thin article of 
apparel worn next to the skin " (compare also Meg. 
24b ; Sanh. 82b ; M. K. 24a). It was, however, pro- 
vided with sleeves (Brlill, " Trachten der Juden " ; 
Krauss, "Lehnworter," s.v.). "Sarbalin" in Dan. 
iii. 31 is not "coat," but "trousers." (See Costumes 
IN Biblical Ti.mes). 

E. G. H. G. B. L.— E. G. H. 




Coat of Arms 

COAT OF ARMS : Armorical bearings of fami- 
lies to which tlie liglit to bear arms has been granted 
by the recognized heraldic authorities. This riglit 
is in a heraldic sense distinctly feudal in character ; 
and it seems to have originated, toward the end of 
the twelfth century, in the international relations 
during the Crusades, which rendered it desirable to 
introduce some system into the devices on sliields. 
As Jews had no recognized position in the feudal 
system after this period, they could not use these 
devices, though for some time they were ranked 
with nobles, and had tJie right of deciding their dis- 
putes by duel. Consequently, no Jewish coats of 
arms were recognized by the heralds in the Middle 
Ages; though rich Jewish families of means used de- 
vices, as is shown by the occurrepce of heraldic Seals. 

The first recorded Jewish coat of arms is that of 
Bassevi von Treuenfeld, which was granted by the 
German emperor Ferdinand II. Jan. 18, 1622. 
•Gratz ("Gesch." x. 37) blazons his shield a blue 
lion, eight red stars in a blue field, thus committing 
one of the most elementary heraldic blunders in thus 
putting color upon color. The true blazon will be 
found below. In the same year two Jewish envoys 
from Caudia arrived at Venice bringing with them 
designs practically the same as coats of arms. 
One of these (Samuel Abdala) is figured below; but 
it is unlikely that they were granted by any heraldic 

Arms of Samuel Abdala. 

(From the "Jewish Chronicle.") 

authority, since one of the envoys liad a device re- 
ferring to his given, and not liis family, name. 

The practise of bearing coaisof arms became more 
general among the Jews at the time of the Maranos. 
When a Jew became converted in Spain, he was 
generally adopted by some noble family, and there- 
by obtained the right to bear the family arms. 
In this way many Jewish families gained the 

Arms of the HalevI Family. 

(In the British Museum.) 

right to shields, which they carried with them to 

Holland, and liad carved on their tombstones, even 

after they had repudiated Christian- 

Sephardic ity, which had given them the right 

Coats to such shields. It would appear 

of Arms, that at an even earlier period certain 
Spanish Jews had adopted arms; 
since there is on record the elaborate seal of the Ha- 
levis of Toledo, bearing tlie triple-turreted castle 
of Castile, a device af- 
terward adopted by the 
earl of Beaconsfield. 

In more recent times 
a grant of arms has lost 
its feudal significance; 
and it now merely im- 
plies that the grantee is 
a person of some wealth 
who desires to have the 
same external trap- 
pings as other persons 
in his social position. 
Jews have occasionally 
jnelded to this desire, 
and a certain number 

of coats of arms have been granted in England by the 
heraldic authorities. Besides these, those Jews who 
have been received into the ranks of the nobility on 
the continent of Europe have, as a matter of course, 
been granted armorial bearings, which are recorded 
in the usual woiks on heraldry. There is rarely 
anything distinctively Jewish in the coats of arms 
thus granted. Occasionally, as Avith the Montefiores 
and the Sassoons, a Hebrew word is used ; but as 
a rule tlie ordinary heraldic signs are utilized. 

Tlie subjoined list of coats of arms of Jewish fami- 
lies — the first that has been made— has been compiled 
from the standard works on heraldry of the respective 
countries, with occasional reference to Jewish books 
in which armorial bearings sporadically occur. The 
full titles of the works cited under names of authors 
at the end of each blazon are as follows: 
Almanac de Gotba. Gotha, 190(H)3. 
Annuaire de la Noblesse de France (cited as "Annualre"). 

Paris, 1897, 1902. 
Burke, John.— A GenealoRlcal and Heraldic History of the 

Landed Gentry or Commoners of Great Britain and Ireland. 

4 vols. London, 1836-38. 
Extinct and Dormant Baronetcies of England. Ireland, and 

Scotland (Cited as " Burke's Extinct Baronetcies"). 2d ed., 

London, 1844. 
Peerapre, Baronetage, and Knightage (cited as " Burke's 

Peerage "). London, 1898. 

History of the Landed Gentry. 2 vols. London, 1894. 

Burke, Sir John Bernard.- The General Armory of England, 

Scotland, Ireland, and Wales, with a Supplement (cited in 

.lacobs' " (ieneral A rmory " ) . London, 1883. 
Castro, D. Heniiques de.— Keur van Grafsteenen op de Nedert. 

Portug. Ysrael. Begraafplaats te Ouderkerk aan den Ainstel. 

Part i.,Leyden, 1883. 
Costa, Isaac da.— Adelli.ike Geslachten Onder de Israelieten, In 

"Ysrael en de Volken," pp. 460-537. 2d ed., Utrecht, 1876. 
Debrett.— House of Commons and the Judicial Bench. London, 

Peerage, Baronetage, Knightage, and Companionage (cited 

as "Debrett's Peerage"). London, 1901. 
Fairbairn.- Book of Crests of the Families of Great Britain and 

Ireland (cited as" Fairbairn's Crests"). 2 vols. Edinburgh, 

Foster, Joseph.— Collectanea Genealogica. i vols. Privately 

printed, London and Aylesbury, 1883-85. 
Fox-Davie.s, Arthur Charles.— Armorial Families. Edinburgh, 

Coat of Arms 



Freiherrliches Taschenbucli. Gotha, 1902. 

Grafliches Taschenbuch. Gotha, 1899. 

Jewish Year Book. London, 1900-O2. 

Kneschke, Ernst Heinrich. — Neues Allgemeines Deutsches 
Adels-Lexlkon. 9 vols. Leipsic, 1859-70. 

Malchol, D. de.-T>iitiiiniiaire Historique et H^raldique de la 
Noblesse FnuK.iiisi'. ;! vols. Paris, 1895-97. 

Piferrer, D. Francisco— Nohiliario de los Reinos y Seniorios de 
Espafia. 2d ed., 6 vols. Madrid, 1857-60. 

Rietstap, I. B.— Armorial General, Precede d'un Dictionnaire 
des Termes du Blason (cited as " Rietstap "). 2d ed., 3 vols. 
Gouda, 1887. 

Wapenboek van den Nederlandschen Adel (cited as " Riet- 
stap, Wapenboek "). 2 vols. Groningen, 1883-87. 

Siebmacher, 1.— Grosses und Allgemeines Wappenbuch. Nu- 
remberg, 1856-86. 

Vorsterman van Oijen.-Stam-en- Wapenboek van Aanzienlljke 
Nederlandsche Familien. 3 vols. Groningen, 1885-90. 

Walford, E.— County Families of the United Kingdom. 37th 
annual issue. London, 1897. 

Wurzbach, Constant von.— Biographisches Lexikon des Kalser- 
thums Oesterreich. 59 vols. Vienna, 1856-89. 

Coats of Arms of Jewish Families. 

Abarbanel (Spain, Portugal, Holland): Argent, a Hon gules, 
rampant, toward a tower gules. [Rietstap, 1. 1 ; Da Costa, p. 

Abarbanel de Sousa (Portugal): Quarterly, 1 and 4, ar- 
gent, a lion pules, rampant, toward a tower gules (for Abar- 
banel); 2 and 3, argent, four crescents, appoint^, affronte, 
gules (1. 2. 1) (for Sousa). [Rietstap ; Da Costa, ih.] 

Abarbanel da Veiga (Portugal): Quarterly, gules, an 
eagle argent ; argent, three fleurs-de-lis azure. [Ih.] 

Abdala (Corfu, 1622; grant fur Saiiuiel Abdala): Divided, 
dexter, in an outstretched hand the goblet for the Kiddush in 
a field azure; sinister, in an outstretched hand a twig of myr- 
tle (which in Corfu supplies the place of the spice-box), in a 
field or. ["Jewish Chronicle," Sept. 19, 1903, pp. 33-35,55. 
See illustration on page 125.] 

Abendana (Amsterdam) : Two swords, put in saltier, the hilts 
below. Crest : Upon a helmet two ostrich-plumes. [Jewish 


Abendana : An eagle upon a bolt of lightning, surrounded 
by a sun. Crest : A sinister hand. Colors or metals un- 
known. [Da Costa, p. 513.] 
Aboab : Or, five stars, 2. 1. 2, put saltier-like (see Frontis- 
piece, Fig. 4). [Piferrer, i. 21 ; compare Da Costa, p. 515.] 
Aboab (Altona, Hamburg): A house or fortress with cannon 
and banner. [" Ost und West," Aug., 1903, p. 534, from 
Grunwald, " Portugiesengriiber," 1902.] 
Abolais (Portugal, Holland): Divided, 1, a lion rampant 
toward 3, half of a tree, a rose In the point. Crest : A lion 
issuant, turned the re- 
verse way (dexter). 
Colors unknown. Date, 
5393 = l(i32. [De Castro, 
plate xiv.] 
Abravanel : Per bend, 
cliaigeil with a star (8 
points) between two 
arrows, the points up- 
ward, accompanied by 
two stars (8). Crest : Upon 
a helmet two serpents en- 
twined, combatant. Colors 
unknown. [Jewish Ex- 

CYCLOPKDIA, i. 127.] 
Acosta (Spain, Portugal, 
Holland) : Quarterly, 1, or, 
a mountain, surmounted 
by a plantation of reeds, 
proper ; 2, gules, a duck natant, proper ; 3, gules, a hill, sur- 
mounted by a towered castle argent, embattlements azure ; 
at the entrance to the castle a pomegranate, half opened, 
proper; 4, azure, five stars (8) argent (2. 1. 2), saltier-like. 
[Piferrer, i. 17 ; Rietstap, i. 7.] 
Aguilar (Spain): Gules, an eagle sable, holding in its beak a 
shield gules, charged with three bars or. [Rietstap, i. 16 ; 
Piferrer's plate gives shield in center of the eagle.] 
Aguilar or D'Agruilar (London, Spain, Portugal): (iules, 
an eagle or, surmounted by a bezant argent ; in a chief ar- 
gent, three hills sinople, surmounted each by a pear or, stem 
and leaves sinople. Crest : A lion issuant or, charged by a 
bezant argent. [Rietstap, i. 16.] 



s raiiiia 









Alvarez (Spain, Holland) : Per pale, 1, or, a tree sinople, 
at the base of the trunk a wolf sable ; 2, cheeky argent and 
gules. [Piferrer, iv., No. 1573.] 
Andrade or D'Andrade (Spain, 
etc. ) : Or, five wolves passant sable 
(2.2.1). [Rietstap, ii.' 47.] 
Arnstein, Arnsteiner (Aus- 
tria ; creation : knight 1793; baron 
1793-98) : Quarterly, 1 and 4, azure, 
an eagle argent ; 3 and 3, argent, 
a fess azure, charged by a sun or. 
Over all, sable, a crown or, sur- 
mounted by a bunch of five ostrich- 
plumes or. Two crests : (1) Wings, 
alternately azure and argent. 
Lambrequins : Argent and azure. 
(2) Five ostrich-plumes or. 
Lambrequins : Or and sable. 
[Rietstap, i.69; Kneschke,!. 114.] 
Asser (Amsterdam): Azure, a bend argent, a border or, some- 
times charged by four " A's" sable, put in the cantons. Sup- 
porters : Two lions regardant, proper. [Rietstap. i. 76.] 
Avernas-le-Gras. See SiAsso and Lopez-Suasso-Diaz- 

I)A FoNSKCA, below. 
Azevedo (Acebedo = holly-tree) (Castile): Quarterly, 1 and 
4, argent, a holly-tree sinople ; 2 and 3, or, a wolf passant 
sable. The shield is surrounded by 
a border gules, charged with eight 
small saltiers or. [Rietstap, 1. 92; 
Piferrer, iii.. No. 1272.] 
Azevedo - Coutinho (Brabant): 
Quarterly, 1 and 4, or, a holly-tree 
sinople; 3 and 3, argent, a wolf 
passant sable. The shield is sur- 
rounded by a border gules, charged 
with a fieur-de-lis argent, and five 
or. [Riet- 
stap, 1. 
Bassevi von Treuenfeld (Aus- 
tria; creation Jan. 18, 1622): Sable, 
a bend argent, charged by three 
stars (5) gules, and accompanied 
by two lion-leopards or. Crest : A 
lion Issuant or, between couped 
wings ; dexter, argent and sable ; 
sinister, or and gules. Lambrequins : 
Dexter, or and sable ; sinister, 
argent and gules. [Rietstap, 1. 128.] 
Bebri (1673): In a shield, a sword, quiver with arrows and bow, 
with a cuirass. Crest : Upon the helmet of a prince (?) a cu- 
bit arm, dexter, holding a 
simitar. Colors not known. 
[De Castro, plate vi.] 
Belmonte : Gules, a lion 
rampant or; in a chief 
azure, three roses argent. 
Crest: A bunch of ostrich- 
plumes (5). Supporters: 
Two vultures sable, collared 
argent, holding a standard. 
Motto: Virtute et fide. 
[Jewish Encyclopedia, ii. 
Bernal (Spain, England): 
Gules, a horse coiu-ant 
argent, saddled and bridled 
azure. [Rietstap, i. 177.] 
Bessels (Amsterdam): 
Azure, a fess, onde, argent, 
accompanied by three stars 
or (1. 2); In the point of a 
. chief a fleur-de-lis argent. 

[Rietstap. i. 188.] 
Bleichroder (Prussia; cre- 
ation March 8. 1872): 
Checkered of nine fields ; 
five gules, four sable; the 
seams argent. Crest : Two 
wings sable and gules, each 
wing charged by a fess argent. Lambrequins : Dexter, argent 
and sable ; sinister, argent and gules. [Rietstap, 1. 305.] 

Bassevi von Treuenfeld. 




Coat of Arms 

Brito (Castile): Gules, nine lozenges argent (3. 3. 3), each 
lozenge charged by a lion gules. [Rietstap, i. 304 ; Piferrer, 

Bueno (1669): In a shield the tree of life, colors not known. 
[De Castro, plate v.] 

Caceres-Solis (Seville, Spain, Holland): According to Riet- 
stap : Or, a deer gules ; a border comp. vaire and or. [Riet- 
stap, i. 351.] According to Piferrer : Or, a sun gules (for So- 
ils): a border comp. vaire argent and azure. [Piferrer, 11. 

Cahen d' An vers (France): Azure, a lion or, holding in his 
paws a harp or ; a border argent, charged by eight billets 
azure. [" Annuaire," p. 385.] 

Cahen d'Anvers, Marquis de Torre-Alflna (Italy ; creation 
1885): Divided by a seam argent, 1, gules, a tower argent, 
embattled with Ave pieces h la Guelph, surmounted by an 
alfa-plant arrachi? or ; 2, azure, a lion or, holding a harp or ; 
ail surrounded by a border argent, brochant, and charged by 
eight billets azure, [f b. p. 385.] 

Camondo (Italy; creation April 28, 1867; arms of Abraham 
Salvator Camondo) : Divided,!, gules, six bezants or (3. 2. 1); 
2, sinople, two hands joined together, habil(5 gules, issuing 
dexter and sinister from a cloud argent. A chief over all the 
division argent, charged by a fleur-de-lis fleuronn^, accompa- 
nied by two stars, all azure. IIJ>. p. 385.] 

Capadose (Amsterdam, The Hague): Divided, 1, sinople, two 
small angels proper, affronte in chief, holding together a 
mantle gules, lined ermine, in point a beehive or, put upon a 
terrace proper ; the beehive accosted by four bees or, and ac- 
companied by two other bees or, brocliant upon the terrace 
underneath the beehive ; 2, or, a lion gules. Crest : A bee- 
hive. Supporters : Two lion-leopards proper. [Rietstap, 1. 

Oardozo (England): Sable, five bezants or (2. 1. 2); a chief 
denche argent, charged with three tobacco-plants sinople. 
Crest : A savage proper, issuant, holding in his dexter hand 
a tobacco-plant sinople ; the sinister is leaned upon a triangle 
or. [Rietstap, 1. 373.] 

Carvajal : Or, a bend sable, a border argent, charged with 
an oak-branch sinople, acorns or, wound around the shield. 
[Rietstap, ii. 1312.] 

Castello (England): On a bend cottised, three triple-turreted 
towers, accompanied by a lion rampant in upper, and an an- 
tique crown in lower, division. Crest: Out of a iriural croven 
five ostrich-plumes, surmounted by a triple-turreted tower. 
Motto : Utriusque arbiter. . . . [Gaster, " Hist, of Bevis 
Marks," plate facing p. 161.] 

Castro, De (Hamburg, Altona) : A tower and a hand. Motto : 
Castrum et fortitudo mea Deus. [" Ost und West," Aug., 
1902, p. .533.] 

Castro, De (Portugal, Spain, Holland, Hamburg): Argent, 
six bezants azure (3. 3). Crest: A lion issuant, proper, arnie, 
lampass^ gules, crowned or. Lambrequins: Argent and 
azure. [Vorsterman van Oijen, plate 18.] 

Cesana (Corfu, 1622; grant for Sanson Cesana): The given 
name of Cesana being that of the Biblical hero Samson, in 
the escutcheon is seen a man sitting on the back of a lion, in 
the act of tearing open the mouth of the animal. ["Jew. 
Chron." Sept. 19, 1902, pp. 23-2.5, 55.] 

Cohen (I'.ngland; granted to Samuel Cohen, Esq., of Park 
Place, Bri.\ton): Or, two chevronels azure between two grillins 
segreantin chief gules, and in base, on a mount vert, an oak- 
tree proper. Crest : A demi-lion issuant, harry of eight argent 
and gules; In the dexter paw an acorn, slipped proper. [Burke, 
"General Armory," p. 211.] 
Cohen (England): Or, a lion 
nimpant gules. Crest: A bear's 
head, couped sable, muzzled 
rules. [Ih. p. 211.] 
I'ohen (England): A chevron 
■ nttised, charged with three bez- 
ants (roses?), accompanied m 
I liief by two roses, in base by a 
-tag's head. Crest: A stag's head 
\ ^ erased, holdins: in Its mouth a 

^'^^i/^^^^Sy ^"^^ " '"^ *'^'" ""'^ leaves. Motto 

^^'''iS^^ii^^ illegible. Colors not known. 

Cohn. [Gaster, I.e. plate facing p. 161.] 

Cohn (Saxe-Coburg-Gotha ; crea- 
tion, 1869, for Moritz Cohn): (Jules, a wheel or, winged or, 
surmounted by a crane argent; in a chief azure, a rising 
sun or, upon a tertre sinople. Crest : The wheel, winged, 
surmounted by the crane. Lambrequins : Dexter, or and 
azure ; sinister, or and gules. Supporters : 'I'wo figures, one 
representing Industry, habit argent, with a brownish mantle. 

accompanied by her attributes, amongst them a beehive; 
the other Fidelity, habit azure, rifl. yellow, accosted by a dog. 
Motto: Thiitig und treu. [Rietstap, 1. 443; Slebmacher. 
"Anhiilt," plate 9.] 
Coronal (Spain): Azure, five eagles or (2. L 2). [Rietstap, 1. 

4(;5.] ' • 

Costa, Da (Portugal, Holland ; arms of Isaac da Costa, poet): 
Gules, six rit)s argent fesswise, three in a row, one upon an- 
other. Crest : Two ribs in saltier argent, boun^ gules (see 
Frontispiece, Fig. 8). [Rietstap, i. 4(59.] 
Costa, Da (London): Or, three ril)s gules in fess, one upon 
another. Crest: A reindeer passant, proper. [Rietstap, 1.469.] 
Curiel (Spain, Holland, Hamburg): Gules, a bend or, engou- 
lee by two dragons' heads or, a border azure, charged by 
eight kettles or. [Rietstap, i. 497.] 
Delmar (Prussia; creation May 14, 
1810, for Ferdinand Moritz Levi 
Delmar): Divided, 1, parted, (a) 
azure, three annulets, mal ordonne, 
interlaced or; (b) argent, a twig of 
oak, arrach^, sinople in base : 2, or, 
a pyramid natural upon a terrace 
sinople. A fess argent, brochant, 
charged with three -stars (5) argent. 
The shield surrounded by a border 
or. [Rietstap, I. 523 ; Kneschke, il. 
Disraeli, Earl of Beaconsfleld (Eng- 
land; creation Aug. 21, 1876): Per 
saltier gules and argent a castle, Disraeli, 

triple-turreted, in chief proper, two 

lions sable in fess sable, and an eagle displayed in base or. 
Crest: Issuant from a wreath of 
oak a castle, triple-turreted, all 
proper. Supporters: Dexter, an 
eagle ; sinister, a lion, both or, and 
gorged with a collar gules, pendent 
therefrom an escutcheon of the last, 
charged with a tower argent. 
[Foster, "Collectanea Genealo- 
gica," i. 10 ; Rietstap, i. 543.] 
Eichthal (Bavaria; creation 1814, 
A. E. Seliginann): Azure, two rocks 
argent from the base of the shield, 
accompanied in chief by two stars 
or. Crest : Upon a crown two wings 
argent, each charged by a fess argent, surcharged by a star or. 
Lambrequins : Argent and azure. 
[Rietstaj), i. 602; Siebmaclier, 
"Bavaria." i)late 20.] 
Elkan von Elkansberg (Aus- 
tria ; creation inscribed Bavaria, 
1825) : Azure, a chevron, accosted 
in chief dexter by a staff (attribute 
of Mercury); sinister, an anchor, 
on the left side of same a star, 
all argent; the chevron accom- 
panied in point by a crane proper, 
upon a tertre sinople. Crest: 
Upon a crown the crane upon a 
tertre, l)etween divided wings, 
alternately argent and azure. 
[Rietstap, 1. (illti; Siebmaclier, 
" Bavrischer Adel." plate 84.] 
Enriquez, Henriques (Spain, England): Party per chev- 
loii, aiireiit, t\\(i liiMis rampant cules ; gules, a triple-towered 
castle or; port, windows, and 
masonry azure. Crest: A lamb 
passant upon a wreath of the 
c( il< irs. Motto : Deus Pastor meus ! 
[Piferrer, i. 31.] 
Erlangrer (Austria, Frankfort-on- 
the-Main, Paris, Portugal; crea- 
tion Portugal, 18,59, and Austria, 
1871): 1, argent, a fess azure, 
accosted by two turtles azure (one 
in chief and one in point): 2, 
azure, an anchor argent (some- 
times or, an anchor sable). 
Motto: Rast ich, so rost ichl 
["Annuaire de la Noblesse," 
1897, p. 386. ] 
Eskeles (Austria; creation 1797; 
knights 1810; baronets 1822): Quarterly, 1 and 4, or, a demi- 
eagle sable, beaked and membered or, moving from the 

Elkan von Elkansberg. 


Coat of Arms 




partition ; 2 and 3, azure, two winged serpents enlaces, af- 
frontes ; over all, argent, a redorte of vine proper, adorned 
with branches, sinople; clusters of 
jrf0l»y» -■'SXt^f grapes azure. Three crests : 1 and 

ijj^^ -^^^ ^' ^'^'■^''^ ostrich-plumes, one argent, 
/f\fh .. u:-m-.S between two azure ; 2, an eagle ep. 
sable, beaked and membered or. 
Supporters : Two cranes proper. 
Motto : Patriffi suisque. [Rletstap, 
i. 027.] 
Espinosa (Spain and Flanders): 
Argent, a tree terrass6 sinople, ac- 
costed by two wolves aflrontes, sa- 
ble, rampant toward the trunk ; a 
border gules, charged with eight 
flanches or. [Rletstap, i. 620.] 
Faudel-Phillips: Quarterly, land 
4, paly of six ermine and azure, on 
a chief gules a squirrel sejant, crack- 
ing a nut (for Phillips) : 2 and 3, 
quarterly argent and or, in 1 and i 
a chevron azure, and in 2 and 3 a 
peacock's head erased proper, all 
-within a border sable (for Faudel) . Crests : (1) Upon a mount 
vert, a squirrel sejant, cracking a nut or ; between on the dex- 
ter side a trefoil slipped, and on the sinister a branch of hazel 
fructed, extending to the dexter, charged on the shoulder 
with an acorn, leaved and slipped, proper. (2) Upon a mount 
a peacock regardant, in its pride, proper; between two rose- 
leaves argent, leaved and slipped vert. Supporters: Dexter, 
a Hindoo ; sinister, a Mohammedan of India, both habited 
proper. Motto : Ne tentes aut perQce. ["Jewish Year Book," 
Ponseca : Azure, Ave stars or (2. 1. 2). (Compare Lopez dk 
FONSECA, LOPEZ-SUASSO, and Lopkz-Suasso-Diaz-Da Fon- 
SECA [see Frontispiece, Fig. 4.]) 
Pould (France): Divided diago- 
nally, 1, azure, a lion argent ; 2, 
sinople, a lion or; a bend ermine 
over all the division, in a chief 
sable, three stars or. Motto: Aide 
. tol, Dleu t'aidera! ["Annualre 
de la Noblesse de France," 1897, 
p. 387.] 
Franco (England; for Jacob 
Franco, London): Argent, a foun- 
tain proper, thereout a palm-tree 
issuant, vert. Crest : On a wreatM 
of the above colors a dexter arm, 
couped and embowed, habited 
purple, purfled or, the cuff argent, 
the hand proper, holding therein 
a palm-tree vert. Motto : Sub pace 

copia. ["Trans. Jew. Hist. Soc. England," ii.. Append., p. 166.] 
Franco-Mendes (Amsterdam): Gule.s, a ringlet or, accom- 
panied by three lions naissant or. Crest: Out of a mural 
crown or, a lion issuant or. [Da Costa, p. 512; Rletstap, 
Q-ideon (England; creation 1759): Party per chevron, vert 
and or ; in a chief a rose or, between two fleurs-de-lis argent : 

in base a lion rampant, regardant, 

azure. [Burke's " Extinct Baron- 
etcies," p. 218.] 
Goldschmidt (Austria ; creation 
July 27, 1862): Quarterly, 1, party 
argent and gules, an anchor argent, 
broche upon the party passed 
through a mural crown argent ; 2 
and 3, or, a bar azure, charged by 
three stars or ; 4, party, argent and 
gules, an eagle of alternate colors, 
charged upon the breast with the 
letter "F" or. The shield is sur- 
rounded by a border gu les ■ Crests : 
(1) A nombriled escutcheon be- 
tween wings argent. Lambrequins: 
Argent and gules. (2) Six ears of 
corn or between wings azure ; each wing charged by a cres- 
cent or. Lambrequins : Or and azure. Motto : Super omnia 
Veritas ! [Rletstap, i. 794-795.] 
Ooldsmid : Per saltier ermlnois and ermine, on a chief 
gules, a goldfinch proper between two roses or (being the 
family arms); overall an escutcheon gules, charged with a 
tower or, and ensigned by the coronet of a baron of Portugal. 
Crest : 1st, out of a coronet of a baron of Portugal proper, a 



demi-dragon with wings elevated, or, holding in its claws 

a demi-lion argent, in 


Gomez de Sossa. 

a rose gules, slipped, proper 
the paws a bundle of twigs 
erect, or, bantied azure. 
Supporters : Dexter, a lion 
argent, ducally crowned and 
charged on the shoulder 
with a rose gules; sinister, 
a wyvern with wings ele- 
vated, or, and charged on 
the shoulder with a rose 
gules. Mottoes : Over crests, 
Quis simills tibi in fortibus 
domine? (Ex. xv. 11 ; Mac- 
cabean motto). Under the 
arms, Concordia et sedulitate. [" Jewish Year Book," 1896.] 
Gomez (.\inerica; Moses Gomez, Jr., 1768): Three fishes naiant 
in pale, the first and third looking to the dexter, the middle 
one to the sinister side. Colors not known. 
G-omez de Sossa (.Spain, Holland): Double shield : (1) Di- 
vided horizontally, 1, three towers; 2, a fleur-de-lis. (2) A 
bar, charged by a star, and ac- 
companied by two stars, one on 
top, one in base. Crest : A lion is- 
suant. Colors not known. [From 
a tombstone in Port.-Jewish cem- 
etery, Amsterdam, dated 5427 = 
1667 and 5431 = 1671 respectively; 
De Castro, p. 83.] 
Gunzburg' (Hesse ; creation Nov. 
9, 1870; barons Aug. 2, 1874): 
Quarterly, 1 and 4, argent, an 
arm in armor proper, holding a 
lance of tournament with its 
pennon, all gules ; 2 and 3, gules, 
a beehive or, accompanied by three bees, mal ordonnees, 
argent. Crest : A deer issuant, proper, armed or. Lauibre- 
quins : Dexter, argent and gules ; sinister, or and gules. Sup- 
porters : Dexter, a deer proper, armed or ; sinister, a lion or. 
Motto : Laboramus. [Rletstap, i. 1043.] 
Haber (Baden; creation June 2, 1829): Quarterly, 1 and 4; a 
lion or, in 1 the lion contourn^ ; 2 and 3, or, two demi-wings, 
adoss^, sable. Over all : Azure, nine ears of oats or upon a 
terrace sable. Crest : A st^ir or between wings sable. Lam- 
brequins : Or and gules. [Rietstap, i. 864 ; Siebmacher, " Bar 
den," pUitf3;.'.] 
Haber von Lindsberg' (Austria; 
creation 1869) : Quarterly with 
center-shield, azure nine ears of 
oats, fan-like: 1, or, a demi-lion 
sable ; 2, sable, a demi-eagle or ; 3, 
gules, a lion or, contourne, crowned 
or; 4, argent, open wings sable. 
Crest: (1) A double eagle issuant, 
sable; (2) between open wings 
sable, a star or ; (3) the lion of the 
field or, issuant, contourne. Lambre- 
quins: (1) Sable and or; (2) azure 
and or ; (3) gules and or. [Siebmacher, 
Halevi (Toledo): A triple-towered castle, charged with a 
fleur-de-lis (see illustration, page 125). [Lucien Wolf, 
"Jewish Coats of Arms," in "Trans, Jew. Hist. Soc. Eng." 
ii. 1.55.] 
Heine (Prussia; creation 1840): Gules, a chevron renvers^, 
azure, accompanied by three fleurs-de-lis, mal ordonnes, ar- 
gent. [Rietstap, i. 717.] 
Heine-Geldern (Austria; creation 1867; barons 1870): 1 
and 4, azure, two swords argent, hilted or, put in saltier ; 2 
and 3, divided, gules and or ; an eagle or upon the gules, and 
sable upon the or. Over all, azure, three stars argent. 
Crest: Couped wings, dexter, argent and azure; sinister, 
gules and or. Lambrequins : The same. Supporters : Two 
lions gules. Motto : Alles durch Gott ! [Rietstap, i. 918.] 
Herschell (England; creation 1886): Per fess azure and 
sable. In fess a fasces proper, between three stags' heads, 
couped or. Crest : On a mount vert a stag proper, collared 
azure and supporting with its dexter forefoot a fasces in bend 
or. Supporters : On either side a stag proper, collared azure, 
standing on a fasces or. Motto : Celeriter ! [Debrett's " Peer- 
age," p. 414.] 
Hirsch von Gereuth (Bavaria; creation 1818): Or, a stag 
rampant, proper, with antlers of six ends, lampass^ gules, 
upon a mount sinople ; sometimes also upon a tertre sinople 
'see Frontispiece, Fig. 2). [" Annuaire," p. 391 ; Siebmacher, 
" Bayrischer Adel," p. 99.] 


■ Baden," p. 5.3.] 



Coat of Aims 


Hofmann von Hofmannsthal (Austria; creation Aug. 
13, 1835): Quarterly, 1, or, upon ii rock proper an eagle in pro- 
file, proper, lampassc, gules ; in his rigtit claw a l)uncli of six 
arrow;s argent, pointed upward; .'i, azure, a poor-box argent 
(as be was poormaster); 3, a book, bound gules, gilt edges, 
supported by the two Hebrew tables of the Decalogue ; upon 
the dexter, in Roman numbers, I.-III.; sinister, IV.-X.; 4, or, 
a mulberry-leaf proper, stem downward, charged by a silk- 
worm proper, bead upward. Crest: Between eagle-wings, 
alternately azure and or, an anchor argent, standing erect, 
the ring toward the sinister side. [Rietstap, ii. 1260, Supple- 
ment ; Wurzbaeh, ix. 166.] 
Houig: von Honig'stoergr (Austria ; creation 1789, for Israel 
Honig): Quarterly, J and 4, azure, upon a mountain sinople 
a dead lion proper, stretched upon his back, eight bees or, 
swarming around his open jaws ; 2 and 3, gules, a bar argent, 
charged with four tobacco-plants proper. Crest : A lion issu- 
ant, proper, holding in the dexter paw a tobacco-plant proper. 
Lambrequins: Dexter, argent and azure; sinister, argent 
and gules. [Wurzbaeh, ix. 124.] 
Hurtado de Mendoza: Azure, a 
bciKt or, eutidu:'-' by two lions' 
beads or. [Kietstiip. i". 1010.] 
Hurtado de Mendoza: (iules, 
Ave panels argent {2. 1. 2), the stems 
upward. [Rietsl:ip, ii. 16.] 
Jessel : Azure, a fess sable ragule 
ei-mine between three eagles' heads 
erased argent; in the center chief 
point a torch erect and tired proper. 
Crest : A torch fesswise, tired proper, 
surmounted by an eagle volant, 
argent, holding in the beak a pearl, 
also argput. Motto: Persevere! 
L-.Icuisli Y.-arBook."] 
Joel von Joelson (Austria: crea- 
tion Sept. 1, 1.S17) : Party by gules and 
argent ; in gules two stars argent ; 
in argent gules. Crests : (1) A star 
argent between two horns gules; 
(2) a star gules between two pro- 
boscides argent. [Rietstap, 1. 1095.] 
Josephs (Holland): Azure, a goose 
passant, or. [Rietstap, ii. l;?(i"), supplement.] 
Kaulla (Joseph Kaulla, banker, Munich ; acknowledged in 
Bavaria 1866): Sable, a liorse argent, galloping, upon a ter- 
race sinople; a border argent, charged with tlM' bezants or. 
Crest: A fox issuant, proper, over his bead a star argent, be- 
tween couped wings, dexter, gules and sal>le ; sinister, or and 
sable. Lambrequins: Dexter, or and sable; sinister, gules 
and sable. [Rietstap, i. 1069.] 
Kusel (England; naturalized 1867; Italy; creation 1890; 
royal license for England 1893-93): Azure, a lion rampant, 
argent, holding in his paws a ring or. Crest : Crown of a 
baron of Italy. Motto: Qui perstat vincit ! [Debrett's " Peer- 
age," p. 927.] 
Li'ammel (Austria; creation, 1812 for Simon, and 1856 for 
Leopold, Lammel): Azure, a lamb argent upon a hillock sino- 
ple. In a chief or, an eagle sable, lampass^ gules, spread out. 
Crests: (1) Dexter, the spread eagle of the field ; (2) sinister, 
between open wings, alternately or and azure, a star or. 
Lambre(iuins : Azure and or. [Kneschke, v. 350; Wurzbaeh, 
xiii. 4;6.] 
Lemos, De: Double arms (probably De Lemos and wife): 
(1) sinister, a lion rampant; (2) a burning light in a candle- 
stick. Ciest: Three ostrich-phnnes, colors not known. [Port.- 
.lew. cemetery, Altona; "Ost und West," Aug.. 1!"!2, p. .56!!.] 
Leon, De ( Amei-ica): Argent, a lion rinni)ant gules. <'rowned 
or. Motto : Concordia res parvae crescuut. [Piferrer, vi.. No. 
2.581 ; Rietstap, ii. 51.] 
Levin (London, England, late of New Zealand): Vert, on a 
chevron nebul(5 between four escallops, three in chief and one 
in base, or a cross crosslet crossed of the field. Crest : On a 
mount a squirrel passant, proper, resting the right foot on an 
escallop or. Motto: Certavi et vice. [Burke's "General Ar- 
mory," Supplement, .s\r.] 
Levy (England ; granted to .loseph Moses Levy of London, and 
borne by his son Edward Levy Law.son of Hall Barn, Buck.s. 
D.L., lord of the manor of Beac'onsfleld, who assiuried by 
royal license, Dec. 11, 1875, the surname of Lawson): Arms: 
Gules, a saltier parted and frettt^ or, between two rams' heads 
couped, fesswise, argent. Crest : A ram argent, holding in 
the mouth a trefoil, slipped vert, and resting the dexter foreleg 
on a quatrefoil. Motto : Of old I hold I [Burke's "General 
Armory," Supplement.] 
IV.— 9 

Levy (America; family of Moses Levy): Two keys put in sal- 
tier, the key-locks upward, accompanied by two lions com- 
batant, brandishing a seax; in chief over the saltier a pair 
of scisscii-s, <ipcii, blades downward. Crest: A demi-lion 
erased, brandishing a seax. | Krom an impression.] 

Lopez (England; grant Nov. 1, 180:5, for Massey Lopez, Esq., 
.laniaica): Quarterly, 1 and 4, azure, on a chevron ; between 
three eagles rising, or, as many bars gemel, gules; on a 
chief of the .second five lozenges of the first (for Lopez); 2 and 
3, in a lamlscapc field a fountain, thereout i.ssuing a palm- 
tree, all |iru|iii iior Francii); and impaling the arms of New- 
man, ii:iiiirl\ : a/ure, three deiiii-lions, coupeii aigent, cnisilly 
sable. I 'pcin llic rsciitclicdn, which is charged with his badge 
of Ulster as a baronet, is placed a helmet belltliMg his degree, 
with a mantling aziu'e and argcjit. Crests: (I) I'ponawi-eath 
of the colors a lion sejant, erminois, gorged with a bar gemel 
as in the arms, reposing the dexter paw on a lozenge azure 
(for Lopez). (2) Upon a wreath of the colors a dexter arm, 
couped and embowed, habited purpure, purtled and diapered 
or, the cuH argent, holding in the hand proper a palm-branch 
vert (for Franco). Mottoes: Quod tibi id alii (for Lopez); 
Sub pace copia (for Franco). [Fox-Davies, p. 627; Debrett's 
"Peerage," p. 370; Lucien Wolf, I.e. Appendix, p. 166; Riet- 
stap, ii. 96.] 

Lopez (Biscaya, Belgium, Holland): Argent, two wolves pas- 
sant, sable, one upon the other; a border gules, charged 
with eight salliers or (see Frontispiece, Fig. 1). [Rietstap, 
ii. 96.] 

Lopez de Fonseca (Biscaya): Quarterly, 1 and 4, argent, 
two wolves sable, one upon the other ; a border gules, charged 
with eight tlanches or (for Lopez); 2, counter-quarterly, a and 
d, or, a lion gules, arm6, lampasse, couronn^, azure (for Suas- 
so); b and c, gules, (Ive panels argent (2. 1. 2), the stems up- 
ward (for Hurtado de Mendoza); 3, azure, five stars or (2. 1. 2) 
(for Fonseca) (see Frontispiece, Fig. 4). [Rietstap, Ii. 96.] 

Lopez-Suasso (Spain, Brabant, Holland ; registered 1818, 
1821): Divided, 1, argent, two wolves sable, one upon the 
other; a border gules, charged with eight flanches or (for 
Lopez): 8, quarterly, a and d or, a lion gules, arm^, lampasse, 
couronn^, azure (for Suasso) ; b and c, gules, five panels argent 
(2. 1. 21, the stems upward (for Hurtado de Mendoza) (see 
Frontispiece, Fig. 4). [Rietstap, ii. 96.] 

Lopez-Suasso-Diaz-Da Fonseca (Spain, Brabant; rec- 
ognized in Holland 1831): Quarterly, 1 and 4, argent, two 
wolves sable, one upon the other ; a border gules, charged 
with eight flanches or (for Lopez); 2, counter-quarterly, a 
and d or, a lion gules, arme, lampass(5, couronne azure (for 
Suasso): b, and c, gules, five panels argent (2. 1. 2), the stems 
upward (for Hurtado de Mendoza); 3, azure, five stars or 
(2.1.2) (for Da Fonseca) (see Frontispiece, Fig. 4). [Rietstap, 
ii. 96.] 

Losada y Lousada, De (Dukes in Spain, England): Az- 
ure, three doves regardant, argent, wings expanded or. In 
their lieaks a. sprig of olive proper. Crest : On a mount vert 
a dove, as in the arms, a sprig of olive in its beak proper. 
Supporters: Two angels proper, the exterior hand of each 
supporting a standard gules, charged with an Eastern crown 
or. Motto: El honor es mia gula. [Burke's "General Ar- 
mory," p. 623 : Fairbairn's " Crests " ; Debrett's " Peerage."] 

Lowenthal (Austria; creation July 30, 186.3, for Max Ritter 
von Lowenthal): Divided by a bar or ; upper field, azure, a 
bee or; lower field, gules, a lion or, lampass^ gules; in his 
dexter paw three flashes of lightning or. Crests : (1) Wings, 
alternately azure and or ; (2) the lion of the field, with the 
flashes. Lambi'equins : Dextei-, azure and or ; sinister, gules 
and or. [Wurzbaeh, xv. 453.] 

Machado (Spain, Flanders): Gules, five hatchets argent (2. 
1.2l. [Rietstap, ii. 122.] 

Machiels-Clinbourg- (Saxe-Coburg-Gotha; creation Aug. 
8, 1884): Azure, a bar argent, accompanied in chief by a tower 
or, pierced by two arcbieres sable ; in base two stars (5) or. 
Motto : Labor est decus ! [Rietstap, ii. 1276, Supplement.] 

Marx von Marxburg- (Austria; creation, chevaliers April 
H), 1875; barons, Sept. 13, 1881): Azure, a tower argent, doors 
and windows sable, surmounted by a crane proper, put 
on a rnck proper, the azure ebape or, charged dexter and 
sinister by a deiiii-eavb' "f. iiioMiig from the field. Crests: (1) 
Anti(|ue \\iiiL's. one of, back, one sable, front, each charged 
by an acoiii,tiged ;ind branched or, the stem downward. 
Lambrequins: Or and sable. (2) A screech-owl proper. 
Lambrequins : Argent and azure. Supporters : Two eagles 
sable. Motto : Recte et suaviter. [Rietstap, ii. 644.] 

Mattos, De (Spain, Portugal, Holland): Gules, a fir-tree sino- 
ple, rooted argent between two lions rampant, affronts, or, 
armed azure. [De Castro, p. 103; Rietstap, ii. 1316.] 

Coat of Arms 



Mayer-Ketschendorf (Saxe-Coburg-Gotba ; creation 1889, 
for Jacob and Adolph Mayer): Divided, 1, argent a lion gules, 
armed and crowned azure; 
2, azure, upon a tertresinople 
three barley-ears or. Crest : 
The lion issuant. Lambre- 
quins : Dexter, gules and ar- 
gent ; sinister, azure and or. 
Motto : Fortes fortuna adju- 
vat. [" Freiherrliches Tas- 
chenbuch," Gotha, 1893, p. 
Mendes (Amsterdam ; arms 
of Abraham Rodrigo Men- 
des) : Dexter, an archer : sin- 
ister, a lion rampant on a 
tree. Over all an eagle, hold- 
ing a roll or a flsh. Crest: 
The coronet of a baron. 
Colors unknown. [From a 
Mendes. tombstone dated 5470 = 1709 ; 

De Castro, plate xiii.] 
Mendez (London; arms of Moses Mendez, 1746) : Gules, six 
ribs argent, arranged in two rows of three fesswise ; a canton 
ermine. Motto : Gratia Dei sufflclt me. [Rietstap, ii. 197 ; 
Tausin, " Dictionnaire des De- 
vises," i, 209.] 
Mesquita (Spain): Quarterly, or 
and azure, a griffin azure In or, 
and or in azure. [Rietstap, il. 
Mocatta (England) : Per chevron, 
a seven-branched candlestick in 
base, two cinquefoils in point. 
Crest: A leopard issuant, gardant, 
holding a cinquefoil between his 
paws. Motto: Adhere and pros- 
per. [Wolf, " Anglo-Jewish Coats 
of Arms," in "Trans. Jew. Hist. 
Soc. Eng." 1895, p. 161.] 
Montagu : Or, on a pile azure 
between two palm-trees eradi- 
cated in base proper, a tent 
argent. Crest; A stag statant, 
holding in the mouth a sprig of 
palm, proper, in front of a flag- 
staff erect, or, therefrom flowing 
to the dexter a banner azure, 

charged with a lion rampant or. Motto : Swift, yet sure. 
[■'Jewish Year Book."] 
Montefiore : Argent, a cedar-tree between two mounts of 
flowers proper; on a chief azure, a dagger erect, proper, 
pommel and hilt or, between two mullets of six points or. 
Crest: Two mounts, as in the 
arms, therefrom issuant a demi- 
lion or, supporting a flagstaff 
proper, thereon hoisted a forked 
pennant flying toward the sin- 
ister, azure, inscribed D'7B'n\ 
or. Supporters (by royal warrant, 
dated Dec. 10, 1866): Dexter, a 
lion gardant or ; sinister, a stag 
proper, attired or, each support- 
ing a flagstaff proper, therefrom 
flowing a banner to the dexter, 
azure, inscribed oSirn^, or. 
Motto: Think and thank (see 
Frontispiece, Fig. 3). ["Jewish 
Year Book."] 
jr|V \ X "/'5">" Morenu (Spain, Holland): In a 
, I V 5 shield the tree of life ; over the 

\.JL. I^ y ^^^^ '^® words a^nn fjj. A 

\^^ f^^ ribbon on top of the shield with 

^^^^ ^^r the word " Anagramma." Colors 

^^^^^^ not known. See illustration in 

nextcolumn. [From a tombstone, 
dated Port.-Jew. cemetery, Am- 
sterdam, 5427 = 1667; De Castro, pp. 85-86.] 
Morpurg-o (Austria; creation Jan. 12, 1867): Quarterly, 
with center-shield or, a dove argent, flying to the dexter side, 
in its beak an olive-branch proper; 1, argent, a towered 
castle; 2, azure, a sun or, rising over a mountain sinople; 
3, azure, upon a hill sinople a cock proper; 4, gules, a 
crown, pierced by an anchor with cable, all or. Crests: 
(1) Center, a dove argent, same as in the shield. Lambre- 


quins : Azure and or. (2) Dexter, a star argent between two 
open wings proper. Lambrequins: Azure and argent. (3) 
Sinister, three ostrich-plumes or, between argent and gules. 
Lambrequins: Azure, gules, 
or. Supporters : Dexter, a W^ 
lion or ; sinister, a griffin or, 
langued gules. Motto : Sem- 
per recte ! [Wurzbach, xix. 

Nieto (Castile) : Party gults 
and azure, a lion or, broclic 
upon the party, accompanied 
by four fleurs-de-lis argent, iii 
the cantons, alternating with 
four fig-leaves of the same. 
the stems upward. [Riet- 
stap, ii. 316 ; Piferrer, vl. ' 

Oliveira (.\msterdam, ] 
deaux; enregistered in 

France, 1700) : Or, three martlets sable. [" Revue Etudes 
Juives," XXV. 100.] 

Oppenheim (Austria; creation March 1.5, 1867; acknowl- 
edged in Prussia Feb. 14, 1868): Sable, an anchor argent, with 
cable argent ; the field chape-ploye gules, with two antique 
crowns or ; a chief azure, charged with a star argent, h^rissS 
or. Crest : Wings, sable and gules, each wing charged with 
a demi-circled trefoil or. Lambrequins : Dexter, argent and 
sable; sinister, argent and gules. Supporters: Dexter, a 
woman representing Integrity, standing upon a serpent and 
holding a buckler ; sinister, a woman representing Industry, 
standing upon an oak-branch, holding a spiked wheel. Motto : 
Integritas, concordia, industria. [Rietstap, ii. a52.] 

Oppenheimer (England; Charles Uppenheimer, British con- 
sul in Frankfort-on-the-Main) : Quarterly, gules and azure 
a cross invected between a lion rampant, regardant, sup- 
porting a flagstaff, therefrom flowing to the dexter a banner 
in the first and fourth quarters, and an anchor erect in the 
second and third, all or. Crest: Two branches of oak in sal- 
tier vert, fructed or; in front, a flagstaff in bend, proper, 
therefrom flowing a banner gules, surmounting a trident in 
bend sinister, also proper. [Fox-Davies, p. 759; Burke's 
" General Armory," Supplement.] 

Palache (Spain, Holland) : A lion. Crest: An earl's coronet. 
Colors not known. [From a tombstone, Port.-Jewlsh ceme- 
tery, Amsterdam, 1616 ; De Castro, p. 91.] 

Pardo (Spain, Bruges) : Quarterly, 1 and 4, three trees sinople; 
a border comp. of twelve pieces, or and vair ; 2 and 3, argent, 
an eagle sable, tongued gules. Crest: The eagle Issuant. 
[Rietstap, li. 386.] 

Parente (.\ustria; creation 1847; barons, 1873): Quarterly, 
1, azure, a lion or, lampasse gules, holding in his paws a grap- 
pling-iron in form of a fleur-de-lis; 2, gules, two joined 
hands proper, par^e purple, accompanied by three stars or 
(two in chief, and one in base) ; 3, gules, a horse, cabr^ argent ; 
4, azure, a ship with three masts proper, sails inflated, riding 
upon an agitated sea, flags and pennants couped argent and 
gules. Over all, or, a cock hardy sable, armed and membered 
gules, put upon a terrace sinople. Crests : (1) The lion of the 
fleld issuant and contourne ; (2) 
a dove argent, put in front, 
holding in its beak an olive- 
branch sinople ; 3, a horse, as 
above in 3, issuant. Lambre- 
quins : Dexter, or and azure ; 
sinister, argent and gules. Sup- 
porters : Dexter, a leopard-lionne 
or, lampass^ gules; sinister, a 
horse argent. Motto : In te Dom- 
ine speravi. [Rietstap, ii. 387.] 

Pas, De (enregistered in Bor- 
deaux, France, 1697) : Azure, four 
fesses or. [" Rev. Etudes Juives," 
XX. 297.] 

Pereira (Portugal): Gules, a pear- 
tree arr. sinople. Crest: Five 

ostrich-plumes, alternately sinople and gules. Lambrequins : 
Gules and sinople. [Rietstap, ii. 411.] 

Pereira-Arnstein (Austria ; barons Jan. 16, 1813) : Quar- 
terly, 1, or, a demi-eagle sable, moving from the partition ; 2, 
azure, an anchor argent : 3, azure, a hatchet proper, handle 
or ; 4, or, a tree terrass^, sinople. Supporters : Two lions or, 
lampass^ gules. [Rietstap, i. 411.] 

Pimentel (Portugal, The Hague) : Quarterly, 1 and 4, or, three 
fesses gules; 2 and 3, sinople, five scallops argent (2. 1. 2) ; 
the shield surrounded by a border argent, charged by eight 

De Pas. 



Coat of Arms 


flanches gules. Crest : A steer issuant, gules, aceornd patt^ 
argent, charged in front with a scallop argent (see Frontis- 
piece. Fig. 6). [Rletstap, ii. 440; Da Costa (?).] 
Pinto, De (The Hague) : Azure, Ave crescents argent (3. 1.2). 

Crest : Three ostrich-plumes argent. [Rietstap, ii. 443.] 
Pirbright (blazon in patent from Franz Joseph I., Emperor 
of Austria) : Quarterly, 1 and 4, azure, a key in bend or ; 3, or, 
an eagle displayed sable ; 3, 
or, an eagle displayed re- 
specting the sinister, sable ; 
on an escutcheon of pre- 
tense, gules, a right hand 
couped proper, grasping 
three arrows, two In saltier 
and one in pale, barbs up- 
ward, or, barbed argent. 
Crest: Out of a ducal coronet 
or, a plume of Ave ostrich- 
feathers, 1st, 3d, and 5th or, 
2d gules,- 4th a zure. Sup- 
porters : Two lions rampant or, langued gules, collared azure, 
chained or : pending from the collars two escutcheons argent, 
each charged with a squirrel sejant on a branch of hazel 
turned up behind its back, proper. Motto : Vlnctus non 
victus. [" Jewish Year Book."] 
Porg-es von Portheim (Austria ; creation June 5, 1841, for 
Leopold [Judah] Forges) : The same as Moses Forges (see 
below) . Crest : Instead of the stag's head between the wings, 
a rose gules, accompanied by, dexter, a bud, sinister, two 
leaves. [Wurzbach, xxiii. 125.] 
Porges von Portheim (Austria; creation June 5, 1841, for 
Moses Forges) : Divided, azure and or. Upper division, azure, 
two stars or ; lower division, two arms and joined hands, out 
of clouds, all proper. Crest : Between wings, alternately or 
and azure, a stag's head proper, with antlers of yen, lampasse 
gules. Lambrequins : Azure and or. [Wurzbach, xxiii. 125.] 
Reinach (Italy; creation 1860; acknowledged in Prussia 
1867) : Argent, an agitated sea proper in base ; in chief party : 
1, Sable, three bees mal ordonn^e, or ; 2, tierced in pale by 
sinople, argent, gules. Italian colors. [" Annuaire," p. 402.] 
Reuter, De (Saxe-Coburg-Gotha ; creation 1871; England): 
Azure, a terrestrial globe between four flashes of lightning, 
one issuant from each corner. Crest : A horse in full gallop, 
on his back a knight in full armor argent, grasping in his dex- 
ter hand a lance in the act of charging, and in the sinister a 
flashing flame of light, proper. Supporters : On either side a 
lion rampant, proper. Motto : Per mare per terra ! [Debrett s 
"Peerage," p. 929.] 
Bicardo (England) : Gules, a bend vair^ argent and vert, be- 
tween three garbs ; or, on a chief ermine a chess rook, sab.e, 
between two bezants. Crest : A bird, holding in the dexter 
claw a flagstaff with a flag, the latter charged with a cross. 
[Burke's "Dictionary of Landed Gentry," 18.51, ii. 1113; Fair- 
bairn's " Crests," i. 376.] 
Hodrigruez (Spain, Holland) : Sinople (sometimes sable), five 

bezants argent (2. 1. 2). [Rietstap, ii. .590.] 
Rothschild : Quarterly, 1, or, an eagle displayed sable, 
langued gules ; 3 and 3, azure, issuing from the dexter and 
sinister sides of the shield, an arm 
■ embowed, proper, grasping five 
arrows, points to the base, argent ; 
4, or, a lion rampant, proper, 
langned gules, overall an escutch- 
eon gules, thereon a target, the 
point to the dexter, proper. Crests : 
Center, issuant from a ducal 
coronet or, an eagle displayed 
sable ; dexter, out of a ducal 
coronet or, between open bu Halo's 
horns, per fess, or and sable, a 
mullet with six points or ; sin- 
ister, out of a ducal coronet or, 
three ostrich-feathers, the center 
one argent and the exterior ones 
azure. Supporters: On the dexter 
side a lion rampant or, and on 
the sinister a unicorn argent. 
Motto: Concordia, integritas, 
industria (see Frontispiece. Fig. 
5). ["Jewish Year Book."] 
Salomons : Per chevron, gules 
and sable, a chevron vaire between (in chief) two lions ram- 
pant, double queued, or, each holding l)etween the paws a 
plate charged with an ermine spot, and in base a cinqiiefoil 
ermlnois. Crest : A mount vert, thereon, issuant out of six 


park-pales or. a demi-llon, double queued, gules, holding be- 
tween the paws a bezant charged with an ermine spot. 
Jlotto : Deo adjuvante. [Ih.] 
Salvador ( Holland ; creation Nov. 23. 1821 ) : Sinople, a lion or, 
armed and lampasse gules, accompanied by three fleurs-de-lis 
or. Crest: A lion issunnt gules, armed and langued azure, 
holding between the paws a fleur-de-lis or (see frontispiece. 
Fig. 9). [Rietstap, ii. titL'.J 
Salvador (England ; Jesurun Rodriguez) : Vert, a lion ram- 
pant, between three fleurs-de-lis or. [Burke's " General Ar- 
mory," p. 893.] 
Salvador-Rodrigues (Spain, Portugal, Holland ; creation 
as Netherland barons, Nov. 23, 1821): Sinople, a lion or, armed 
and lampasse gules, accompanied by tlii-ee fleurs-de-lis of the 
second. Crest: A lion issuant, gules, armt^ and lainpass^ 
azure, holding between his paws a fleur-de-lis or. [Rietstap, 
ii. Gi;2 ; idem, "Wapenboek," ii. 131.] 

Sampayo (Portugal, Holland) : Quarterly, 1 and 4, or, an 
eagle piu-ple, flying out for prey ; 2 and'3, checkered of or and 
sable of sixteen fields; a border gules, with compartments 
and eight "S's" argent. Crest: Five ostrich-plumes, sable, or, 
gules, argent, sable. Lambrequins : Dexter, or, gules, sable ; 
sinister, argent, gules, sable. [De Castro, p. 104 ; Rietstap, ii. 

Samuel (London) : Per chevron argent and gules, two wolves' 
heads erased in chief sable, and in base as many squirrels se- 
jant addorsed, and each cracking a nut of the first. Crest: 
Upon a rock proper in front of three spears, one in pale and 
two in saltier, argent, a wolf courant sable, pierced in the 
breast by an arrow of the second flighted or. Motto : A pledge 
of better times. [" Jewish Year Book."] 

Samuel (Liverpool) : Vert, two bars between seven bees vo- 
lant, four in chief and three in base, or ; on a chief nebul^ of 
the last, three roses sable. Crest : On a wreath of the colors 
upon a mount vert, arose argent, barbed, seeded, stalked, and 
leaved proper between two bees volant, also proper. [L. 
Wolf, " Families of Yates and Samuel," p. 56.] 

Samuel De Vahl (Portugal; creation May 13, 1865; Lon- 
don) : Quarterly, 1 and 4, azure, a leopard or, accompanied by 
three crowns or ; a canton argent, charged with the cross of 
the Brazilian Order of the Rose, suspended by a ribbon or, 
bordered gules (for De Vahl) ; 2 and 3, gules, a cross argent, 
charged with a rose gules, and accompanied in 1 and 4 by a 
lion argent, and in 3 and 3 by an eagle argent (for Samuel). 
Crests: (1) A lion issuant, argent, crowned or, holding a 
scepter, or, in pale (for De Vahl) ; (2) an eagle argent, sur- 
mounted by an imperial crown or (for Samuel) . Supporters : 
Dexter, a lion argent, crowned or ; sinister, an eagle argent, 
surmounted by an imperial crown or. Motto : Habent sua 
sidera reges. [Rietstap, ii. 664.] 

Sarmiento (Spain) : Argent, a sarment (twigofavine) sinople, 
couped above and below, or, put in a bar. [Rietstap, ii. 673.] 

Sarmiento (Spain, England): Gules, thirteen bezants or, 
3. 3. 3. 3. 1. [Rietstap, ii. 673 ; Piferrer, i., plate 34.] 

Sassoon : Or, a palm-tree eradicated, proper, between, on the 
dexter, a pomegranate, also proper, and on the sinister, a 
branch of laurel fructed, vert, both proper ; on a chief azure a 
lion passant of the first, in the dexter paw a rod erect or. 
Crest : On a mount vert, a fern brake surmounted by a dove 
volant, having in the beak a laurel-branch, all proper, the 
wings sem^ with estoiles or. Motto : Candide et constanter, 
or njiCNi nON (see Frontispiece, Fig. 1). ["Jewish Year 

Selig-mann (Austria; creation 1874, for Dr. Seligmann, born 
1815) : Azure, a double eagle or, lampass^ gules ; a bar across 
the shield, charged with a cross gules (the "red cross ") . Crest : 
Two helmets, two crowns : dexter, closed wings azure and or ; 
sinister, three ostrich-plumes argent, charged with the " red 
cross." Lambrequins : Dexter, azure and or ; sinister, gules 
and argent. Motto: In a blue ribbon under the shield in 
Gothic characters, Helfen und Heilen ! [Wurzbach, xxxiv. 

Simson (Prussia; creation Sept. 10, 1840) : Quarterly, 1, or, 
in a chief gules three crescents argent ; 2 and 3, argent, a 
bend azure, accompanied in chief by a swan sable, and in base 
by a hunting-horn sable and argent, a saltier gules, accom- 
panied in chief by a star or ; 4, a chief gules, charged in sinis- 
ter by a star or. [Rietstap, ii. 781.] 

Sonnenfels (Austria; creation 1804 [?]) : Quarterly, 1 and! 
4, a tower proper (?) ; 2 and 3, a sun or, rising behind a jagged 
rock proper. Crest: From the crown over the helmet, a 
woman's figure, holding in the dexter hand a book ; the head 
is surrounded by rays of the sun, between two eagle-wings 
proper (?) Lambrequins: Azure and argent. [Wurzbach, 
xxxv. O&J.] 

Coat of Arms 



Sonnenfels (Austria; 1797, baron) : Quarterly, with center- 
shield azure, a sun or, upon a jagged rock ; 1 and 4, barry of 
six, sable and or, surmounted by a three-towered tower gules, 
ports and windows sable ; 3 and 3, gules, a serpent in pale, ar- 
gent, twice coiled. Crests: (1) Between horns of plenty, or 
and sable, and or and argent, the figure of a man, dress azure, 
the hands folded over the breast and holding a closed book, 
bound gules ; the man's figure, instead of a head, has a sun in 
its splendor. Lambrequins: Azure and argent. (2) Five 
ostrich-plumes, gules, argent, gules, argent, gules. Lambre- 
quins: Gules and argent. [Rietstap, ii. 791); Siebmacher, 
" Der Adel in Bohmen," p. 96, plate 54.] 
Suasso (Spain ; registered in Belgium, 1676) : Or, a lion gules, 
arme, lampass^, couronne, azure (see Frontispiece, Fig. 4). 
[Rietstap, ii. 864.] 
Sylva, Da (Portugal): Argent, a lion-leopardfe purple, armed 
azure ; sometimes surrounded by foliage sinople. [Rietstap, 
ii. 874.] 
Tedesco (Milan): Gules, sem^ with lozenges or; an arm 
proper, coming from a cloud argent, which moves from the 
sinister; in the hand a poplar sinople, sustained by a square 
slab argent, upon its border in sable the words "Mit Zeit." 
[Rietstap, ii. 890.] 
Teixeira (Spain) : Azure, a cross potencde or. [De Castro, p. 

Teixeira (Holland ; inscribed Sept. 27, 1817): Quarterly, 1 and 
4, or, an eagle displayed, purple : 3 and 3, cheeky or and 
sable (sixteen fields). The shield is surrounded by a border 
gules, charged by eight 
" S's " argent. Crest : Five 
ostrich - plumes, sable, or, 
gules, argent, sable. Lam- 
brequins : Dexter, or, gules, 
sable; sinister, argent, 
gules, sable (see Frontis- 
piece, Fig. 7). [Rietstap, ii. 
891; idem, "AVapenboek 
van den Nederlandschen 
Adel," ii. 87.] 
iTeixeira (Amsterdam): 
Quarterly, 1 and 4, gules, a 
lion . ..{?); 3 and 3, gules, 
a tree upon a terrace 
sinople. Crest: The lion, 
Issuant. [Rietstap, Supple- 
ment, p. 13113; De Castro, 
"Keur," p. 103.] 
Teixeira de Mattos (Hol- 
land) : Quarterly, 1 and 4, gules, a lion . . . (Vi; 3 and 3, 
gules, a tree upon a terrace sinople. Crest : The tree. [Riet- 
stap, Supplement, p. 130!.] 
Treves (England) : Argent, three boars' heads, couped azure. 
Crest : A demi-griffln, brandishing a sword, proper. [Burke's 
"General Armory," p. 1039.] 
Vahl, De (London) : Azure, a leopard or, accompanied by three 
crowns or, a canton argent, charged with the Brazilian Order 
of the Rose, suspcikUmI by a ril)b()ii or, bordered gules. Crest : 
A lion issuant, ai-ucnt, cniwiicil or. lioldiiig a scepter or. In 
pale (see also Samikl dk Vahi.i. [Rietstap, ii. 966.] 
Vidal (Portugal) : Argent, five vines .sinople (2. 1. 2). Crest: 

One vine of the field. [Rietstap, iii. 499.] 
Waley (England) : A chevron, in chief two eagles displayed, 
in base a deer passant. Crest : Upon a wreath on a mount a 
deer's head erased, hold- 
ing in its mouth a trefoil 
{?) or fleur-de-lis. Motto : 
Portiter et fideliter. 
[Gaster, "Hist, of Bevis 
Marks," plate facing p. 
Wands-worth : Or, on a 
pile siible a lion rampant 
of the last, a cliief gules, 
thereon two hoises' heads 
erased, argent. *. rest : A 
lion passant, proper, 
gorged with a collar flory 

counterflory, gules, resting the dexter forepaw on an escutch- 
eon of the last, charged with a horse's head erased, argent. 
Supporters: On either side a horse argent, charged on the 
sliouliler with an estolle within an annulet, all gules. Motto : 
Vinrit perseverMiitia. f" .lewlsh Year Book."] 
Warteneg-g- von Wertheimstein (Austria; creation 
Dec. 19, 1791) : Quarterly, 1 and 4, gules, a chevron argent, 
accompanied by three lozenges ; 2, azure, two panels of a door, 

Teixeira (Amsterdam). 


De Worms. 

/ith letters argent. Luce 

brownish color, fixtures argent, the panels put in saltier ; 3, 
azure, a stag contourne, or. Crest : A stag issuant, or. Lam- 
brequins : Dexter, argent and gules ; sinister, or and azure. 
[Rietstap, ii. 1051.] 

Weil von Weilen (Austria; creation Sept. 20, 1874) : Azure, 
a bar argent, charged with a sphinx, winged gules, accom- 
panied in chief by two stars or, and in base by a lyre or. 
Crests: (1) Wings azure, the extreme plumes or. Lambre- 
quins : Or and azure. (3) Wings argent, the extreme plumes 
gules. Lambrequins : Argent and gules. [Rietstap, ii. 1061 ; 
Wurzbach, liv. 8.] 

Welingr, alias Seligmann (Bavaria; creation Dec. 17, 
1816) : Party, argent upon gules, two roses argent in gules, 
gules in argent. Crest: A rose argent, between wings; dex- 
ter, gules upon argent; sinister, argent upon gules. [Riet- 
stap, ii. 1066.] 

Wertheimer (Austria; creation 1860, for Joseph von Wer- 
theimer) : A bar or, charged in the center by a bow and arrow 
proper, pointed upward. In point sinister,, a lion or, 
tongued gules, holding in 
the right paw a bimdle of 
arrows proper. In base, 
azure, a sun in its splen- 
dor or, rising behind a 
mountain proper. 
Crests: (1) Open wings, 
azure and argent, and ar- 
gent and azure, each 
charged with a star or. 
(2) The lion of the field, 
contourn^. Lambre- 
quins : Dexter, azure and 
argent; sinister, gules 
and or. Motto : In a blue ribbon 
et Concordia. [Wurzbach, Iv. 139.] 

Worms, De : Quarterly, 1 and 4, azure, a key in bend dexter, 
wards downward, or'; 3 and 3, or, an eagle displayed, sable; 
over all an escutcheon gules, a dexter arm, fesswise. couped 
at the wrist, proper, the hand grasping three arrows, one in 
pale and two in saltier, argent. Crest : A ducal coronet or. 
Supporters : On either side a lion, collared and chained, or. 
or. Motto: Vinctus non victus. ["Jewish Year Book."] 

Ximenes (England): Or, two bars gules; over all a pale 
counterchanged within a border azure. Crest, Out of a mural 
crown or, an arm embowed in armor, proper, garnished or; 
the hand, also proper, supporting a trumpet erect and issuant 
of the first. [Burke's " General Armory," p. 1147.] 

Ximenes-Cisneros : Checkered or and gules. [Rietstap, 
ii. 1137.] 

Bibliography: Lucien Wolf , Angln-Jewisli CoatA of Arms, 
in Trans. Jew. Hist. Soc. Eng. 1894^95, pp. 1.53-169. 
J. H. Gut.— J. 

COBLENCE, ADOLPHE : Freucli army sur- 
geon; boru at IS'aucy JNIay 11, 1812; died iu Paris 
tSept 18, 1872. He entered the service of the army 
as an assistant surgeon in the military hospital at 
Metz in 1832; became surgeon in 1834; and sub- 
sequently was made head of the clinic at tlie Hotel 
des Invalides, Paris, by Baron Larrey. While at 
the In valides he received the degree of IVI.D. from 
the faculty of Paris, and was appointed surgeon, 
v.ith the rank of adjutant, to the Fifty-fifth Regi- 
ment of the line and to the engineer corps stationed 
at ]\Ietz. In 1846 he was promoted to surgeon- 
major of the Twelfth Infantry, wliich took part in 
the last expedition against 'Abd-al-Kadir. 

In 1849, in recognition of his self-sacrificing devo- 
tion to his duties during the outbreak of tlie cliolera 
in Oran, he was presented by the civil authorities 
with a gold medal, and was made a chevalier of the 
Legion of Honor. Coblence was attached in 185() to 
the military hospital at Bayonne, but gave up his 
position and went to the Crimea, afterward devo- 
ting himself to the typhoid-stricken soldiers quaran- 
tined in the island of Porquerolles. In 1859 he was 
made an officer of the Legion of Honor for his 



Coat of Arms 

splendid services with tlie Renault division during 
tiie Italian campaign, particularly at Magenta and 
Solferino, and subsequently was appointed pbysi- 
cian-in-chief of military hospitals, with quarters at 
Algiers. His excessive exertions and an unfavora- 
ble climate brought on blindness in 1868, whereupon 
he returned to Paris, and was retired. 

IBLIOGRAPHY : Arcli. Isr. 1873, pp. 606, ( 

A. R. 

COBLENZ : Prussian city on the Rhine. Jews 
settled there between 1135 and 1159, and are first 
mentioned in the " Judeuschreinsbuch " (Archives) 
of Cologne. As early as 1100 there is mention of a 
custom-liouse in Coblenz at which Jews were obliged 
to pay four denarii for every salable slave. Perhaps 
a note in the "Memorbiicher," according to which 
Jizchak ami his wife Bela brought about the "aboli- 
tion of the tax," refers to the above-mentioned duty. 
Between 1160 and 1178 the traveler Benjamin of 
Tudela found a large community in Coblenz. Mar- 
silius, the mayor of Treves, and the knights Hein- 
rich and Dithard of Pfaffendorf, testified, in 1265, 
that the archbishop Heinrich of Treves had freed 
the Jews in Coblenz of all taxes for a year. In the 
same year the Jews of this city were subjected to a 
persecution, as a result of wliicli more than ten were 
killed. In 1334 the " Judenschlager " (Jew-beaters) 
attacked the Jews in Coblenz; in 1349 they suffered 
under the Flagellants, who killed almost all of 

The records show that from 1352 the houses of 
the Jews were frequently subject to confiscation 
and sale for the benefit of the reigning prince. In 
1322 and 1326 there is mention of a cemetery, and in 
1333 and 1352 of a Jewry. The emperor Charles 
IV. ordered, in 1354, that a certain Jew named Sam- 
uel receive i)rotection. In 1356 he granted Arch- 
bishop Boemund II. of Treves the right for Jews 
to settle in liis district; and from 1366 Jews are 
found in Coblenz as liouse-owners. This prelate 
took the Jew Symon for his court physician. In 
1418 Archbishop Otto drove them out of his do- 
mains, and in 1421 he gave in fief the Jewish ceme- 
tery of Coblenz to the daughters of Gottfried Sack 
of Dieblich, and presented the Jewish liouses in the 
Burggasse to the religious order of St. Florin. In 
1512 the elector Richard admitted two Jewish fam- 
ilies to LiUzcl-Coblenz, and in 1518 five more fami- 
lies to Coblenz itself. Tiie Council first extended 
civil protection to them in 1518. In 1583 they were 
again ordered to leave, and until 1592 they were ex- 
cluded from the electorate. 

In 1597 John VII. granted a Jewish firm permis- 
sion to settle in Treves and Coblenz, and carry on a 
trade with the East. Their religious center was in 
Frankfort-on-th(;-Main. Twenty-one years later 
the elector Lothar von "Metternich issued an order 
regulating the status of the Jews. In 1723a statute 
was enacted reestablishing the Jewry, and permit- 
ting Jews to have a rabbi. When the elector Wen- 
ceslaus made his public entry into Coblenz in 1786, 
the Jews wished to take part in the ceremonies. 
On Nov. 23 they lield religious services in his honor, 
and were admitted by him to an audience. On Jan. 
24, 1851, a new synagogue Avas dedicated, and in 

1901 there were 600 Jews in the city, out of a total 
population of 45, 146. 

Among the rabbis and scholars of Coblenz Moses 
Kohen ben Eliezcr, the author of "Sefer Hasidim " 
(1473), should be mentioned. Wolf of Cobieuz took 
part in the ccmvention of rabbis at Frankfort in 1603. 
In 1650 Judah Lob Heilbronu ben Abraliam David 
Eliezer, as rabbi of Coblenz, signed a letter of intro- 
duction for David Carcassonne. From 1666 to 1669 
Jair Hayyim Bacharach, author of the responsa 
"Haw wot Yair," was rabbi in Coblenz. He was 
succeeded by Moses Meir Grotwohl, a member of 
the rabbinate in his native city, Frankfort-on-tlie- 
Main, who died in 1691. His successor was Aaron 
Spira, who died in 1697. From 1697 to 1717 Jacob 
Kohen Poppers was rabbi in Coblenz; he is the 
author of the responsa "Sheb Ya'akgb," and died in 
1740 iu Frank fort-on-the-Main. He was followed 
by Eliezer Lipman, .son of Isaac Benjamin Wolf, 
rabbi iu Berlin and the Mark, and author of 
" Nahalat Binyamin. " Eliezer (d. 1733) was teacher 
and tutor of Simon von Geldern, Heine's mater- 
nal grandfather. Mannele Wallich, Avho came of 
an old family of physicians, and was himself a 
physician, succeeded in the rabbinate, and died on 
the first day of the Feast of AVecks in 1762. The 
founder of the Altona printing-house (1715), Sam- 
uel Sanvel Poppert, who was also publisher of 
several short works, came from Cob- 
lenz. The author of "Mafteah lia-Y^am " (novel Ife 
to the Pentateuch; Offenbach, 1788) calls him- 
self Jacob Meir ben Wolf Coblenz. Hayyim Lob 
Gundersheim of Frankfort-on-the-Main had been 
rabbi in Coblenz for nearly thirty -five years, when he 
went back to Frankfort, became a member of the 
rabbinate there, and died in 1803. Ben Israel, born 
1817, in Diersdorf, was preacher (1843), later rabbi, 
in Coblenz. He died Nov. 6, 1876, and was suc- 
ceeded by Dr. Adolf Levin (1878-85), who is now 
rabbi of Freiburg, and by Dr. ]\I. Singer (died in 

Coblenz has the following Jewish charitable 
associations: Manner- Krankenverein, Wohlthatig- 
keitsverein, Wittwen- und Wai-senverein, Sterbe- 
kassenvereiu, Seligmannsche Stiftung, Alberti-Stif- 
tuug, and Bragsche, Stiftung. 

Bibliography; Aronius, RegcsteJU Nos.208, 282, 307, 701, 704; 
Salfelrl, Murliirolmjhnn, pp. 130, 2;W. '.'^f); I.icbe, in W' 
dnttsrlir Ziits,}nifl fur (lrsr}iivhtr „,i,l Kini^t, xil MO et 
sci/.: Xnirs Airliir ,1, r (i, sfUsctiiiH liir A^lhir. Deutiiche 
Gcsclii(lit(\ viii. ;.'oii; Hcclit, in Mniii,is>:clirin, vii. 183 et 
seq.; Literal iirhlolt iirs (iri< iits, lS4i>, col. VM; Stcinsclinei- 
der, Hchr. BihI. ix. J13; Homwltz, Fraiihl urlrr Hohl.inrr, 
i. 40; ii. .54, 82, 102, 10.5; iv. 34, 7.5, 1(11 ; Jirr. HI. .Iiiirrs, ix. 
117; XXV. 207,215; Kaufmann, Lrtzte Vrrtnihtnni, pp. HO, 
No. 1; 203, No. 2; 226, No. 1; idem, Jnir Clnijiim linrlia- 
rac/i,pp. 47, 71,.52; idem, Heific'.s Alinen^iutl. ]>. \i^\ : l.anrts- 
hut, Tdlcdot Anshe Shem, pp. 3, 9; Loweiistcin, XtiluiKiel 
Weih p. 65, n. 3; Zcitschrift filr Gcsch. drr Jii>hi, in 
Deutschlaml, 1. 2, ii. 199, v. 101. 
G. A. F. 


French rabbi and author; born about 1717; died 
at Metz in the first half of the eighteenth century. 
He was a pupil of R. Jacob, author of "Shebut 
Y'a'akob," and ofticiated as dayyan at Metz. Of 
liis works the following are known: "Kiryat 
Hanah," responsa, finished by the author at the 
age of twenty-five, and published by liis son Jacob 
(Metz, 1785) ; many responsa found in " Shebut 




Ya'akob" and in the "Keneset Yehezkcl" of 
Ezekiel Katzenelleubogen. Coblenz also wrote 
novelise on the "Turim," and corresponded on rab- 
binical subjects with the rabbis Jiidah ]\Ioller, 
Samuel Helmann, and Jacob Joshua of Cracow. 

BiBLioGRAPHT : Preface of the author and that of his son to the 
Kirmt Hanah: Fiienu, Keneset Yisrael, p. 221; Azulai, 
Shem ha^GeduJim, pp. 41, 132. 

L. G. N. T. L. 

COBO. See Covo. 

theolo;riun and Hebraist; born at Bremen 1603; 

fessor of theology at Leyden. He was the founder 
of the school of theology known by his name. 

Cocceius wrote commentaries on most of the 
books of the Old Testament, in which he maintained 
that sentences and phrases should be interpreted 
only according to their context. 

He compiled a Hebrew dictionary of the Old Tes- 
tament, which was published at Leyden in 1669 
under the title " Lexicon et Commentarius Sermonis 
Hebraici et Chaldaici Veteris Testament!," which to 
a certain extent marks an epoch in Hebrew lexi- 
cography among Christians. Of interest to Judaism 
are liis " Versio Latiua Mischnte cum Excerptis 

SasaiNam of the Jews of Cochix, Granting Privileges to Joseph Rabban, about 750 C.E. 

died at Leyden Nov. 5, 1669. He was appointed 
professor of Hebrew at Bremen in 1629, and at 
Franeker in 1636, where, after 1643, he also held the 
chair of theology. In 1650 he was appointed pro- 

ex Gemara Tractatuum Synhedrin et Makkot," 
1629; "Judaicarum Responsionum et Quaestionum 
Consideratio, " with a "Praefatio de Fide Sacrorura 
Codd. Hebraeorum ac Versionis LXII. Interpretum 




et Oratio de Causis lacredulitatis Juda^oruni " (Am- 
sterdam, 1662) ; " Tractatus Makkot Versio Latiua " 
(in Surenliusius, "Versio Latina Misclmoe et Com- 
mentationuui Maimonidis et Obadja') ", 1698-1708. 

Tlie earliest trace of tlie Cochin Jews is to be 
found in two bronze tablets known as tiie " Sasa- 
uam" (Burnell, "Indian Antiquary," iii. 333-334), 
which are now in the possession of one of the elders 

(From a photograph.) 

All three _ ossa}"S were reprinted in his complete 
works, which were published in Amsterdam, two 
years after his death, under the title "Opera 

Bibliography : Steinschneider, Cat. Bod!. No. 4757 ; SchafT- 
Herzog, Encyc.s.v.: Karpeles, Oesch. der Jlldischen Lite- 
ratur, p. 1034, Berlin, ia86, ; Encj/c Brit. s.v. 

J. F. T. H. 


See KoKAiu, Joseph ben Abraham. 

COCHIN: State of India, within the Madras 
Presidency. The Jews in Cochin numbered 1,143 in 
1891, and are divided into two classes: the Whites, 
whose complexion is almost as fair as that of Euro- 
pean Jews, and tlie Blacks, who, though darker than 
the former, are not so black as negroes, and are of the 
same complexion as the Jews of Yemen or Kurdistan. 

The White Jews number at present about fifty 
families, and these are divided into six stocks: the 
Zakkai, who are the oldest, and are said to have come 
from Cranganore in 1219; the Castillia, exiles from 
Spain in 1492, who arrived at Cochin in 1511; the 
Ashkenazi and Rothenbnrg, who came from Germany 
in the sixteenth century; and the Rahabi and Hali- 
gua families, who came from Aleppo about 1680. 
There are three hundred families of the Blacks. 

and contain a charter given by Cheramal Perumal, 
King of ]\Ialabar, to Isuppu Irabban (Joseph Rab- 
ban), probably a Jew of Yemen who led an expedi- 
tion of Jews to Cranganore about the year 750. By 
the terms of the charter, engraved in 
Earliest Vatteluttu characters on the plate, 
Mention — Rabban, who is referred to as the 
the " SS- prince of Ansuvannam, was granted 
sanam." seventy-two " free houses " and feudal 
rights in Ansuvannam, near Cranga- 
nore. The date of the charter can be fixed at about 
750 ; it can not, for paleographical reasons, have been 
much earlier than this, nor later than 774, since a grant 
made to the Nestorian Christians at that time was 
copied from it. 

These Jews intermingling with the natives be- 
came the progenitors of the Black Jews of Cochin. 
These are mentioned by Ibn Wahab in the ninth cen- 
tury ; and Benjamin of Tudela appears to have vis- 
ited or heard of them about 1167. He reports that 
they were one hundred in number and 
Traces as black as the rest of the inhabitants 
in Middle of Coilum or Quilon, then the most im- 
Ages. portant port on the Malabar coast. 
There Marco Polo found them a cen- 
tury later ("Travels of Sir Marco Polo," ed. Yule, 
ii. 263), and when Vasco da Gama reached Calicut in 



1487, the first person he met was a Jew said to have 
come from Poseu via Turkey and Palestine (Kay- 
serling, "Christopher Cohimbus," pp. 113-114). In 
1511 they were joined by Jews from Portugal. In 
1565 they were threatened with the Inquisition by 
the Portuguese Christians- settling at Cranganore, 
and fled to Cochin, where their number increased so 
rapidly that the Por- 
tuguese historian 
De Barros (1496- 
1570) refers to the 
King of Cochin as the 
"king of the Jews" 
("Asia," III. ii. 234). 
Slavery w^as for- 
merly allowed in Mal- 
abar, and the White 
Jews could make 
others slaves. The 
native males and fe- 
males whom they 
bought were admit- 
ted as slaves accord- 
ing to the Jewish 
law, and even those 
who voluntarily 
entered the fold of 
Judaism were not ad- 
mitted and treated as 
"strangers of right- 
eousness," but as 
slaves. The males 
had to undergo the 
rites of circumcision 
and ablution, and tlie 
females were sub- 
jected to ablution. 
Their offspring were 
also treated as slaves. 
At the time of cir- 
cumcision the mohel 
who performed this 
rite recited the bless- 
ing of circumcising 
slaves, and a similar 
blessing was recited 

at the time of their ablution. Even after undergo- 
ing these rites tliey were not allowed to intermarry 

with the other Jews, to study the 
Slaves. Holy Scriptures, or to wear zizit and 

tefillin, unless they obtained a cer- 
tificate of emancipation from their masters or mis- 
tresses. To make this emancipation known to the 
community of the White Jews, the freed slave 
went about and kissed the hands of all the Jews 
of the city. The children and children's children 
of all such freed slaves were also considered eman- 
cipated and were at liberty to wear zizit and 
tefillin, but were not called up to the reading of 
the Law except on Simhat Torah. On the first 
two Seder nights the emancipated slaves with 
their families were allowed to join their masters 
at the table and to chant the Haggadali. This 
was the only occasion on w^hich they were treated 
as free men and women. At the conclusion of the 
service on the Day of Atonement they kissed the 

hands of their former masters. The property of 
one who had no heir went to his or her former mas- 
ter. In the synagogue they were formerly made to 
sit on the ground in the veranda outside the syna- 
gogue proper. 

In 1848 the freed slaves asked permission of the 
White Jews to use the benches in the synagogue; 
being refused, they 
moved within the 
boundary of the 
Britisii territory, 
where no distinction 
is made between mas- 
ters and slaves. Led 
by Ava, a wealthy 
emancipated slave, 
who acted as sofer 
and shohet, they built 
a synagogue ; but 
their numbers were 
soon diminished by 
the plague, and after 
Ava's death they 
were obliged to re- 
turn to the White 
Jews, and to reas- 
sume their old po- 
sition in the syna- 
gogue. Though they 
neither eat nor drink 
together, nor inter- 
marry, the Black and 
the White Jews of 
Cochin have almost 
the same social and 
religious customs. 
They hold the same 
doctrines, use the 
same ritual (Sephar- 
dic), observe the same 
feasts and fasts, dress 
alike, and have adopt- 
ed the same vernacu- 
lar, jVIalayalam, a dia- 
lect of Tamil. Their 
chief articles of food 
are rice and the milk of the coconut. Mazzot are 
eaten only at the Seder, and though the Whites 
eat cooked fishes and chicken on the 
Religious Sabbath, the Blacks eat no meat. 

Ob- The two classes are equally strict in 

servances. religious observances. The Blacks 
have two synagogues, one of which 
was built in 1625. The synagogue of the Whites, 
a magnificent edifice, was erected in 1568, burned 
by the Portuguese in 1662, rebuilt by Shem-Tob 
Castillia in 1668, and finally completed by Eze- 
kiel Rahabi in 1730. It is situated next to the 
raja's palace, and is richly endowed with landed 
property. The Ark in these synagogues is situated 
in the western end of the building, not in the east- 
ern, as in European lands, so that the congregation 
may turn in prayer toward Jerusalem. 

Among the Blacks there are no Kohanim or Levites, 
so that they hire impoverished White Jews of the 
tribe of Levi and of the family of Aaron on the 

jf t'0(;hiE Jews. 

a a photograph.) 



occasions when tlieir presence is necessary. In 1615 
a false Messiali appeared among the Jews of Cochin 
(Schudt, " Jiidische Merckwiirdigkeiten," i. 43). 

Pereyra de Paiva ("Notisias dos Judeos de 
Cochin ") states that during the week of Nov. 21-26, 
1686, some Dutch merchants of the Sephardic con- 
gregation of Amsterdam visited Cochin, at that time 
an important commercial port, and at the request of 
David Rahabi had rolls of the Penta- 
Connec- teucli, prayer-books, and various rab- 
tion with, binical works sent from Amsterdam 
Europe. to Cochin. The books were received 
on the Fifteenth of Ab, and this day 
was appointed a holiday to be observed every year. 
In 1757 the White Jews had their own prayer-books 
printed at Amsterdam, and brought out a second 
edition in 1769. Their houses, situated in the sec- 
tion of the city called the " Jewish Town," are of one 
story, built of chunam and teak-wood, and are situ- 
ated on the east and west of the road leading to the 
synagogues. In the yard is usually found a cistern 
required for the " tebilah " and a tabernacle for the 
festival. The whole lo- 
cahty is kept clean, and 
lighted on Sabbath, new 
moon, and holiday 
nights. The commercial 
and synagogal affairs of 
the community are 
looked after by five 
elders with a jIB^Xin JPT 
("chief elder") at their 

During the Portu- 
guese and Dutch periods, 
that is, until about 1790, 
the greater part of the 
business of Cochin was 
in the hands of the White 
Jews. But their money 
was lost by Baruch 
David Kahabi, and for a 
time the conunuuity 
was very poor. About 
1860 their condition im- 
proved, and while few 
are still able to live on 
the income of their an- 
cestral landed property, 
none are dependent on 
charity. The Whites 
are engaged chiefly as 
merchants or farmers, 
the Blacks as fishermen, 
fruiterers, wood-chop- 
pers, or oil-pressers ; 

while many of the freed slaves are 
Social bookbinders, clerks, or merchants. 
Conditions. In education the Jews of Cochin 
are extremely unprogressive. For- 
merly boys of thirteen or fourteen were taught to 
pray and to read the Law; now there are no Tal- 
mudists among them, few are well versed even 
in the Torah,' and most of them learn only suf- 
ficient English to enable them to do clerical work. 
There arc both Black and White teachers in the 

schools. The women, if instructed at all, are 

taught merely to recite their prayers. The only 

Cochin JeAvs who have made any contributions to 

literature are David Rahabi, author of "Oliel Da- 

wid," a calendar, printed at Amster- 

Literary dam in 1791 ; and Solomon Riemann, 

Efforts. aullior of " JMas'ot Shelomoh," Vienna, 

1884. Riemann taught the Blacks the 

Torah and shehitah, and was the first to consider 

them eligible for Minyan. 

The week-day dress of the White Jew is the same 
as that worn by the natives ; but the Blacks are cov- 
ered only from the waist down, wear a red kerchief 
on the head, and have "pe'ot." In the synagogue, 
the Black wears the kaffa; the White, a turban, 
a shirt, a jacket with twelve buttons, over this a^ 
jubha, and trousers. Some of the younger men have 
adopted European dress. The "tahli," a gold chain 
with a peculiar coin in the middle, is worn by all 
married women, including widows; but the latter are 
not allowed to wear their wedding-rings. 

The rites and ceremonies of the Cochin Jews are 
usually conducted on a 
very extravagant scale. ' 

The only ceremony 
which is performed in 
the case of a female 
child is its naming, in 
the synagogue or at 
home, eight days after 
birth; while the male 
child, eight days after 
birth, is carried under a 
canopy by his mater- 
nal imcle 
Birth from the 
Rites. house to 
the syna- 
gogue, where he is cir- 
cumcised; the occasion 
is then observed by the 
usual feast. If a woman 
dies in childbirth, and 
the child dies even one 
hour after, the dowry, 
contrary to the usual 
Jewish custom, remains- 
in the husband's family. 
The proposal of mar- 
riage is made to the 
father of the girl by 
the father of the man, 
through professional 
match-makers for both 
parties. Two days be- 
fore the Avedding, which 
usually takes place on Tuesday evening, the girl is 
taken to the synagogue for " tebilah " (purification) ; 
on her return, taking four threads of zizit in her 
hands, she kisses seven times the portion of the 
Bible containing the Decalogue. The making of 
the wedding-ring, and the cutting of the bride- 
groom's hair, usually done on the day of the wed- 
ding, are attended with music and festivities. At 
the beginning of the ceremony the bridegroom, 
who wears a white head-covering, takes a 




of wine and a ring, and recites a responsive formula. 
To his salutation, "With the permission of you 
all," those present respond, "With the permission 
of Heaven." 

He then repeats the usual blessings of betrothal, 
followed by a betrothal formula in which the exact 
name of the bride is mentioned. He drinks of the 
wine, and handing the cup to the bride, whose face 

A Synagogue in CocMn. 

(After a photograph.) 

is covered with a silk or embroidered network, says, 
"With this, also, do I betroth thee." Hereupon the 
officiating minister reads with cantil- 
Marriage latiou the "ketubbah" (marriage cou- 
Rites. tract), which is handsomely engrossed 
upon parchment. Before the last sen- 
tence is read the bridegroom hands the fringe of 
his zizit to the rabbi, and while both hold it the 
minister ad j ures liim : " By the command of the Holy 
and Sanctified, by the Mighty One, who revealed 
the Law at Sinai, ' her support, her clothing, and 
her conjugal right he shall not diminish!'" The 
bridegroom replies: "Her support, her clothing, 
and her conjugal right I will not diminish." The 
rabbi says, "Dost thou undertake this?" and the 
bridegroom replies, "I undertake it." The minister 
adds, "A promise before Heaven and earth?" and 
the response is, "A promise before Heaven and 
earth. " 

When the reading of the contract is completed, 
the signatures of the bridegroom and witnesses are 
appended and read aloud, and tlie bridegroom pre- 

sents the contract to the bride ; while those assem- 
bled exclaim, " Be-simana taba!" (May it be for a 
good sign!) The whole company then joins in 
singing a quaint epithalamium. 

On the Sabbath after the wedding, the bridegroom 
is called up to the reading of the Law, and after 
the recital of the usual portion of the day, the pas- 
sage Gen. xxiv. 1-7 is read by him and the hazzan 
alternately, verse by verse, in Hebrew and Aramaic. 
Verses from Isaiah Ixi. 10-lxii. 5 are similarly added 
to the Haftarah (lesson from the Prophets). After 
the ceremony the guests are invited to a feast at 
the home of the bride, at which the poor sit above 
the rich ; and the festivities are continued for seven 
daj's, the bride's parents defraying most of the 

In case of adultery (Deut. xxiv.), bills of divorce, 
written in Hebrew, are given ; but divorces are very 
rare. " Yibbum," the obligation to marry the child- 
less widow of a deceased brother (Deut. 
Other Cere- xxv. 5, 6), is still observed by the Co- 
monies, chin Jews, as is the cereraonj' of Ha- 
LizAH (Deut. xxv. 7, 10). Bigamy and 
polygamy are almost unknown among them. 

The funeral and mourning ceremonies are ob- 
served in accordance with the prescriptions of the 
Shulhan 'Aruk. Soon after a death the shirt of the 
cliief mourner is torn from his body; and on return- 
ing from the cemetery, the funeral party, except the 
mourners, wash themselves and their clothes. Dur- 
ing the seven days of mourning, the bereaved wear 
a piece of white cloth over the head, which the 
hazzan removes on the seventh day. On the sev- 
enth and twenty-ninth days, and at the expiration 
of the eleventh and twelfth months, the family visit 
the grave, and on the return home, selections from 
the Psalms, Mishnah, Torah, and " Hashkabah " are 
read, and the "Kaddish" is recited. The latter is 
repeated by the mourners for one year, with some 
intermissions at the beginning of the twelfth 

All the Jews of Cochin buried their dead in one 
plot of ground until twenty-five years ago, when 
the White Jews, through the influence of the British 
agent of the Cochin raja's court, were allotted a 
separate place. 

BiBLTOGRAPiiT : Pereyra de Palva, Notmas dos Judeos de Co- 
cJiim, Amsterdam, 1687; Schudt. Jildische MerckwUrdig- 
keiten, i. 38^6 ; H. Wessely, in Meassef, vi. 129. reprinted in 
Elchhom, AUaemcine Bibliothek.ii. 571 etseq. (other repro- 
ductions in Steinschneider, Cat. Bndl. cols. 2723-2723) ; Sip- 
vurlm, iii. 196 ; Buchanan, ChrMian Researches in Asin, p. 
224 : Wilson, Lands of the Bible : Ehen Saflr, U- 56-86 ; S. 
Riemann. Mas'ot SheJomoh. pp. 146-1&5; Burnell, Indian 
Antiquary, 1873, Hi. 333-334 (with facsimile of the bronze tab- 
lets) ; De Barros, Asia, ed. 1777, i. 364, ii. 234 ; Imperial 
Gazetteer of India, s.v. ; Zunz, Ritus, p. 57 ; Ritter, Erd- 
kunde, v. 595-601. 
J. J. E.-J. 

COCK : The male of the domestic fowl. The 
original habitat of the domestic fowl is generally 
supposed to be India, whence it was introduced at 
an early time into Babylonia and Greece. It is diffi- 
cult to say when it was brought to Palestine, as the 
allusions to it in the Bible are still very doubtful. 
According to rabbinical tradition "i3J (Isa. xxii. 17) 
is a designation for "cock," which was known under 
this name in various districts of Babylonia as late as 
the third century c.e. (Lev. R. v. ; Midr. Mishlexxx. 





19). The Jewish teacher of Eusebius also exphiiued 
the word thus (see Eusebius' commentary on Isaiah, 
loc. cit. ; compare, however, Ket. 28a and Yoma 
20b, in both of wliich passages Abba Arika's oppo- 
sition to this explanation is declared). Another term 
which, according to an amora of the fourth centurj-, 
signifies "cock," is int' (Job xxxviii. 36), tfie 
statement being added tliat tlie cock bore a similar 
name about this time in Arabia (R. H. 20 a ; Lev. 
R. XXV.). 

The assumption of the Midrash (Midr. Mishle xxx. 
31) that T'nT (Prov. xxx. 31) is a designation for 
" cock " is more plausible than the foregoing explana- 
tions, since the Arabic "zarzar" means "cock." In 
the Talmud and in Midi-asliic literature, however, 
the cock is always called by his Babylonian name 
7lJJ"ir) (compare Oppert in "Zeitschrift f lir Assyri- 
ologie," vii. 389), which fact may be taken, perhaps, 
to indicate that the cock was introduced into Pales- 
tine from Babylonia. In this literature the cock is 
also frequently mentioned as a common domestic 
fowl, although it is expressly stated that at Jerusa- 
lem the breeding of cocks was forbidden during the 
existence of the Temple because they scratch the 
ground and pick up objects Avhich are Levitically 
unclean, and are thus likely to spread uncleanuess 
(B. K. 82b). The cock and the bat are contrasted as 
the bird of day and the bird of night. The cock and 
the bat Avere both waiting for daylight, when the 
cock said: "I may wait for the dawn, for light be- 
longs to me; but for what do you need light?" 
(Sanh. 98b, bottom). The cock is characterized as 
the most impudent of birds (Bezah 25b) ; his lascivi- 
ou.sness is also proverbial (Ber. 22a), yet his kind 
treatment of the female is set up as a model, inas- 
much as he humors the hen to win her favor ('Er. 

The comb is the cock's chief ornament, of which 
he is very proud, and when it is cut off he loses his 
spirit and no longer seeks the hen (Shab. 110b, bot- 
tom). The cock is also said to be quarrelsome and 
vicious (Pes. 113b), those from Bet Bukya having 
an especially bad reputation in this respect, as they 
suffered no intruders among them (Yeb. 84a). A 
cock once killed a child by picking at its scalp with 
its beak ('Eduy. vi. 1 ; Yer. 'Er. x. 26a). The crow- 
ing of the cock, as well as his flight, sometimes 
causes dishes to break (B. K. 17a; Kid. 24b). 

The cock, which occupies a prominent place in the 
mythology of many peoples (compare Gubernatis, 
"Zoological Mythology," ii. 280-291), was an espe- 
cially sacred bird among the Persians, where he was 
the ally of Sraosha in the battle with 
The the powers of darkness. In Talmudic- 

Cock in IMidrashic literature there are reminis- 
Folk-Lore. cences among the pagans of the divine 
honors paid to the cock, as well as of 
the influence on the Jews of these ideas. The Mish- 
nah ('Ab. Zarah i. 5) mentions the pagan custom 
of sacrificing white cocks, the Jews being forbidden 
for this reason to sell them to the pagans. The idol 
Nergal (II Kings xvii. 30) was taken by the Rabbis 
to be a cock (Sanh. 63b), which assumption was based 
probably on something more than the mere similar- 
ity of sound between "tarnegol" (cock) and "Ner- 
gal" (compare the cock-shaped Melek Taous of 

the Devil-worshipers; see Ilerzog's "Real-Eucyklo- 
pildie," s.r. "Nergal "). The various theories found 
in Jewish literature on the crowing of the cock at the 
approach of day arc probably traceable to Persian 
influence (compare Darmesteter's translation of the 
Zend-Avesta, in " Sacred Books of the East, " i. 192, 
193; Schorr, "Ile-Haluz," i. 143, iii. 93, vii. 19). 

The Greek Baruch Apocalypse says that the rus- 
tling of the wings of the phenix, a fabulous bird 
which accompanies the sun, awakens the cocks, 
"who then converse in the language peculiar to 
them " ; for when the angels get the sun ready for 
the day the cock crows (ch. iv., end; compare Sla- 
vonic Enoch, XV. 1). As in the Zend-Avesta the cock 
is said to crow out to men early in the morning: 
", O men! recite the Ashem Yad va liisten " 
(Vendidad, Fargard, xviii.), so the Zohar says that in 
the hour of grace (about midnight), whi3n God visits 
paradise to confer Avith the souls of the pious, a fire 
]3roceeds from this holy place and touches the Aviugs 
of the cock, Avho then breaks out into praise to God, 
at the same time calling out to men to praise the 
Lord and do His service (Zohar, Wayikra, iii. 22b, 
23a). In this connection must be mentioned a pre- 
cept of the Talmud to the effect that on hearing the 
cock croAv in the morning, the following benediction 
must be pronounced: "Praised be Thou, O God, 
Lord of the world, that gavest understanding to the 
cock to distinguish betAveen dixj and night " (Ber. 
60b). This benediction is traced back to Job xxxviii. 
36, Avhere '13E^ is deriA'ed from riDC* ("to see "), and 
the cock is designated as the one who foresees the 
day. In the Zend-Avesta the cock is also called 
"parodars" (he Avho foresees [the coming daAvn]). 
Characteristic also is the statement in a late Midrash 
("Seder Yezirat ha-Walad," in Jellinek's "B. H." i. 
155) that the sobs of the dying at the sight of the 
angel Avho comes to take the soul are heard by no one 
except the cock. The favor in Avhich the cock is held 
by the heavenly beings has perhaps also given rise to 
the statement that by closely Avatching the cock's 
comb one can determine the moment when God lays 
aside His mercy ; this happens at some one moment 
during the first three hours of day, the color of the 
comb changing at that moment. 

Superstitious speculations in regard to the cock 
were frequent during the Middle Ages. The cock is 
still killed as a "kapparah" for a man (see Atone- 
ment); and the will of Judah the Pious directs that 
a cock Avhich upsets a vessel shall be killed imme- 
diately, because evil spirits have seized it. The de- 
mons ("shadim") are said to have cock's feet (Ber. 
6a). Many of these superstitions are still found 
among ignorant people in various countries. Thus, 
for instance, the scratching of the cock with liis 
claws is taken to signify that visitors are coming. 
Compare Hen. 

Bibliography : Lewysohn, Zoo/of/ic dcs Tahnudn, pp. 194-199; 
Kohut, Arnch Cimpletum, s.v. '?ij:-in ; Rubin, in Ha-Kar- 
mcl (weekly), vol. iii., Nos. 9, 11. 
e. c. L. G. 

COCKATRICE. See Basilisk. 

CODES. See Laavs, Codification of. 

CODICIL. See Will. 




CCELE-SYRIA: The name, occurring in the 
Greek apocryphal writings, of a Persian province 
Ijing between Egypt and the Euplirates. In old 
editions it is given as "Celosyria." This name 
stands for the earlier expression "the country be- 
yond the river " (Ezra iv; 10, R. V. ; compare I Esd. 
ii. 17, 24, 27, R. V., "Coele-Syria and Phenicia"; ib. 
vi. 29, " tribute of Coele-Syria and Phenicia " ; and ib. 
vii. 1, "the governor of Ccele-Syria and Phenicia"). 
II Mace. iii. 5, 8 speaks also of a single governor 
for both Ccele-Syria and Phenicia under Antiochus 
Epiphanes, so that the old Persian administrative 
division must have been retained. 

The Greek term "Ccele-Syria" originally meant 
the valley between Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon, the 
modern Bika', called in the O. T. (Josh. xi. 17, xii. 
7) "the valley of Lebanon." Greek writers ex- 
tend that name vaguely and inconsistently to " the 
land from Seleucis {i.e., northern Syria] to Egypt" 
(Strabo, p. 756), or to central Syria with Palestine 
except Judea proper (Strabo, p. 750), or with all 
Palestine (thus Polybius, v. 80, 86; while v. 87, 
like the apocryphal Avritings, distinguishes Phfinicia 
from Coele-Syria). 

Josephus also varies in his use of the term, apply- 
ing (" Ant. "xi V. 40) " Coele-Syria" to the valley, exclu- 
ding Damascus, but {ib. xiii. 13, g 2 [Niese xii. 136] ) 
including Palestine, east of the Jordan {ib. xiv. 154), 
Galilee, and {ib. xiv. 79) extending it to the Eu- 
phrates (this passage is, however, corrected by 
Niese). The Romans later used " Syria Coela " for 
northern Syria. 

E. G. H. W. M. M. 

COEN : Physician-in-ordinary at the court of 
Prince Vassile Lupu, hospodar of Moldavia from 
1634 to 1654. The dates of his birth and death, and 
his given name, are unknown. E. Schwarzfeld is of 
the opinion that Coeu was a descendant of Eliezer 
Cohen of Safed, who had settled in Poland, and 
one of whose sons, Moses, a rabbi and physician, 
escaped during the Cossack uprising in 1648 (Car- 
moly, "Hist, des Medecius Juifs," i. 245, Brussels, 
1884). He stood high in favor with the Sultan of 
Turkey, and when Prince Lupu was in danger of 
being dethroned, through the intrigues of his ene- 
mies, Coen protected him. The sultan entrusted 
to Coen for transmission to Prince Lupu important 
documents concerning a secret alliance between 
Sweden and Russia, the object of which was a joint 
attack upon Turkey. The government of Venice 
sought his advice in matters of diplomacy, as ap- 
pears from two letters of Giovanni Battista Ballarius 
to the Doge of Venice, dated at Constantinople Feb. 
28, 1656, and Jan. 3, 1660. It was probably owing 
to Coen's influence that enactments in favor of the 
Jews of Moldavia were issued by Lupu. 

Bibliography : E. Schwarzfeld, Le Rule (Uk Medecins JmY.s 
dans Ics Principaytefi Roumnines, Hebr. transl. in Ha- 
Yekeb, p. 68, St. Petersburg, 1894. 
s. IT. R. 

COEN, ACHILLE: 1. Italian soldier; born at 
Leghorn in 1851. He studied at the military acad- 
emy of his native town, and was appointed lieuten- 
ant in the engineer corps at the age of twenty. 
Subsequently assigned to the sharpshooters, he was 

transferred to the staif and attached to the military 
section of the Geographical Institute at Florence. 
On his promotion to a captaincy he was appointed 
adjutant to General Heusch. In 1895, with the rank 
of major, he Avas sent, under General Baldissera, to 
join the army then operating in Africa. A few days 
before his arrival, however, the Italian commander, 
Baratieri, had provoked and lost the battle of Adowa. 
After the campaign Coeu, promoted to the rank of 
lieutenant-colonel, was appointed director of the 
military section of the Geographical Institute. He 
has since been transferred to Cesena as commander 
of the Second Regiment of the Royal Brigade. 

Coen is a knight of the Order of the Crown of Italy, 
and of the Order of Saint Maurice and Saint Lazarus. 
He has published numerous essays in technical jour- 
nals and in the "Nuova Antologia," and also reports 
of work done at the Geographical Institute, no- 
tably " Venticinque Anni di Lavoro all'Istituto Geo- 

2. Italian liistorian ; born at Pisa Jan. 5, 1844. At 
the age of twenty-three he was appointed professor 
of history at the Lyceum of Leghorn. In 1879 he 
was called as professor of ancient history to the 
Accademia Scientifica e Letteraria at Milan, and in 
1887, in the same capacity, to the Istituto di Studi 
Superiori at Florence, taking charge also of the uni- 
versity library of that city. He is a knight of the 
Order of the Crown of Italy. 

His published works include: "L'Abdicazione di 
Diocleziano" (Leghorn, 1877); " Di Una Leggenda 
Relativa alia Nascita e alia Gioventu di Costantino 
Magno" (Rome, 1882); "Mauuale di Storia Orien- 
tale" (Milan, 1886); "Manuale di Storia Greca" 
(Milan, 1887); " Vezzio Agorio Pretestato " (Rome, 
1888). He also published Aristophanes' "Clouds," 
with introduction and critical notes (Prato, 1871). 

Bibliography : A. de Gubernatis, DictiouTiaire des Ecrivains 
Contem pi trains. 
s. I. E. 

COEN, BENJAMIN VITALE : Italian rabbi; 
l)()rn at Alessandria della Paglia in the second half 
of the seventeenth century; died at Reggio nell' 
Emilia in 1739. Descended from a wealthy and 
prominent family, Coen was elected rabbi of Casale 
while still a youth. He soon became known for his 
ability and erudition, and was chosen rabbi at Reg- 
gio neir Emilia, at that time an important post. 
Among his disciples were Israel Bassano, his son-in- 
law, who succeeded him in the rabbinate, and Ma- 
nasseli Joshua Padova, rabbi of ^Modena. Abraham 
Joseph Graziani wrote some verses in his honor. 

Coen was the author of the following works: 
"'Et ha-Zamir" (The Time of Singing), hymns for 
all the feasts of the year, Venice, 1707; "Alon 
Bakut " (Oak of Weeping), a commentary on Lam- 
entations, Venice, 1712; "Abot '01am" (The Fa- 
thers of the Universe), a commentary on the " Say- 
ings of the Fathers," ib. 1719; "Gebul Binyamin" 
(The Border of Benjamin), a collection of sermons, 
Amsterdam, 1727; "Notes on the Toze'ot Hayyim," 
published together with the text; "Gislime Ber- 
akah " and "Pithe She'arim," responsa on the Shul- 
han 'Aruk, still extant in manuscript ; a number of 
scientific letters inserted in the " Iggeret Harmag " ; 




and ritual decisions scattered throughout the " Pahad 
Yizhak " and "Shete ha-Lehem." 

Bibliography : Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. col. 791 ; Mortara, 
Indicc, s.v. ; Zediier, Cat. Hehr. Books Brit. Mus. p. &7; 
Jona, in Rev. Et. Juives, iv. 119. 
G. I. Br. 

COEN, GIUSEPPE : Italian painter ; born in 
Ferrara 1811 ; died in Venice Jan. 26, 1856. He was 
descended from an old and distinguished family. 
As a boy he evinced a predilection for music and 
painting, and studied art without having any par- 
ticular career in view. Orphaned at an early age, 
he was forced by circumstances to choose a profes- 
sion. He followed the style of Caualetto, the Vene- 
tian landscape and architectural painter. His pic- 
ture, " The Facade of the Cathedral in Ferrara," was 
exhibited in 1840 in Venice, and won fol- liim con- 
siderable approbation. In 1841 his native city, Fer- 
rara, awarded him a silver medal in appreciation of 
his labor for art. 

To perfect himself in his art he went to Pome in 
1843, and won the friendship of Massimo d'Azeglio, 
the painter, statesman, and author. Returning to 
Ferrara, lie received many important commissions, 
one being from the Duke of Brunswick. In 1850 he 
removed to Venice, and was one of the first to prac- 
tise artistic photography. His views of Venice were 
awarded a medal at the Paris Exposition of 1855. 

In Ferrara, Coen enjoyed extraordinary popular- 
ity, his house being a literary and artistic center. 
He was one of the first Jews in Ferrara to be elected 
(1849) to the town council. 
Bibliography: Pesaro Abramo, Memorie Storiche Sulla 

Cornmunitd Israelitica Fcrraro^e. pp. 95-9". 

s. I. E. 

ian rabbi and schohir; bora at Keggio nell' Emilia 
about 1750: died March 28, 1834. He studied under 
Sansone Nahmaui and Isaiah Vita Carmi. He es- 
tablished in his native city a school that produced 
several rabbis, among whom D. J. Maroni deserves 
special mention. Coen preached not only at Reggio 
neir Emilia, but also in the neighboring communi- 
ties. In 1825 he was called as chief rabbi to Flor- 
ence, where he founded a Hebrew i)rinting-press. 

His works include: "Hiiinuk la-Na"ar" (In- 
struction for the Boy), 2 vols., Reggio, 1804; 
Venice, 1805; 6th ed., Leghorn, 1880; "Likkute 
Messektot " ; " Sha'are ha-Talmud " (Doors of the 
Talmud), Reggio, 1811, a collection of treatises; 
"Resliit Lekah" (Beginning of Doctrine), Reggio, 
1809, a handbook of elementary instruction in He- 
brew and Italian; a Hebrew-Italian dictionary, en- 
titled " Ma'aiieh ha-Lashon" (Answer of the Tongue), 
if). 1812; a Hebrew grammar, " Dikduk Leslion ha- 
Kodesh," Venice, 1808; " Sliebile Emunah " (Ways 
of Faith), another pedagogical work; "Zemirot 
Yisrael" (Songs of Israel), Legiiorn, 1793; "Ruah 
Hadashah " (The New Spirit), Reggio, 1822; "Sag- 
gio di Eloquenza Sacra del Dott. Anania Coen 
Rabbino"; "Delia Poesia Rabbinica," 2 vols., 
Florence, 1828; "Delia Poesia Scritturale," Reggio 
(n.d.), containing some of his own poems. 
Bibliography : Nepi-Ghirondi, ToledotGedole Yisrael. p. 104; 

De (iubernati.s, Matrriaux pour Servir d VHi^toii-e dci^ 

Etudes Urienlales, Paris, 18' 


U. C.-J. E. 

COEN, JACOB: Eldest son of Abraham Coen, 
and receiver-general ("coutador mayor") of Count 
Maurice of Nassau, Stadtholder of the United Pror- 
inces of the Netherlands, 1584-1625. Although the 
Jews of Holland did not possess rights of citizenship, 
Maurice, rising above the prejudices of his time, 
and in grateful remembrance of the great services of 
Abraham Coen, bestowed upon the latter's son the 
above-mentioned office. 
Bibliography: Puhlications Am. Jerv. Hist. Sue. in. 1.5. 

D. S. Man. 

COEN, JAN PIETERSZOON : Governor-gen- 
eral of Java, and founder of the Dutch colonial sys- 
tem; born at Hooru, Holland, Jan.' 8, 1587; died in 
1629. He gained his early commercial experience 
with the firm of Piscatori in Rome, went to India 
on a commercial exploration in 1607, and made a 
second voyage with two ships in 1612. He was ap- 
pointed director-general of the Indian trade in 1613. 
As governor-general of Java, he destroyed (1619) 
the native town of Jacatra, and founded Batavia, 
the capital of the Dutch East Indies. He died child- 
less in 1629, and his large possessions went for the 
benefit of orphans in his native town of Hoorn, sub- 
ject to a bequest in favor of members of his family, 
which seems to have been some time later success- 
fully claimed. 

Coen is said to have been of Jewish descent. The 
biographies, while printing voluminous details of 
his career as governor-general, are singularly reti- 
cent in regard to his parentage. The name or occu- 
pation of his father is not found, though one would 
have expected these facts to be recorded of so emi- 
nent a man. Perhaps as a convert he endeavored 
to conceal them. His portrait in Valentyn's "His- 
tory of Java " and in Mailer's "Golden Age " might 
well be that of a Jew. Abbing's "History of 
Hoorn " gives chiefly negative evidence on the sub- 
ject of Coen's Jewish connection. The question of 
liis extraction must be left undecided. 

Bibliography: International C>iclopcdia; A. Winkler Prins, 
(ieilliistreerde EnfycUipalic ; Jew. Chron. Oct. 20, 1899, p. 
D. A. R. 


Jewish boys of Rome baptized under Pope Piu« IX. ; 
born 1854. In 1864 he was apprenticed to a shoe- 
maker. Sent by his luaster to deliver a pair of shoes 
at the house of a priest, the boy was seized and 
dragged to the Casa del Neofiti, where he was de- 
tained for baptism. The papal authorities refused 
to surrender him, in spite of tlie protests of his father 
and of the Jewish community. 

The affair caused a stir throughout Europe, par- 
ticularly in France, the French ambassador. Count 
Sartigues, protesting vehemently in the name of his 
government. To his remonstrances the papal gov- 
ernment replied that the child had himself determined 
to turn Christian, and that it was not the function 
of the pope to interfere with such a resolution. The 
pope, in examining into the case, is said to have 
asked Coen whether he embraced Christianity of his 
own free will. The boy replied that he preferred a 
religion which provided him with fine clothes, good 
food, and plenty of toys, to his poor family and the 




shoemaker's shop. This reply couvinced the pope 
of the sincerity of the convert's intentions; and ac- 
cordingly, on St. Michael's Day, Sept. 29, 1864, the 
baptism of Coen was celebrated in St. Stanislaus 
Chapel, Cardinal Caggiano officiating, and Count 
De Maistre being godfathei-. The neophyte received 
the name of Stanislaus Maria Michael Joseph Pius 

The sufferings of Coen's family, caused by his 
capture, were excessive. His eighteen-year-old sis- 
ter died as a result of the excitement; his mother 
became insane and was taken to relatives in Leg- 
horn ; and his father had to leave Rome in order to 
escape the persecution of the government. Another 
Jew was thrown into prison because lie said he 
had seen Coen at the window of the Casa. IVIore- 
over, as a result of the affair, a Christian mechanic 
caused the forcible baptism of an eight-j^ear-old 
Jewish boy. 

It was only on the fall of the papal government 
in 1870, and after energetic measures had been taken 
by the Italian government, that Coen was released 
and restored to his mother iu Leghorn, his forcible 
detention having extended over seven years. 

Bibliography: Vogelstein and Rieger, Gesch. der Juden in 
Rom. ii. 38ti ; AUcj. Zeit. den Jud. 1864, pp. 533, 580, 631, 6<J9, 
730 ; Ha-M<iii(ii<l 1870, p. 372. 
s. A. R. 

COEN, MOSES VITA : Banker at Ferrara, 
Italy, in the eighteenth century. He often trans- 
acted business with Pope Clement XIII. and with 
his successor, Clement XIV. On Feb. 22, 1764, 
Clement XIII. requested Coen to provide the papal 
government with as much corn as possible and with 
4,000 sacks of Indian wheat, to be shipped either at 
Ancona or 'at Civita Vecchia, leaving the price to 
be settled by him. 

Especially intimate were Coen's relations with 
Pope Clement XIV., whose confidential friend and 
adviser he became. He consequently shared in the 
lampoons directed against Clement. During the 
famine of 177^-73 Coen came to the rescue of the 
government and furnished it with 5,000 sacks of In- 
dian wheat. 

During the French invasion of 1798 Coen was one 
of the commission of six appointed to sell the prop- 
erty confiscated by the provisional government. 

Bibliography: Vogelstein and Rieger, Gesch. dcr Juden in 
Rom. ii. 247-249, 3.53; M. Stern. Urkundlichc Beitrdyc Uber 
die Stelluiig dcr- Pdpste zu den Juden. pp. 184-192. 

s. A. R. 


Austrian physician ; born at Spalato, Dalmatia, Jan. 
19, 1839. He was educated at the gymnasium of 
his native town and at the University of Vienna, 
whence he was graduated as doctor of medicine in 
1872 whereupon he commenced to practise in the 
Austrian capital as a physician and as a specialist in 
impediments in speech. In 1882 he opened a private 
dispensary and hospital for stammerers. 

Coen has written essays for the " Medizinisch- 
Chirurgische Centralblatt in Wien," " Wiener Medi- 
zinisclie Presse," " Medizinisch-Piidagogische Mo- 
natsschrift fixr die Gesammte Sprachheilkunde," and 
other medical journals. He is the author of several 
books, among which are " Pathologic und Therapie 

der Sprachanomalien," Vienna, 1886; "Die H5r- 
stummheit,"t'6. 1887; "Specielle Therapie des Stam- 
melns," Stuttgart, 1889; " Uebungsbuch filr Stot- 
ternde," Vienna, 1891. 
s. F. T. H. 

COEN-CANTARINI. See Cantarini. 

COFFEE : A decoction of the berry of the Coffea 
Arabica, sujjposed to be indigenous to Abyssinia, 
and introduced into Arabia iu the fifteenth century. 
It soon came into common use throughout Islam, 
and was thence introduced into European civiliza- 
tion. Among the Jews of Egypt it became so pop- 
ular as to be known as " the Jewish drink " (A. Isaaci, 
Resp. i. ^§ 2, 3). In London, England, it is gener- 
ally stated to have been introduced from Constan- 
tinople in 1652 by a Greek named Pasqua Rossie, 
who started the first colfee-house in St. Michael's 
Alley, Cornhill ; but according to Anthony A. Wood 
(" Diary," p. 19), Jacob, a Jew, sold coffee at Oxford 
two years before. The coffee-plant was introduced 
by the Dutch into Java about 1690, Surinam about 
1718, and Jamaica in 1728. In the last two places 
Jews were largely instrumental in the development 
of the trade, with which they have been connected 
throughout its history, the largest holders of the 
berry in 1902 being the firm of Lewisohn Brothers 
of New York. 

Many questions oi Jewish law have been raised in 
regard to the use of coffee. Isaac Luria would not 
drink coffee prepared by Gentiles, and in this was 
followed by Hayyim Benveniste, who, however, 
permitted others to drink it. It has been deci- 
ded that coffee may not be drunk before morning 
prayers, though water may ; it had previously been 
drunk so early, especially in Egypt, as an antidote 
to influenza. Coffee is permitted on Passover, and 
even at the Seder service in addition to the four 
cups of wine that may be drunk. Jacob Marx of 
Hanover permitted the use of acorn coffee on the 
Passover, though the use of chicory was forbid- 
den. If coffee is taken after the grace after meals, 
no benediction is necessary before tasting it, though 
some authorities demand one after it has been con- 
sumed. The drinking of coffee in coffee-houses on 
Sabbath was generally prohibited. 

Bibliography : Lampronti, Palxad Yizhak. s.v. niai3 }'3"\n, 
■■iiNp ; Steinschneider, Jewish Literature^ pp. 264-265 ; New 
York Herald. Nov. 9, 1902 ; J. Jacobs, in notes to Hmvells' 
Familiar Letters, p. 662; I. Abrahams, Jewish Life in the 
Middle A{jes. p. 138; L. Low, Ges. Schriften, ii. 226, 236. 

COFFIN : The custom of using coffins is prob- 
ably borrowed from the Egyptians. It is recorded 
of Joseph that he was " put in a coffin in Egypt " 
(Gen. 1. 26). Tradition says it was of metal (Sotah 
13a). Both the Ark of the Covenant and the coffin 
are called, in Hebrew, "aron." The Talmud says 
that the " aron " (coffin) of Joseph was carried side 
by side with the " aron " (Ark) containing the Tables 
of the Law, so as to express the idea that " the one in 
this observed what is written upon the other" (Sotah 
13a et seq.). 

From the verse " Adam and his wife hid them- 
selves . . . amongst [literally, "within "] the trees 
of the garden " is derived the custom of burial in a 
wooden coffin (Gen. R. xix.). 




Stxjne Coffin lound in an Anuient Tomb at Lydda by M. Clermout-Ganneau. 

(In the Louvre.) 

Kabbi Judah ha-Nasi, in his will, ordered that a 
hole be made in the bottom of his coffin (Yer. Kil. 
vi.). Rabbi Jose b. Kisma, in his will, 
Talmudic requested his disciples to bury his 
Practise, coffin deep in the ground, for fear of 
desecration, as he said there was not 
a coffin in Pales- 
tine which was not 
used as a feeding- 
trough for Persian 
horses (Sanh. 98a 
et seq.). To pre- 
vent such abuse, 
the Jewish law 
prohibited any 
one from deriving 
plunder from a 
coffin or burial- 
clothes. A coffin 
must not be used 
for secular pur- 
poses. A coffin 
out of use, if of 
stone or earthen- 
ware, must be 

broken up ; if of wood, it must be burned (Shulhan 
'Aruk, Yoreh De'ah, 363, 5). 

It appears, however, that the coffin was originally 
used for the purpose of transporting a corpse to a 
distant place of burial; and whenever the cortege 
passed, the mourning regulations were observed 
by the multitude (M. K. 25a). Bar Karya and R. La- 
zar (=Eleazar b. Pedath), both Palestinian rabbis, 
had noticed the approach of funeral parties, from the 
direction of Babylon, bearing corpses in coffins for 
burial in the Holy Land. Bar Karya asked, " What 
have they gained [by living away from, and being 
buried in, Palestine] ? " and quoted from Jeremiah 
(ii. 7), "Ye entered, ye defiled my land and made 
mine heritage an abomination." "But," answered 
R. Lazar, "as soon as a clod of earth of the Holy 
Land is put on 
the coffin, there 
is applicable 
the passage" 
Deut. xxxii. 43 

"loy inmx is^i 

[ = "His land 
will atone for 
His people] " 
(Yer. Kil. end, 
Ket. 35b; com- 
pare B a c h e r , 
"Ag. Pal. Am- 
or." ii. 3). 

It was con- 
sidered an honor 
for the deceased 
to be carried 

from the death-chamber on a litter ("mittah") to 

the place of burial, and a greater honor. 

Method usually reserved for scholars, to be 

of Burial, borne on the death bed itself. In the 

case of R. Hunah it was necessary to 

enlarge the exit from the house to make room for 

the passage of his bed, his removal to a smaller bed 

Ornamented Stone Coffin Found in an Ancient Tomb Near Jerusalem. 

(In the Louvre.) 

not being permitted (M. ?:. 2.')a). Maimonidcs says 
that the body shoukl be buried in a wooden coffin 
("Yad," Ebcl, vi. 4). On the other hand, Nah- 
manides, in order that the words of the passage 
"Thou art dust, and unto dust shalt thou return" 
may be literally fulfilled, declares that according 
to the Talmud the 
coffin is for the 
skeleton after the 
flesh is consumed, 
and that the bot- 
tom of the coffin 
should be re- 
moved, as in the 
case of Rabbi 
(quoted by Caro 
in Bet Joseph tO' 
Tur Yorch De'ah, 
362). In some 
countries it is cus- 
tomary to bury 
the dead in ham- 
mocks, and, after 
the flesh is con- 
sumed, to deposit 
the bones in a coffin (Shulhan 'Aruk, ib. 363, 4). 
In other countries the dead are buried on simple- 
boards, or placed directly in the ground (see 
BUBIAL), a distinction being made only in case the 
dead is an Aaronite or of noble parentage. In 
modern times the use of coffins at every burial is 
insisted on. 

Isaac Lampronti, in his Pahad Yizhak (letter 
"Mem," p. 229), tellsof a decision of 1678, in the case 
of Bizancia, the wife of Judah Hayyim of Corfu, who 
had requested her granddaughter, Semiralda, to- 
place her (Bizancia's) head-dress in lier coffin. 
Semiralda had, however, forgotten to do so ; and a 
cabalist rabbi permitted the opening of the coffin in 
order to relieve her distress. The opening of the 
coffin was accompanied by prayers and ceremonial 
apologies to the 
dead for being 
disturbed. The 
almost univer- 
sal former cus- 
tom of putting 
the dead in a. 
plain, unpainted 
wooden coffin 
covered with 
black cloth has 
been abandoned 
in modern times;, 
and distinction 
is made, mucb 
against Jewish 
tradition, be- 
tween rich per- 
sons and poor by more or less decorated coflRns. 
Sometimes the bottom of the coffin is removed in 
order to bring the body into contact 
Customs, with the earth, for reasons stated 
above. In Jerusalem it is customary 
to carry the body on a litter to Mount Olivet, 
building in the grave a coffin of uncemented stone 




slabs, with sides and a top, but witli no bottom, and 
covering the enclosure with earth (see Burial). 
Bibliography : Lampronti, Paliad Yizhak. 
K. J. D. E. 

COHEN, the name Qhd) : The most usual sur- 
names of European Jews. It indicates a family claim- 
ing descent from Aaron, the high priest. " Cohen " 
is the usual transliteration and orthography in Eng- 
lish-speaking countries; but " Cowen" and " Cowan " 
also occur in England, while America has developed 
the forms "Cohan," "Cohane," "Cohne," "Cone," 
" Coon, " " Kan, " and " Koon. " In Germany and Aus- 
tria the forms "Cohn," "Conn" "Kalm," "Kohn," 
iind others are met with; while it is probable that 
" KOhne " and " Kohner " also represent the recur- 
ring surname, which also occurs as a part of the 
names " Cohnheim " and "Cohnfeld." The French 
forms are represented by "Calm," "Cahen," "Ca- 
Jmn," "Caen," and "Cain," or "Kahn," while Italy 
uses "Coen,"and Holland "Cohen." The curious 
form "Coffen," in which the "ff" represents the as- 
pirate, occurs in old Spanish records; and "Kahin " 
is the usual Arabic representation. The most nu- 
merous variants occur in Russia, which supplies 
" Cahan," " Cahana," " Kahan," " Kahana," and " Ka- 
haue," " Kagan," " Kogan," " Kogen," " Kohan " (the 
last two being Aramaic forms), besides the extended 
forms "Kohnowski" and "Koganowitch." The 
name also occurs in duplicated forms, only one of 
which need be mentioned here; namely, "Kohn- 
iJedek." This form is often abbreviated to Kaz, 
"Katz," (t'p) which is thus a variant of "Cohen." 

Though claiming to be descended from a single 
person, the Cohens of to-day form rather a clan than 
■a family. In Jewish religious life they have certain 
privileges and responsibilities: these are dealt with 
Tinder Piuest and Priesthood. Kot all of those 
who are, in the religious sense, Kohanim bear the 
name "Cohen." In a way, the name is not strictly 
■a surname, but an indication of hereditary office. 

The number of those who bear the name " Cohen " 
in its various forms is a considerable proportion of all 
Jews. Among the English Jews they form about 3 
per cent ; whereas on the continent of Europe, accord- 
ing to Lippe's " Bibliographisches Lexikon, " they are 
only 2.3 per cent. In the 12,000 names contained in 
the lists of subscribers to the five chief Jewish chari- 
ties of New York and Brooklyn, the Cohens, with the 
variant names, make up about 220, or less than 2 per 
cent. This relation of the number bearing the name 
" Cohen " to the total number of Jews in a list may 
be utilized to ascertain roughly the number in a 
much greater list. Thus, in the Brooklyn directory 
for 1900 there were 428 Cohens, which would indi- 
cate about 20,000 Jewish names in that directory. 

How far this large proportion of Jews can claim 
a direct descent from Aaron is a matter of dispute. 
According to Jewish law, a Cohen may not marry 
a proselyte; accordingly, it would seem impossible 
that any admixture should occur among the Cohens. 
But they are allowed to marry the daughters of prose- 
lytes; and this would affect the purity of the Cohen 
descent. On the other hand, it is unlikely that any 
person would have assumed the name "Cohen" 
without cause, as several disabilities go with the 

descent. Thus, Cohens maj' not approach a dead 
body ; and for this reason persons of that name are 
not welcomed as ministers in small congregations, 
and more rarely ad-opt the medical profession. Isaac 
ben Sheshet, of the fourteenth century, distinguished 
between the ancient and modern Cohens, declaring 
that it was only usage and not law which maintained 
the rights and responsibilities of the modern Cohens 
(Responsa, No. 94). Samuel de Medina, of the six- 
teenth century, agrees with this view, and assumes 
the impurity of the Cohen descent in discussing the 
validity of a marriage (Responsa, No. 235). Solo- 
mon Luria thinks it impossible for the Cohens to 
have preserved their purity of descent throughout 
the wanderings of the Jews. Jacob Emden recom- 
mends a Cohen to refund the five shekels given him 
for the redemption of the first-born, because he can 
not be sure of his origin and of his claim to the 
money. It has even been declared that some 
Cohens must not say the priestly blessing (" Magcn 
Abraham," 201, 4; "Kerethi u-Pelethi," 61, 6). 

Bibliography: Jacobs, SUidies in Jewish Statistics, pp.4, 
xxvii.; Low, Die Lebensalter, pp. 114-115 and notes. 
E. C. J. 

COHEN : A Baltimore family, originally from 
Bavaria, which has occupied an important place in 
the Jewish community and in municipal life since 
the early years of the nineteenth century. Its first 
representative in America was Jacob I. Cohen, who 
came from Oberdorf, near Nordlingen, Bavaria, in 
1773, and settled in Lancaster, Pa. Thence he re- 
moved to Charleston, S. C, and, after serving in the 
Revolutionary war, to Richmond, Va. Here he 
was joined, in 1787, by his brother, Israel I. Cohen, 
whose wife and seven children — the oldest son being 
eighteen years of age — went to Baltimore in 1808. 
The children were Jacob I. Cohen, Jr., Piiilip I. 
Cohen, Mendes I. Cohen, Benjamin I. Cohen, David 
I. Cohen, Joshua I. Cohen, and Miriam I. Cohen. 

The older sons soon participated in public life. 
In 1812 the name of Philip, and in 1822 that of 
Jacob, Jr., appear in the list of members of the 
exclusive organization. The Ancient and Honorable 
]\Iechauical Company of Baltimore. In the War of 
1812-14 Philip and Mendes were members of Cap- 
tain Nicholson's Company of Fencibles, and served 
in the defense of Fort McHenry during its bombard- 
ment. At his death, in 1852, Philip was postmaster 
of Norfolk, Va. 

With the exception of Philip, all the brothers re- 
mained in Baltimore. The oldest, Jacob, Jr. (1789- 
1869), was the founder of the banking house of J. I. 
Cohen, Jr., & Brothers, and was identified with the 
struggle for political rights of the Jews in Maryland 
(1818-26). This struggle terminating favorably to 
his coreligionists, Jacob was immediately elected 
(Oct., 1826) as the representative of the sixth ward 
in the first branch of the city council. He was re- 
peatedly elected to this body ; and for several suc- 
cessive years he acted as its president. 

For the first nine years (1830-38) of its existence 
he served the board of public school commissioners 
as secretary and secretary-treasurer. Jacob was 
also one of the projectors of the Philadelphia, Wil- 
mington, and Baltimore Railroad, and for a long 
time its vice-president, remaining a director until 



his death. He was also a director of tlie Baltimore 
and Ohio Railroad, and for twenty years president 
of the Baltimore Fire Insurance Compau}', besides 
being prominent in many public-spirited enterprises. 

The third brother, Col. Mendes (1796-1879), after 
his retirement from the firm in 1829, traveled ex- 
tensively in Europe and the East, and brought back 
with him the objects that form the Cohen collection 
of Egyptian antiquities in the Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity. He served a term in the Maryland House of 
Delegates (1847-48), was vice-president of the He- 
brew Benevolent Society for over twenty years, and 
was prominently identified with the establishment 
of a Jewish hospital in Baltimore. 

The sixth brother, Joshua (1801-70), was a phy- 
sician, and one of the earliest aurist's — perhaps the 
first — in tlie United States. He occupied the posi- 
tion of professor of geology and mineralogy in the 
academic department of the University of Maryland, 
was president (1857-58) of the Medical and Chirur- 
gical Faculty of Maryland, and a member of the 
American Philosophical Society. Together with a 
friend, he established an eye and ear institute in Bal- 
timore. He has left one publication, " Post-Mortem 
Appearances in a Case of Deafness." His library, 
interesting to Biblical students, is preserved at the 
family residence. 

A son of the fifth brother, David I., is Mendes 
Cohen (b. 1831), a distinguished civil engineer, now 
(1902) living in Baltimore. His career began in the 
locomotive works of Ross Winans. From 1851 to 
1855 he was one of the engineering corps of the Bal- 
timore and C)hio Railroad. From 1855 to 1875 he 
served the following companies either as assistant su- 
perintendent, superintendent, comptroller, or presi- 
dent: the Hudson River Railroad, the Ohio and 
Mississippi Railroad, the Philadelphia and Reading 
Railroad, the Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company, 
and the Pittsburg and Connellsville Railroad. Dur- 
ing 1892-93 Mendes was president of the American 
Society of Civil Engineers, and in 1894 President 
Cleveland appointed him a member of the board to 
report upon a route for the Chesapeake and Dela- 
ware Ship Canal. Since 1884 he has been corre- 
sponding .secretary to the Maryland Historical Soci- 
ety; since 1892, a member of the Municipal Art 
Commission of Baltimore ; since 1893, a member of 
the Sewerage Commission of Baltimore ; and since 
1897, one of the vice-presidents of the American 
Jewish Historical Society. 

Bibliography: Isaac Markens, The Hehreivs in America, 
New York, 1888; liepni-tn of the Commif'sinners of Public 
SchooL% lialtim'yre, 1831-38; G. W. McCreary. Tfie Ancient 
ami Honornhle, Mechanical Comjxmu of BaUimorc, 1901; 
lliiiTV Frieficiiwald. T/ie Eari\i HUstoru of OiMhalmnlogu 
and otdloiin in Baltimore; The Johns Hopkins Hospital 
Biillrtin, Auy-.-sept. 1897. 

A. H. S. 

COHEN, ABNER: The pioneer of Krugers- 
dorp, Transvaal Colony; born about 1860; emi- 
grated to South Africa in 1881 ; worked his way 
north, and fell in with the Boers, learning their lan- 
guage and trading with them. On his way to Jo- 
hannesburg in 1887, he pitched his tent on a great 
heap of stones seventeen miles to the west of the 
town, which became the site of the town of Kru- 
gersdorp. He was thus the first English settler in 
the town, and has done much toward its develop- 
IV.— 10 

ment. Cohen has also taken a share in the opening 
up of Bulawayo and Rhodesia. 

Though taking no part in the conspiracy against the 
Boer government in 1895, he was intimate with mem- 
bers of the Reform Committee, and owing to some 
indiscreet remarks was for some time imprisoned. 

As president of the Krugersdorp congregation, 
Cohen obtained from President Kruger two valua- 
ble freehold sites for the Jewish community. 
Bibliography : Jewish Chronicle, Oct. 14, 1898. 

J. G. L. 

COHEN, ABRAHAM. See Abraham ben 
Moses Cohen. 

COHEN, ABRAHAM: Assistant rabbi in 
Tunis; died 1840 at Safed, whither he had made a 
pilgrimage in his old age. He was a grandson of one 
of the earliest rabbis in Tunis. His book, " Abra- 
ham Yagel " (Abraham Will Rejoice), a work loosely 
arranged both as to form and contents, was pub- 
lished at Leghorn in 1843. It consists of commen- 
taries on various treatises of the Talmud, together 
with notes on parts of the Bible, and on Maimonides 
and other legal codes. 

Bibliography : Cazes, Notes Bihliographiques sur la Litte- 
rature Juive-Tunisienne, pp. 93 et seq. ; Zedner, Cat. Hebr. 
Books Brit. Mus. p. 14. 
G. M. K. 

COHEN, ABRAHAM : Chief rabbi of Djerba, 
an island near Tunis; died in 1870. He was the 
author of a Hebrew poem, " Shir Hadash," published 
at Leghorn by Israel Costa and dealing with the 613 
precepts of the Law ; and of a Hebrew commentary 
on the Psalms, "Kan Zippor," published at Jerusa- 
lem (1870)' by Israel Frumkin. 

Bibliography : Cazes, Notes Bibliographiques, sur la Litte- 
rature Juive-Tunisienne. 
s. M. Fr. 

COHEN, ALFRED J. (better known under the 
nom de plume of Alan Dale) : American dramatic 
critic; born May 14, 1861, at Birmingham, England, 
where he attended King Edward's School. Then 
followed three years' study of dramatic art in Paris, 
after which (1887) Dale went to New York and be- 
gan his journalistic career on the " Evening World. " 
The independence, brightness, and acerbity of his 
criticisms soon attracted attention, and made him 
the most feared dramatic critic in the American 
metropolis. In 1895 he joined the "Journal," and 
increased the scope of his work by a broader and 
more liberal view of things theatrical — a change 
brought about by experience. 

Dale is the author of several novels: "Jonathan's 
Home," London, 1885; "A Marriage Below Zero," 
New York, 1889; "An Eerie He and She," ib. 1889; 
" An Old Maid Kindled," ib. 1890 ; " Miss Innocence," 
ib. 1891; "Conscience on Ice," Chicago, 1892; "My 
Footlight Husband," New York, 1893; "A Moral 
Busybody." «7a 1894; "His Own Image," ib. 1899; 
and "A Girl Who Wrote," ib. 1902. He also wrote 
" Familiar Chats with Queens of the Stage," ib. 1890. 
Bibliography: Who's W ho in America. 

A. E. Ms. 

DE VINKENHOEF: French litterateur; born 
at Amersfort, in the Netherlands, Oct. 17, 1781; 
died in Paris April 6, 1848. Beginning as a jour- 
nalist, he contributed to the "Etoile." He went to 

Cohen, Aristide 
Cohen, Emil 



Paris in 1809, and was appointed censor for foreign 
languages in 1811, and librarian of the BibliothSqiie 
Ste. Genevieve in 1824. He was the compiler of 
several catalogues, and also contributed to various 
papers, including "L'Ami du Roi," "Les Annales 
de la Litterature et des Arts," and translated works 
by French, Swedish, English, Russian, and Italian 
authors, as "La Symbolique Populaire," by Buch- 
mann; "Histoire des Institutions d'Education Ec- 
clesiastique," by Theiner; "Scenes Norvegiennos," 
by Bremer ; and " Histoire de la Conquete de Gre- 
nade," by Washington Irving, 1829. He also con- 
tributed the "Theatre HoUandais" to the "Collec- 
tion des Theatres Etrangers." 

In addition Cohen published a number of works, 
among which were: "La France telle que M. de 
Keratry I'a R6vee," Paris, 1821; "Herminie de 
Civray," 4 vols., 1823; "Histoire de Pierre Terrail, 
Dit le Chevalier Bayard," 1821 and 1825; "Jacque- 
line de Bavi^re, Dauphine de France," 4 vols., 1821 ; 
"Precis Historique sur Pie VII.," 1823; "La No- 
blesse de France, Histoire, Manirs, et Institutions," 
1845 ; " Reflexions Historiques et Philosophiques sur 
les Revolutions," 1846. 
Bibliography : La Grande Encyclnpedie, s.v.; La France 

Litteraire, s.v. 

s. J. W. 

thor; born at Marseilles Dec. 31, 1831; died in Paris 
Feb. 17, 1896; brother of the composer Jules Coheu. 
He was made auditor of the Conseil d'Etat on May 
28, 1855, and held this position until 1865. His 
works include: "Etudes sur les Impots et sur les 
Budgets des Principaux Etats de I'Europe," 1865; 
"La Flamboyante, " a comedy in three acts, written 
in collaboration with Ferrier and Valabregue, 1884; 
"Le Club," 1887; "Frappant!" a story in verse 
after the Provengal poet Benedit, 1887; "La Re- 
vanche du Mari," a vaudeville, 1890; "Marion," a 
comedy, 1892; and "Le Due Jean," 1893. 

s. J. W. 

COHEN, ARTHUR: English barrister and 
king's counsel; born in London Nov. 18, 1830. 
After three years' study at the gymnasium in Frank- 
fort-on-the-Main, he entered as a student at Univer- 
sity College, London. Thence he proceeded to Cam- 
bridge at a time when it was almost impossible for 
a Jew to gain admission into the c(;lleges. At length 
he was received into Magdalen College. In 1852 he 
was elected president of the Cambridge Union Deba- 
ting Society. At Cambridge Cohen had a success- 
ful career, coming out fifth wrangler in the mathe- 
matical tripos ; but he was prevented from taking his 
degree till after the repeal of the Test Act in 1871. 

Cohen then read law; and five years after he 
had been called to the bar, he established for him- 
self a reputation in shipping and iusiu-an'ce cases. 
Among several important appointments was his 
selection to represent the interests of England in the 
famous arbitration case connected with the "Ala- 
bama "at Geneva in 1872. Returning to England 
after the completion of the case, Cohen in 1874 un- 
successfully contested Lewes in the Liberal inter- 
est. But in 1880 he was elected for the Southwark 
division, and shortly afterward was offered a judge- 
ship, which, however, he declined, though later 

he became a judge of the Cinque Ports. He has 
been for many years standing counsel for his uni- 
versity. He has often represented foreign govern- 
ments in disputes before the English law courts, as, 
for example, the Japanese government in an im- 
portant case against the Peninsular and Oriental 
Steam Navigation Company. 

Cohen has held various important positions in the 
Loudon Jewish community. For many years he 
was president of the Board of Deputies, succeeding 
his uncle. Sir Moses Montefiore; but he resigned the 
position in 1894. He has been a vice-president of 
Jews' College, and for many years president of the 
borough Jewish schools. 

Bibliography: Young Israel, il., No. 13; People of the Pe- 
riod, 1897; Jewish Year Book, 1901-3. 
J. G. L. 

COHEN, BENJAMIN LOUIS : English poli- 
tician and communal worker ; member of Parliament 
for East Islington since 1892; born in London in 
1844; son of Louis Cohen, founder of the firm of 
Louis Cohen & Sons, which he joined on reaching 
manhood. Cohen was educated privately, and on 
reaching maturity began a philanthropic career, 
both Jewish and general, especially interesting him- 
self in technical education. He is a governor of St. 
Bartholomew's, Bridewell, and Bethlehem hospitals; 
life member and former vice-president of the Coun- 
cil of the United Synagogue; was president of the 
Jewish Board of Guardians from 1887 until June, 
1900, and during his presidency arranged the trans- 
fer of the institution from its old quarters in Dev- 
onshire street to Middlesex street. Cohen has also 
been a member of the Jewish Board of Deputies, 
one of the presidents of the Hand-in-Hand and 
Widows' Home, the London Orphan Asylum, and 
vice-president of the Orphan Working School. 

In 1888 Cohen was elected as a " Moderate " to the 
London County Council for the city, and in 1893 
entered Parliament. Besides discharging these 
multifarious duties, Cohen was one of the original 
members of the Russo-Jewish committee, and acted 
as its treasurer till 1887. 

Bibliography : Jeivish Chronicle, Aug. 5, 1892; Jewish Year 
Book, 1901, p. 253. 

.J. E. Ms. 

COHEN, BENOIT : Philanthropist; born 1798 
in Amsterdam; died in Paris July 15, 1856. He 
went to Paris as a young man, and entered upon a 
successful business career, devoting a great deal of 
his time and energy to the affairs of the community. 
He was president of the Board of Jewish Charities 
of Paris, honorary president of the Rothschild Hos- 
pital in the Rue Picpus, and he addressed himself 
in behalf of the community, often with success, 
directly to King Louis Philippe and to the Duke of 
Orleans. Cohen was also a member of the Jewish 
consistory, and the founder, as well as the most 
active worker, of the Societe des Amis du Travail, 
which had for its object the assistance of children 
toward an honest career as mechanics or artisans. 
Bibliography : Archives Israelites, 1856, pp. 43&-441. 

s. A. R. 

COHEN, DAVID : Rabbi (1902) of the island of 
Djerba, near Tunis. He is the author of the follow- 
ing Hebrew works : " Shire David "(Songs of David), 



Cohen, Aristide 
Cohen, Emil 

a collection of poems; a treatise on grammar, witli 
notes on the principles underlying the computation 
of the Jewish calendar; "Dibre David" (Words of 
David), a commentary on the Pentateuch and certain 
other books of the Bible. 

Bibliography: Cazes, Notes Bibliographiques, s.v. 
*?• M. Fr. 


David Cohen de. 

COHEN, EDWARD: Australian statesman; 
born in London 1822; died March, 1877. He re- 
ceived his early education in Australia, and entered 
into business as a partner in his father's firm. 
Shortly after his arrival in Victoria in 1846, he pur- 
chased an auctioneer's business at Melbourne, in 
which he remained till 1868, and which became one 
of the leading concerns in the city. 

Cohen soon became connected with the charitable 
institutions of the colony. He was for twenty years 
treasurer of the Melbourne Hospital, and for seven 
years president of the Melbourne Hebrew congrega- 
tion. He was an alderman of the city, and in 1872 
served as mayor of Melbourne. His activity in the 
council soon brought about a financial inquiry which 
led to drastic reforms in the arrangement of the city 

In 1861 Cohen was elected member of Parliameut 
for East Melbourne, which constituency he repre- 
sented for many years. A free-lance in politics, his 
arguments in debate carried weight, and his large 
mercantile experience lent them additional force. 
He was a director of the Hudson's Bay Railway Com- 
pany and of the Colonial Bank, and was an active 
initiator of colonial industries. Cohen was at one 
time a member of the Victorian ministry, in which 
he filled the office of commissioner of customs. 
Bibliography: Jeivish Chronicle, Jan. 14, 1870; April 27, 

1877 ; Jewish Record, Jan. 13, 1871 ; Australian Illustrated 

News, Jan., 1871. 

J. G. L. 

COHEN, ELIAS (better known as Elias 
Pasha): Turkish physician; born in 1844. He 
belongs to a family many members of which have 
been distinguished in medicine. His early studies 
were completed at the Jewish communal school 
founded at Constantinople by the Camondo family. 
He entered the imperial school of medicine in 1861, 
graduating six years later as doctor of medicine, and 
proceeding in 1868 to western Europe to continue 
his professional studies. He resided at Berlin until 
1871, acting while there as assistant to Professor 
Von Graefe, and attending the clinics of Virchow, 
Traube, and others. On the outbreak of the Franco- 
Prussian war he continued his studies in Vienna. 

Cohen returned to Constantinople in 1873, and 
was appointed professor at the military school at 
Hai'dar-Pasha. Soon after lie was sent to Monastir, 
' the headquarters of the third army corps, as oculist 
and chief surgeon. On being recalled to Constan- 
tinople, he Avas attached to the central naval hospi- 
tal, and given the rank of major in the imperial 
service. His vast knowledge and high reputation 
in the capital gave rise to jealousies in influential 
circles, and he was obliged to resign. 

It was after Cohen had left the service that he 
was summoned to attend one of the imperial prin- 

cesses. The rapid success of his treatment attracted 
the attention of the sultan, who appointed him court 
physician with the rank of lieutenant-colonel. Two 
years later he was promoted to the rank of general, 
being the first Turkish Jew to occupy this high 
position. It was then that the sultan appointed the 
new pasha as his private physician. In 1888 he was 
appointed to tiie faculty of medicine at Constanti- 
nople as professor of dermatology, and became, in 
1894, member of the Superior Sanitary Commission, 
then created. 

Elias Pasha is decorated with the grand ribbons 
of Medjidie and of the Osmanie, the Imtiaz Liakat 
medals, the Turco-Grecian war medal, etc. 

Elias Pasha has always taken the liveliest interest 
in the welfare of his coreligionists, and has given 
on several occasions signal proofs of his solicitude. 
In 1885, owing to an alleged ritual murder, the 
Greek and Armenian population of Kadikeuy, a 
thickly populated suburb of Constantinople, threat- 
ened the Jews with wholesale massacre. Several 
Jews, indeed, fell victims to the fury of the fanatics; 
and the movement was assuming grave proportions, 
when Elias Pasha, with the authority of the sultan, 
intervened on behalf of his brethren. Rigorous meas- 
ures were adopted to repress the emeute, and the 
guilty persons were sentenced to severe punishment. 
Bibliography : Jewish CJironicle, Nov. 30, 1900. 

s. M. Fr. 

painter; studied at the Slade and Royal Academy 
schools, London, and in Paris under Constant and 
Laurens; first exhibited at the Academy in 1891, her 
work being a portrait medallion of Dr. B. W. Richard- 
son. In Paris she exhibited at the Salon (Champs 
Elysees) from 1894. The pictures by her, shown 
at the Royal Academy, were "Tired Out," in 1892; 
"Dibbling for Chub," in 1897; and "Qualifying 
for the Coach Club," in 1899. She is also a constant 
contributor to the exhibitions held by the Royal In- 
stitute of Painters in Water and Oil Colors. 

As an artist in black and white Miss Cohen has 
contributed to many magazines and papers, inclu- 
ding the "Pall 3Iall," "Queen," and "Pictorial 
World." Her Parisian experiences, written as well 
as sketched by her, appeared in " The Strand Maga- 
zine " and "The Studio." 

IDLIOGRAPHY : Jcwish World, Nov. 

G. L. 

COHEN, EMIL WILHELM : German miner- 
alogist; born at Aakjaer, near Horsens, Jutland, 
Oct. 12, 1842. He studied at the universities of 
Heidelberg and Berlin, and from 1867 to 1869 was 
assistant at the miueralogical institute of the former 
seat of learning. In 1871 he was appointed privat- 
docent, but resigned the position early the next 
year, when he went to South Africa on a tour of 
geological and mineralogical research. Cohen vis- 
ited the Vaal River diamond-diggings and the newly 
discovered mines in that part of Griqualand West 
now known as Kimberley. Thence he went north 
to the Lydeuburg district, emerging eventually at 
Delagoa Bay. This trip consumed a year ; and on 
his return to Germany he published "Bemerkungen 
zur Routeukarte von Lydenburg nach den Goldfel- 

Cohen, Francis 
Cohen, Jacob 



dern uud uacli Delagoa Bai " (1875). In 1878 Cohen 
was appointed assistant professor of petrography at 
Strasburg and a member of the geological commis- 
sion of Alsace-Lorraine. Seven years later he be- 
came professor at Greifswald. 

Cohen is the author of "Die zur Dyas Geho- 
rigen Gesteine des Siidlichen Odenwaldes," 1871; 
"Geognostische Beschreibung der Umgegend von 
Heidelberg," 1874-81 ; "Mikrophotographien," 1880- 
1884; "Zusammenstellung Petrographischer Unter- 
suchimgsmethoden," 3d ed., 1896; "Structur uud 
ZusammensetzungderMeteoreisen," 1886-87; "Me- 
teoreisenkunde," I., 1894. Cohen published in addi- 
tion over one hundred essays in various scientific 
magazines of Germany and other countries. 

Bibliography: Poggendorff, Binaraphisch-Literarif^chrs 
HandwC)rterbuch, iii.288; Meyers Konvcrsatinmf-Lexikon, 
iii. 246. 

s. E. Ms. 

COHEN, FRANCIS. See Palgrave, Francis. 

COHEN, FRANCIS LYON: English rabbi, 
author, and expert on Hebrew music ; born at Alder- 
shot Nov. 14, 1862, and educated at Jews' College 
and University College, Londcm. Cohen became 
minister of the congregation in South Hackney (1 883- 
1885), then of that in Dublin (1885-86). and since 
1886 of the Borough New Synagogue, South 
London. In 1886 he was appointed tutor in Jews' 
College; in 1892 he became acting chaplain to the 
Jews in the British army : and in 1896 staff chaplain 
to the Jewish Lads' Brigade, the formation of which 
he was the first to advocate. He has also acted as 
editor to the choir committee of the United Syna- 
gogue. Cohen has organized military services on 
Hanukkah at his own and other synagogues, and al- 
together has done much to promote the patriotic 
and military ardor of English Israelites. He is 
the author of "The Plandbook of Synagogue 
Music," 1889, and, with D. M. Davis, of "The Voice 
of Prayer and Praise," 1899. In addition, he has 
written numerous articles on Jewish music, among 
which have been the following : " Synagogue ]\Iusic ; 
Its History and Character," in "The Jewish Chron- 
icle," 1883; "Synagogue Plain-Song," in "The Or- 
ganist and Choirmaster, " 1897 ; " La Revue de Chant 
Gregorien," Marseilles, 1899; and "Song in the Sy- 
nagogue," in "The Musical Times," London, 1899. 

Bibliography : Jewish World, Oct. 15, 1897 ; Jewish Chroni- 
cle, Dec. 23, 1892 ; Jacobs, Jewish Year Book, " 

J. E. Ms. 

COHEN, HALIFA: Tunisian rabbi residing 
(1902) at Djerba. He is the author of two Hebrew 
works : " Sif te Renanot " (Joyful Lips), a commen- 
tary on the Psalms, Jerusalem, 1890; and "Kunteris 
ha-Semikut" (notes on divers subjects). 
Bibliography : Gazes, Notes Bihliographiques. 

s. M. Fn. 

COHEN, HAYYIM : Tunisian rabbi ; lived in 
the second half of the nineteenth century, on the 
island of Djerba, near Tunis. He is the author of 
"Na'awah Kodesh " (Becoming Is Holiness), a com- 
mentary on the Song of Songs, Leghorn, 1872 ; " Mille 
Mehayye " (The Vivifying Words), a commentary on 
the "Hosha'anot" of the Feast of Sukkot; "Mizwot 

ha-Melek " (The Commandments of the King), a 
commentary on the "Azharot" of Ibn Gabirol; 
" Allon Bakut " (Oak of Weeping), a commentary on 
the elegies for the Ninth of Ab; "Moza' Sefateka" 
(The Outcome of Thy Lips), a commentary on the 
prayers (selihot) for the month of Elul; "Mikra' 
Kodesh" (Holy Convocation), a commentarj^ on the 
Song of Songs; "Zokrenu le Hayyim" (Remember 
Us for Life), a commentary on the Haggadah of 
the first nights of the Passover ; and " Leb Shome'a " 
(Understanding Heart), elementary discussions of 
various subjects. 
Bibliography; Cazes, Notes Bibliographiques. 

s. M. Fr. 

COHEN, HENRI : French composer and nu- 
mismatist ; born at Amsterdam 1805 ; died at Bry-sur- 
Marne May 17, 1880. Cohen's parents went to France 
in 1811, and provided e.xcellent musical instruction 
for their son. He studied harmony with Reicha, 
and singing with Lois and Pellegrini. In 1832 and 
1838 he was at Rome, and there produced " L'lm- 
pegnatrice" and "Aviso ai Maritati." In 1839 he 
established himself at Paris, devoting his efforts 
chiefly to teaching, and singing with success at vari- 
ous concerts. 

Cohen was appointed director of the Conserva- 
toire at Lille; but after some difficulties with the 
administration he returned to Paris, and accepted a 
l)ositiou as director of the Cabinet des Medailles at the 
Bibliotheque Nationale. He subsequently published 
some works on numismatics and bibliography. 

His principal musical comi)ositions are: "Mar- 
guerite et Faust," a h'ric poem, Paris, 1847; "Le 
Moine," lyric poem, London, 1851; compositions for 
the piano, fugues, nocturnes, romances, and melo- 
dies ; a practical treatise on harmony, and eighteen 
progressive solfeggios for three and four voices, 
commended by Fetis. 
Bibliography : Nouveaii Larousse lllustre, s.v., Paris, 1900. 

s. A. A. G. 

COHEN, HENRY: American rabbi; born in 
Loudon April 7, 1863. He was educated in Lon- 
don, and when only eighteen traveled in Africa as 
interpreter for a French legation. He was severely 
Avounded during the Zulu war, while assisting in 
the repulse of an attack by savages. Proceeding to 
Jamaica, British West Indies, he became rabbi of 
Kingston (1884-85), and then of Woodville, Miss., in 
the United States (1885-88). In 1888 he succeeded 
the Rev. Joseph Silverman as rabbi of Congregation 
B'nai Israel, Galveston, Texas, which position he 
still occupies (1902). 

He is librarian of the Texas Historical Society and 
a member of the executive council of the American 
Jewish Historical Society, to both of which he has 
made historical contributions. He has made most 
careful researches into the history of the Jews in 
Texas. Cohen has published numerous compilations, 
translations, reviews, poems, lectures, sermons, and 
pamphlets. In 1894 he issued his " Talmudic Say- 
ings " and "Prayer in Bible and Talmud," the latter 
from the German of Nahida Remy. 

A. L. N. L. 

suDreme court of New South Wales; born at Port 





MacquarieDec, 1840. After receiving au ordinary 
education he served as clerk in 1856; then entered 
business at Bathurst, but went to London in 18G8, 
where he commenced the study of law% and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1871. Returning to New South 
Wales, he distinguished himself in the practise of 
the law, and was on several occasions employed as 
crown prosecutor. At the general election of 1874 
he was returned for West Maitland, and reelected in 
1877. Following close upon the general election, he 
received, on the formation of the Farnell govern- 
ment, the appointment of colonial treasurer. With 
the coming into power of the Stuart administration, 
he was called to fill the office of minister of justice; 
but on the retirement of that government and the 
dissolution of Pai-liament in 1885," he retired from 
politics and devoted himself entirely to the practise 
of his profession. Cohen was appointed judge of 
the supreme court in 1896, being the first Jew in 
New South Wales thus honored (with the exception 
of Sir Julian Solomon, who resigned the position 
within a few days of his appointment), and the only 
Jew holding such office throughout the British do- 
minions. Cohen has for years closely identified him- 
self with Jewish religious and charitable Institutions. 

Bibliography: Jewish Chronicle, Jan. 12, 1883; Jacobs, Jew- 
ish Year Book, 1900. 

J. G. L. 

COHEN, HERMANN: German philosopher; 
born in Coswig, Auhalt, Germany, July 4, 1843. 
He early began to study philosophy, and soon be- 
came known as a profound student of Kant. He 
was educated at the gymnasium at Dessau, at the 
Jewish theological seminary at Breslau, and at the 
universities of Breslau, Berlin, and Halle. In 1873 
he became privat-docent in the philosophical faculty 
of Marbui'g University, the thesis with which he 
obtained the " venia legendi " being " Die Systema- 
tischen Begriffe in Kant's Vorkritischen Schriften 
nach Ihrem Verhaltniss zum Kritischen Idetilismus. " 
In 1875 lie was appointed assistant professor, and 
in the following year professor. He was one of the 
founders of the Gesellschaft zur Forderung der 
Wisseuschaft des Judenthums, which held its first 
meeting in Berlin in Nov., 1902. 

Cohen is generally acknowledged to be one of the 
ablest representativesande.xponents of the neo-Kan- 
tian school. The more important of his works are : 
"Die Platonische Ideenlehre Psychologisch Ent- 
wickelt," in "Zeitschrift fiir Volkerpsychologie," 
1866, iv. ; " Mythologische Vorstellungen von Gott 
und Seele," ib. 1869 ; " Die Dirhterische Phantasie uud 
der Mechanismus des Bewusstseins," ib. ; "Zur Con- 
troverse Zwischen Trendelenburg und Kuno Fi- 
scher," ?J. 1871; "Kant's Theorie der Erfahrung," 
Berhn, 1871; 2d ed., 1885; "Platon's Ideenlehre und 
die Mathematik," Marburg, 1878; " Kant's Begriin- 
dung der Ethik," Berlin, 1877; " Das Prinzip der In- 
finitesimal methode und Seine Geschichte: ein Kapi- 
tel zur Grundlegung der Erkenntnisskritik," Berlin, 
1883: "Von Kant's Einfluss auf die Deutsche Kul- 
tur," Berlin, 1883; "Kant's Begriindungder Aesthe- 
tik," Berlin, 1889; "Zur Orientirung in den Losen 
Blattern aus Kant's Nachlass," in " Philosophische 
Monatshefte," 1890, xx. ; and "Leopold Schmidt," 

in "Neue Jahrblicher fur Philologie und Pada- 
gogik." 1896, cliv. 

Cohen edited and published also the last philo- 
sophical essays ("Logische Studien," Leipsic, 1894) 
of F. A. Lange, and his " Geschichte des Materialis- 
mus," with a long introduction and critical supple- 
ment (2d enlarged edition based on tlie 7th edition 
of the original, 1902, 1.). His writings relating more 
especially to Judaism include sevei'al pamphlets, 
among them "Die Kulturgeschichtliche Bedeutung 
des Sabbat," 1881; "Ein Bekenntniss in der Juden- 
frage," Berlin, 1880; as well as the following arti- 
cles: "Das Problem der Judischen Sittenlehre," in 
the "Monatsschrift," xliii. (1899), pp. 385-400, 433- 
449; "Liebeund Gerechtigkeitin den Begrilfen Gott 
undMensch."in" Jahrbuch fiir Judische Geschichte 
und Littcratur," HI. (1900), pp. 75-132; "Autono- 
mic und Freiheit,"in the " GedenkbUch fiir David 
Kaufmann," 1900. His essay "Die Nachstenliebe 
im Talmud " was written at the request of the Mar- 
burg Konigliches Landgericht (3d ed., Marburg, 
1888). His latest publication is " Logik der Reinen 
Erkenntniss," comprising the first part of his "Sys- 
tem der Philosophic," ix. 520, Berlin, 1902. 

Bibliography: Franz Lindheiiner, Hrrwanii Cohen, in 
Bancr StwUoi zur Philosi'iJhic loid Uinr <i>schivlite,xxi., 
Bern. VM); A. de Gubernatis, DictininHiin I ntfrnational 
rie.s Eciimuis du Jour. i. Florence, ; otto Siebert, 
Gesch. der Xeiicrcu Deutschen Philosophie Seit Heuel, 
pp. 341-342, Gi'ittingen, 1><98 ; Karl Vorlander, Geschichte der 
Philosophie, ii. 461-466, Leipsic, 1903. 
s. B. B. 

COHEN, ISAAC: English theatrical manager; 
born about 1835. He is one of the oldest of the Lon- 
don managers, having, first on the Surrey side, and 
for 34 years in the East End of Loudon, directed the- 
aters for a period altogether of 44 years. His first 
theatrical engagement was at the Victoria, South Lon- 
don, and he was subsequently engaged at Astley's. 
He became call-boy and afterward assistant manager, 
and in 1862 undertook the management of the East 
London Theater. Thence in 1872 he went to the Pa- 
vilion Theater, of which he is still (1902) manager. 

J. G. L. 

COHEN, JACOB RAPHAEL : American haz- 
zan; believed to have been born in the Barbary 
States; died in Philadelphia, Pa., Sept., 1811. Co- 
hen lived in London, England, during the earlier 
years of his life. He is known to have been in 
Quebec, and also in New Orleans, in 1777. He 
was the minister of the Spanish and Portuguese 
synagogue, Shearith Israel, of Montreal, Canada, 
from 1778 to 1782. In the latter year Cohen was 
elected minister of the Sephardic synagogue of 
New York. He lived there until 1784, when he 
accepted the appointment of hazzan of the Spanish 
and Portuguese congregation of Philadelphia, Pa. 

Cohen married Rebekah Luria, of a family which 
had lost more than one of its members through the 
Spanish Incpii